Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to UF - EXP 3604 - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to UF - EXP 3604 - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

UF / Psychology / SOP 3604 / What is reaction time experiment?

What is reaction time experiment?

What is reaction time experiment?


School: University of Florida
Department: Psychology
Course: Cognitive Psychology
Professor: Stagner
Term: Spring 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Cog Psych Study Guide 1
Description: Chapters 1-5
Uploaded: 02/13/2017
14 Pages 211 Views 0 Unlocks

o Where does the attention filter occur?

• How much information can the mind absorb?

o What happens when the rats are placed in a different arm of the maze?

Cog psych chapter 1  Lecture 1 • Complexity of cognition  o Cognition involves  ▪ Perception  ▪ Paying attention  ▪ Remembering  ▪ Distinguishing items in a category  ▪ Visualizing  ▪ Understanding and production of language  ▪ Problem solving  ▪ Reasoning and decision-making  • All include “hidden” processeWe also discuss several other topics like utc criminal justice
If you want to learn more check out physics exam 1 cheat sheet
We also discuss several other topics like chd2220
We also discuss several other topics like What are the shales of histogram?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the act of perceiving meaningful connections among unrelatable events?
Don't forget about the age old question of nicola pisano annunciation
s of which we may not be aware  o Cognitive psychology  ▪ The branch of psych concerned with the scientific study of the mind  ▪ Cognition refers to the mental processes, such as perception, attention,  and memory, that are what the mind does  • The first cognitive psychologists  o Donders (1868) ▪ Measuring how long it takes a person to make a decision  o Reaction-time (RT) experiment  ▪ Measures interval between stimulus presentation and person’s response  to stimulus  o Donders (1868)  ▪ Simple RT task: participant pushes a button quickly after a light appears  ▪ Choice RT task: participant pushes one button if light is on right side,  another if light is on left side  o Donders (1868)  ▪ Choice RT-Simple Rt= time to make a decision  • Choice Rt= 1/10th sec longer than simple RT  • 1/10th sec to make decision  ▪ Mental responses cannot be measured directly but can be inferred from  the partcipant’s behavior   o Ebbinghaus (1885/1913) ▪ Read list of nonsense syllables aloud many times to determine number of  repetitions necessary to repeat list without errors  ▪ After some time, he relearned the list  • Short intervals= fewer repetitions to relearn ▪ Learned many different lists at many different retention intervals ▪ Savings= (original time to learn the list) – (time to relearn the list after a  delay)Lecture 2  • The rise of behaviorism  o John Watson noted two problems with this: ▪ Extremely variable results from person to person  ▪ Results difficult to verify  • Invisible inner mental processes  o John Watson proposed a new approach called behaviorism  ▪ Eliminate the mind as a topic of study ▪ Instead, study directly observable behavior  o Watson and Rayner (1920)- “Little Albert” experiment  ▪ Classical conditioning of fear  • Pair a neutral event with an event that naturally produces some  outcome  • After many pairings, the “neutral” event now also produces the  outcome  ▪ 9-month-old became frightened by a rat after a loud noise was paired  with every presentation of the rat  ▪ behavior can be analyzed without any reference to the mind  ▪ examined how pairing one stimulus with another affected behavior  o B.F. Skinner (1940s through 1960s) ▪ Interested in determining the relationship between stimuli and response  ▪ Operant conditioning  • Shape behavior by rewards or punishments  • Behavior that is rewarded is more likely to be repeated  • The reemergence of the mind in psychology  o Tolman (1938) trained rats to find food in a four-armed maze o Two competing interpretations: ▪ Behaviorism predicts that the rats learned to “turn right to find food” ▪ Tolman believed that the rats had created a cognitive map of the maze  and were navigating to a specific arm  o Tolman (1938) o What happens when the rats are placed in a different arm of the maze? ▪ Supported tolman’s interpretation  ▪ Did not support behaviorism interpretation  • The decline of behaviorism  o A controversy over language acquisition  o Skinner (1957)- verbal behavior  ▪ Argued children learn language through operant conditioning  • Children imitate speech they hear  • Correct speech is rewarded  o Chomsky (1959) ▪ Argued children do not only learn language through imitation and  reinforcement • Children say things they have never heard and can not be  imitating  • Children say things that are incorrect and have not been rewarded  for  ▪ Language must be determined by inborn biological program  Lecture 3 • Studying the mind  o To understand complex cognitive behaviors: ▪ Measure observable behavior  ▪ Make inferences about underlying cognitive activity  ▪ Consider what this behavior says about how the mind works  • The cognitive revolution  o Shift from behaviorist’s stimulus-response relationships to an approach that  attempts to explain behavior in terms of the mind  o Information-processing approach  ▪ A way to study the mind created from insights associated with the digital  computer  o Early computers (1950s) ▪ Processed information in stages  • How much information can the mind absorb? • Attend to just some of the incoming information? o Cherry (1953) o “Dichotic” listening  ▪ Present message A in left ear ▪ Present message B in right ear ▪ To ensure attention, shadow one message  o Participants were able to focus only one the message they were shadowing o Broadbent (1958) ▪ Flow diagram representing what happens as a person directs attention to  one stimulus  ▪ Unattended information does not pass through the filter  • Modern research in cognitive psychology  o How research progresses from question to question  ▪ Start with what is known  ▪ Ask questions  ▪ Design experiments  ▪ Obtain and interpret results  ▪ Use results as the bases for new research questions and experiments  • The role of models in cognitive psychology  o There are two kinds of models to be aware of  ▪ Structural models  • Representations of a physical structure • Mimic the form of appearance of a given object  ▪ Process models  • Represent the processes that are involved in cognitive  mechanisms, with boxes usually representing specific processes  and arrows indicating connections between processes Chapter 2  • Cognitive neuroscience  o The study of physiological basis of cognition • Building blocks of the nervous system  o Neurons: cells specialized to create, receive, and transmit information in the  nervous system o Each neuron has a cell body, an axon, and dendrites  o Cell body: contains mechanisms to keep cell alive  o Dendrites: multiple branches reaching from the cell body, which receives  information from other neurons  o Axon: tube filled with fluid that transmits electrical signal to other neurons  • Nerve nets  o The interconnections of neurons create a nerve net, which is like a continuous  network that is similar to a highway  ▪ One street connects to another but without stop signs  ▪ This allows for almost nonstop, continuous communication of signals  throughout the network o Contradicted by the neuron doctrine  ▪ Ramon y Cajal • How neurons communicate  o Action potential  ▪ Neuron receives signal from environment  ▪ Information travels down the axon of that neuron to the dendrites of  another neuron  o Measuring action potentials  ▪ Microelectrodes pick up electrical signal  ▪ Placed near axon ▪ Active for about 1 second  o Measuring action potentials  ▪ The size is not measured; size remains consistent  ▪ The rate of firing is measured  • Low intensities: slow firing  • High intensities: fast firing  o Synapse: space between axon of one neuron and dendrite or cell body of  another  o When action potential reaches the end of the axon, synaptic vesicles open and  release chemical neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters, chemicals that affect the electrical signal of the receiving  neuron, cross the synapse and bind with the receiving dendrites  • Representation in the brain  o Hubel & Wiesel 1960s  o Feature detectors: neurons that respond best to a specific stimulus  o Specificity coding: representation of a specific stimulus by firing of specifically  tuned neurons specialized to just respond to a specific stimulus  o Population coding: representation of a particular object by the pattern of firing  of a large number of neurons  o Sparse coding: when a particular object is represented by a pattern of firing of  only a small group of neurons, with the majority of neurons remaining silent  • Localization of function o Specific functions are served by specific areas of the brain  o Cognitive functioning breaks down in specific ways when areas of the brain are  damaged  o Cerebral cortex (3 mm thick later that covers the brain) contains mechanisms  responsible for most of our cognitive functions o Language  ▪ Language production is impaired by damage to Broca’s area • Frontal lobe  ▪ Language comprehension is impaired by damage to Wernicke’s area  • Temporal lobe o Perception  ▪ Primary receiving areas for the senses  • Occipital lobe: vision • Parietal lobe: touch, temperature, pain • Temporal lobe: hearing, taste, smell  ▪ Coordination of information received from all senses  • Double dissociation  o When damage to one part of the brain causes function A to be absent while  function B is present, and damage to another area causes function B to be  absent while function A is present  o Allows us to identify functions that are controlled by different parts of the brain  • Organization: brain imaging  o Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) o Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) • Brain imaging: evidence for localization of function  o Fusiform face area responds specifically to faces  ▪ Temporal lobe  ▪ Damage to this area causes prosopagnosia (inability to recognize faces) o Parahippocampal place area responds specifically to places (indoor/outdoor  scenes) ▪ Temporal lobeo Extrastriate body area responds specifically to pictures of bodies and parts of  bodies  • Distributed representation in the brain o In addition to localization of function, specific functions are processed by many  different areas of the brain  o Many different areas may contribute to a function  o May appear to contradict the notion of localization of function, but the two  concepts are actually complementary • Neural networks  o Groups of neurons or structures that are connected together  o Can be examined using diffusion tensor imaging  Chapter 3  • Approaches to understand perception  o Direct perception theories  ▪ Bottom-up processing  ▪ Perception comes from stimuli in the environment  ▪ Parts are identified and put together, and then recognition occurs  o Constructive perception theories  ▪ Top-down processing  ▪ People actively construct perception using information based on  expectations  • The complexity of perception  o Bottom-up processing  ▪ Perception may start with the senses  ▪ Incoming raw data  o Top-down processing  ▪ Perception may start with the brain  ▪ Person’s knowledge, experience, expectations  • Hearing words in a sentence  o When you hear words in a sentence spoken in a foreign language, your ability to  pick out or understand certain words based on context demonstrates top-down  processing (e.g., listening to a baseball game that is broadcast in Spanish may  make it easier to hear players names or certain “baseball-related” words) o Speech segmentation  ▪ The ability to tell when one word ends and another begins  • Experiencing pain  o Direct pathway model  ▪ An early model that emphasized nociceptors that would send pain  messages directly to the brain  ▪ A bottom-up processing model  ▪ More recent models have found that expectations, attention, and  distraction can affect how we experience pain in a “top-down” manner  • The placebo effect • Helmholt’s theory of unconscious inference (~1860) o Top-down theory  o Some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions we make  about the environment  ▪ We use our knowledge to inform our perceptions  o We infer much of what we know about the world  o Likelihood principle: we perceive the world in the way that is “most likely” based  on our past experiences  • Perceptual organization  o “old” view- structuralism  ▪ Perception involves adding up sensations  o “new” view- Gestalt psychologists  ▪ The mind groups patterns according to laws of perceptual organization  • Gestalt laws of perceptual organization  o Law of good continuation  ▪ Lines tend to be seen as following the smoothest path o Law of pragnanz (simplicity or good figure) ▪ Every stimulus pattern is seen so the resulting structure is as simple as  possible  o Law of similarity  ▪ Similar things appear grouped together  o Gestalt laws often provide accurate information about properties of the  environment  ▪ Reflect experience  ▪ Experience is important but does not overcome perceptual principles  o Gestalt laws are intrinsic  • Physical regularities  o Oblique effect  ▪ People can perceive vertical and horizontals more easily than other  orientations  o Light-from-above assumption  ▪ Light comes from above  ▪ Is usually the case in the environment  ▪ We perceive shadows as specific information about depth and distance • Bayesian inference  o Thomas Bayes (1701-1761) o One’s estimate of the probability of a given outcome is influenced by two  factors: ▪ The prior probability (our initial belief about the probability of an  outcome) ▪ The likelihood of a given outcome  • Neurons and the environment  o Some neurons respond best to things that occur regularly in the environment o Neurons become tuned to respond best to what we commonly experience  ▪ Horizontals and verticals  ▪ Experience-dependent plasticity  • Movement facilitates perception  o Movement helps us perceive things in our environment more accurately than  static, still images  ▪ For example, a horse in the distance standing still may be more difficult  to discern than the horse walking across the field  ▪ Walking around that same horse to see it from different angles will also  facilitate accurate perception  • Perception and action: what and where  o What stream: identifying an object  o Where stream: identifying the object’s location  Chapter 4 attention  • Attention  o The ability to focus on specific stimuli or locations in our environment  ▪ Selective: attending to one thing while ignoring others  ▪ Divided: paying attention to more than one thing at a time  • Selective attention  o Ability to focus on one message and ignore all others  o We do not attend to a large fraction of the information in the environment  o We filter out some information and promote other information for further  processing  • Research method: dichotic listening  o One message is presented to the left ear and another to the right ear  o Participant “shadows” one message to ensure he is attending to that message  o Can we completely filter out the message to the unattended ear and attend only  to the shadowed message? • Results of dichotic listening  o Participants could not report the content of the message in unattended ear  ▪ Knew that there was a message  ▪ Knew the gender of the speaker  o However unattended ear is being processed at some level ▪ Cocktail party effect  ▪ Change in gender is noticed  ▪ Change to a tone is noticed  • Models of selective attention  o Where does the attention filter occur? ▪ Early in processing  ▪ Later in processing  o Early selection model  ▪ Broadbent’s filter model o Intermediate selection model▪ Tresiman’s attenuation theory  o Late selection model  ▪ E.g. McKay 1973 • Broadbent’s filter model  o Early selection model  ▪ Filters message before incoming information is analyzed for meaning  • Messages->sensory memory->filter-attended message->detector- >to memory  o Sensory memory ▪ Holds all incoming information for a fraction of a second  ▪ Transfers all information to next stage  o Filter  ▪ Identifies attended message based on physical characteristics ▪ Only attended message is passed on to the next stage  o Detector ▪ Processes all information to determine higher level characteristics of the  message  o Short term memory  ▪ Receives output of detector ▪ Holds information for 10-15 seconds and may transfer it to long term  memory  • Broadbent’s model could not explain  o Participant’s name gets through ▪ Cocktail party phenomenon  o Participants can shadow meaningful messages that switch from one ear to  another  ▪ Dear Aunt Jane  • Treisman’s attenuation theory  o Intermediate selection model  ▪ Attended message can be separated from unattended message early in  the information processing system  ▪ Selection can also occur later • Messages->attenuator-attended message->dictionary unit->to  memory o Attenuator  ▪ Analyzes incoming message in terms of physical characteristics, language,  and meaning  ▪ Attended to message is let through the attenuator at full strength  ▪ Unattended message is let through at a much weaker strength o Dictionary unit ▪ Contains words, each of which have thresholds for being activated  • Words that are common or important have low thresholds  • Uncommon words have high thresholds • Late selection models  o Selection of stimuli for final processing does not occur until after information has  been analyzed for meaning  o McKay 1973 ▪ In attending ear, participants heard ambiguous sentences  • “they were throwing stones at the bank” ▪ In unattended ear, participants heard either  • “river” • “money” ▪ In test, participants had to choose which was closet to the meaning of  attended to message: • They threw stones toward the side of the river yesterday  • They threw stones at the savings and loan association yesterday  ▪ The meaning of the biasing word affected participant’s choice ▪ Participants were unaware of the presentation of the biasing words  • Load theory of attention  o Processing capacity- how much information a person can handle at any given  moment  o Perceptual load- the difficulty of a given task  ▪ High load (difficult) tasks use higher amounts of processing capacity  ▪ Low load (easy) tasks use lower amounts of processing capacity • The Stroop test  o Name of the word interferes with the ability to name the ink color  o Cannot avoid paying attention to the meaning of the words • Divided attention  o Practice enables people to simultaneously do two things that were difficult at  first ▪ Schneider and Shiffrin 1977 o Automatic processing occurs without intention and only uses some of a person’s  cognitive resources • Divided attention- distractions while driving o 100-car naturalistic driving study  ▪ Video recorders placed in cars  ▪ Risk of accident is four times higher when using a cell phone  o Strayer and Johnston 2001 ▪ Simulated driving task  ▪ Participants on cell phone missed twice as many red lights and took  longer to apply the brakes  • Same result use “hands free” cell phone • Attention and visual perception  o Inattentional blindness: a stimulus that is not attended is not perceived, even  though a person might be looking directly at it • Object-based visual attention o Location-based: moving attention from one place to another  o Object-based: attention being directed to one place on an object  • Change detection  o Change blindness: if shown two version of a picture, differences between them  are not immediately apparent ▪ Task to identify differences requires concentrated attention and search  • Attention and experiencing a coherent world o Binding  ▪ The process by which features such as color, form, motion, and location  are combined to create our perception of a coherent object  • Feature integration theory o Objects are analyzed into their features in the preattentive stage, and the  features are later combined with the aid of attention. o Preattentive stage  ▪ Automatic  ▪ No effort or attention  ▪ Unaware of process ▪ Object analyzed into features o Treisman and Schmidt 1982 ▪ Participants report combination of features from different stimuli  ▪ Illusory conjunctions occur because features are “free floating” o Focused attention stage  ▪ Attention plays key role  ▪ Features are combined  o Treisman and Schmidt 1982 ▪ Ignore black numbers and focus on objects o R.M.: patient with Balint’s syndrome  ▪ Inability to focus attention on individual objects ▪ High number of illusory conjunctions reported  o Mostly bottom up processing  o Top down processing influences processing when participants are told what they  would see ▪ Top down processing combines with feature analysis to help one perceive  things accurately  Chapter 5 short term and working memory  • What is memory  o Memory: process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about  stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no  longer present  o Active any time some past experience has an impact on how you think or behave  now or in the future  • Modal model of memory  o Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968 o Three different types of memory:▪ Sensory memory- initial stage that holds all incoming information for  seconds or fractions of a second  ▪ Short term memory- holds five to seven items for about 15 to 20 seconds  ▪ Long term memory- can hold a large amount of information for years or  even decades  o Control processes: active processes that can be controlled by the person  ▪ Rehearsal  ▪ Strategies used to make a stimulus more memorable  ▪ Strategies of attention that help you focus on specific stimuli  o Sensory memory: the retention, for brief periods of time, or the effects of  sensory stimulation  ▪ Information decays very quickly  o Persistence of vision: retention of the perception of light  ▪ Sparkler’s trail of light  o Holds large amount of information for a short period of time  ▪ Collects information  ▪ Holds information for initial processing  ▪ Fills in the blank o Measuring the capacity and duration of sensory memory (Sperling, 1960) ▪ Array of letters flashed quickly on a screen  ▪ Participants asked to report as many as possible  o Whole report methods: participants asked to report as many as could be seen  ▪ Average of 4.5 out of 12 letters  o Partial report method: participants heard tone that told them which row of  letters to report  ▪ Average of 3.3 out of 4 letters  ▪ Participants could report any of the rows  o Delayed partial report method: presentation of tone delayed for a fraction of a  second after the letters were extinguished  ▪ Performance decreases rapidly  o Iconic memory: brief sensory memory of the things that we see ▪ Responsible for persistence of vision  o Echoic memory: brief sensory memory of the things that we hear  ▪ Responsible for persistence of sound  • Short term memory  o Stores small amounts of information for a brief duration  o Includes both new information received from the sensory stores and information  recalled from long term memory  o Measuring the duration of short term memory  ▪ Read three letters, then a number  ▪ Begin counting backwards by threes  ▪ After a set time, recall three letters  o After three seconds of counting, participants performed at 80% o After 18 seconds of counting, participants performed at 10%o This reduction in performance is explained by the existence of decay, which is  the vanishing of a memory trace due to the passage of time and exposure to  competing stimuli  o When rehearsal is prevented, is about 15-20 seconds  o Proactive interference: occurs when information learned previously interferes  with learning new information  ▪ Example: your naïve language may make it more difficult to learn and  remember a new foreign language o Retroactive interference: occurs when new learning interferes with  remembering old learning  ▪ Example: after you get a new telephone number and use it for a while,  you may have difficult remembering your old phone number  o Chunking: small units can be combined into larger meaningful units  ▪ Chunk is a collection of elements strongly associated with one another  but weakly associated with elements in other chunks  o Ericsson et al. 1980 ▪ Trained a college student with average memory ability to use chunking  • SF has an initial digit span of 7 ▪ After 230 one hour training sessions, SF could remember up to 79 digits  • Chunking them into meaningful units  • Working memory  o Similar concept to short term  o Baddeley and Hitch 1974 o Working memory: limited capacity system for temporary storage and  manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning,  and reasoning  o Working memory differs from STM ▪ STM holds information for a brief period of time  ▪ WM is concerned with the processing and manipulation of information  that occurs during complex cognition • Phonological loop o Phonological similarity effect  ▪ Letters or words that sound similar are confused  o Word length effect  ▪ Memory for lists of words is better for short words than for long words  ▪ Takes longer to rehearse long words and to produce them during recall  o Articulatory suppression  ▪ Prevents one from rehearsing items to be remembered  • Reduces memory span eliminates word length effect  • Reduces phonological similarity effect for reading words  • Visuospatial sketch pad  o Visual imagery: the creation of visual images in the mind in the absence of a  physical visual stimulus ▪ Shepard and Metzler 1971  ▪ Mental rotation task ▪ Tasks that called for greater rotations took longer  • Working memory  o WM is set up to process different types of information simultaneously  • The central executive  o Attention controller  ▪ Focus, divide, switch attention  o Control suppression of irrelevant information  • Episodic buffer  o Backup store that communicates with LTM and WM components  o Hold information longer and has greater capacity than phonological loop or  visuospatial sketch pad

Page Expired
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here