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UA / History / HY 103 / What were the british imperial policies?

What were the british imperial policies?

What were the british imperial policies?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: History
Course: History of American Civilization to 1865
Professor: Jenny shaw
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: history
Cost: 25
Name: HY 103, Week 5 Notes
Description: These notes cover material discussed in lecture from the 5th week of classes.
Uploaded: 02/13/2017
5 Pages 142 Views 11 Unlocks

Main themes important terms Topics highlighted by Professor 

What were the british imperial policies?

HY-103 Notes

Week 5 

Main Themes: 

1. The Imperial Crisis, 1754-1774

a. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution

b. Imperial War and Changing British Policies

c. Conspiracies against America, 1763-1770

2. The American Revolution

a. The Last Hope for Freedom, 1773-1775

b. Declaring Independence

c. The Travails of the Continental Army

i. Enthusiasm, 1775-1776

ii. Health and Hygiene

iii. Desertion and Corruption

iv. Soldiers and Civilians

d. The Revolutionary War: North, West, and South

Important Terms: 

How did colonists react to the proclamation of 1763?

We also discuss several other topics like What belief does republican motherhood uphold?

“Country Party” Authors

British Constitution

Seven Years War

Pontiac’s Rebellion

Proclamation Line of 1763

Townshend Act

Writs of Assistance

Boston Massacre

Tea Act

Coercive Acts

Stamp Act

Tea Act

Coercive Acts

Continental Congress

Olive Branch Petition

Common Sense

Continental Army

Battle of Saratoga

Dunmore’s Proclamation


The Imperial Crisis, 1754-1774 


1. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution 

Who served in the continental army?

a. Enlightenment and Great Awakening empowered people to criticize those in  authority

i. Lays groundwork for political revolution of the next generation Don't forget about the age old question of What is the lincoln's version of reconstruction?

b. Most American colonists had no interest in being anything other than British  citizens, they do not want their own country, they are complaining about not  being treated as full and equal British citizens

c. 5 broad sets of ideas informing how colony leaders understood world of politics  and America’s position in that role We also discuss several other topics like What were the earliest theories of matter describing?
If you want to learn more check out What are the three guidelines for delivery?
We also discuss several other topics like How do islamic religions call the unity of god?

i. Classical antiquity

1. ancient Greece and Roman Republic

2. needed to be on the lookout of tyranny and corruption

ii. Enlightenment

1. Man’s political relationship, natural rights and liberties, sort-of  

contract between government and citizens

iii. English legal history

1. Study of British law  

iv. City Upon a Hill- America has a special role to play as defenders of liberty v. Country Party Authors/Commonwealth Authors Don't forget about the age old question of What does william james strongly believe about the mind?

1. Radical British political authors that challenged bribery and  

corruption in Parliament and said it threatened the freedom of  

British citizens

2. Argued that consumerism caused citizens to ignore corruption in  government

d. Place spheres of Liberty and Power as complete opposites, believe American’s  have a duty to defend Liberty and gives them a purpose

e. British Constitution not a written document, but instead an abstract idea about  power with checks and balances between King, Parliament, and Judicial system i. Not written down, a lot of ambiguity

ii. Did not have any reliable principles for dealing with an empire

2. Imperial War and Changing British Policies 

a. Land disputes in Ohio River Valley

b. France bolsters military forces, increases Indian alliances

c. 1754- Seven Years War (French and Indian War)- who is going to control the  midsection of America between French and British

i. Britain pours in resources, takes control of French Canada, and France  gives up all land in America

ii. England and Spain divide continent between them

iii. Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763 Indians fight back led by Pontiac with aim of  driving white people out of North America

iv. British announces the Proclamation Line of 1763 dividing Indians and  British settlers along the Appalachian Mountains stationing additional  soldiers along the frontier

1. Colonists are enraged, expected to pay for debt

2. 7 Years War doubled British national debt

d. Parliament starts passing new taxes mostly on sale of colonial goods i. Relative to England citizens, colonists paid low taxes

ii. Colonies had no direct representation in Parliament, couldn’t vote iii. Government was acting without the consent of the governed, a violation  of basic rights of citizens 

1. Exactly the thing that all their reading had been on the lookout for 2. Cannot stand by or their liberties will disappear

3. Conspiracies against America, 1763-1770 

a. Deprivation of colonial rights as British citizens

b. 1765 Stamp Act

i. requires use of specially stamped paper for everything  

ii. riots, protests, and boycotts

iii. repealed in 1766

iv. relatively low tax that contributed to the conspiracy

c. 1767 Townshend Act

i. import tax on paint, lead, glass items, etc.

1. expanded the size of the custom officers administration  

2. gave them more power

a. Writs of Assistance allowing officers to search businesses  

for illegal goods and required to probable causes

3. Tax money and British government was now paying salaries of  

colonial governors, taking away colonial power of citizens

d. June 1768 Britain ordered the placement of soldiers in Boston to stop riots and  protect customs officers

i. Unmistakable sign for the colonists that freedom was being threatened  by tyranny

ii. Boycotts and opposition became more widespread

e. March 1770 Boston Massacre a kid starts taunting the soldiers and eventually  the soldiers open fire into the crowd  

The American Revolution 


1. The Last Hope for Freedom, 1773-1775 

a. Parliament passes the Tea Act prices go down, but new import tax is seen by  colonists as a trick

b. Dec. 1773- Boston Tea Party

c. 1774 Coercive Acts closing Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for,  Massachusetts colonial charter altered to give governor more power and  authority and to station British troops in people’s home

i. goal was to isolate Boston

d. Sep. 1774 delegate from 12 of 13 colonies gather in Philadelphia and create the  Continental Congress  

i. Suspend trade with Britain

ii. Form committees within the colonies to enforce this boycott

iii. These committee begin to assemble militias, as well

e. Government acting against the interests of the people it was supposed to govern i. With each new policy, more colonists came to believe their rights were  being infringed upon

f. April 1775 military skirmishes break out

g. Many colonial leaders still do not call for independence

h. 1775 Continental Congress send Olive Branch Petition to King George i. says they are loyal to the crown and offer for a compromise

ii. King would not take it nor read it

i. American loyalty to Great Britain is still very strong

2. Declaring Independence 

a. Common Sense tremendously influential in American views toward Britain i. Thomas Paine directed arguments to everyday colonists and calls for a  republic, challenged them to face fears head on

ii. Forced many to determine independence as necessary 

iii. Continental Congress and Thomas Jefferson drafts Declaration of  Independence  

3. The Travails of the Continental Army 

a. Enthusiasm, 1775-1776

i. British army well-funded, well trained, and very powerful

ii. Americans believed they had the moral advantage

iii. Continental Army major military force assembled by the colonies

iv. Enthusiasm starts to fade and major doubts of Continental army’s ability b. Health and Hygiene

i. Refused to wash clothes believing it was women’s work, didn’t take baths ii. Pneumonia, the itch, poor sanitation

iii. Discipline issues

c. Desertion and Corruption

i. Many started deserting only after a year, trouble finding people to enlist ii. The need for military order and discipline conflicts with the spirit of the  American Revolution, soldiers do not want to learn and take orders

iii. Start paying for soldiers which forms a more responsible, disciplined  army

iv. Soldiers enlist multiple times for the bounty, officers over-enlist and keep  the bounties for themselves

d. Soldiers and Civilians

i. Stealing, taking food, firewood

ii. Army was severely undersupplied

iii. Realized if they were going to succeed, they need forceful officers to  discipline their soldiers

4. The Revolutionary War: North, West, and South 

a. 1777 Americans won Battle of Saratoga in upstate New York

i. America’s first real military victory

ii. Boosts morale and convinced French to recognize America as an  

independent country and to form a military alliance with them 

b. British ally with the Indians

c. British attempt to take control of Southern colonies and take advantage of high  number of slaves

i. Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia, offers Dunmore’s Proclamation  which gives freedom to any slave who took up arms for the British army ii. Almost 1/3 of all southern colonists were still loyal to the crown

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