International Electronic Media (EMC 3358:001, Spring 2017) Study Guide of Test I
The test will cover all lectures and the readings.
1. Hachten, W. & Scotton, J. (2016). The World News Prism. Chapters 1- 4, 12 & 14.
2. Eko, (2009). "Internet Law & Regulation." The International Encyclopedia of Communication.”
The test will consist of multiple choice questions, fill-in the blanks and an identification section in which students will be asked to match concepts on one list with definitions/explanations of these concepts in another list. Examples will be discussed in class.
The test will cover all readings and lectures. Topics to be included will include:
1. Articles 18 & 19, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).
The United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights sets forth the international standard for individual freedom of expression as well as freedom of communication through the media in real space and cyberspace.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) – Declared that freedom of expression a universal freedom right
Article 18 – Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance
Article 19 – Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impact information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers
We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of industrial agriculture?
2. The freedoms guaranteed by the First Amendment
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for address of grievances. We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of pure substance in the matter?
-“Congress” means: Federal state and local government as well as state colleges and universities and school boards.
-“Freedom of speech” includes regular “speech” as well as symbolic speech and expressive conduct, burning the flag, wearing arm bands, Facebook “likes” (Bland v. Roberts)
-Commercial speech is advertising.
-Sex speech is pornography
-“Freedom of the Press” covers the institutional press as well as all communication on technologies like the internet and social media applications.
3. Diverse national perspectives on freedom of expression in the global village
-American Exceptionalism – America is different from the rest of the world, hate speech is protected, freedom is more important than civility. We also discuss several other topics like When were cadavers first used?
-The right of the speaker trumps the feelings of the listener (American exceptionalism)
Islamic Establish Mentality Don't forget about the age old question of What is the common name for mosses liverworts and hornworts?
-No separation of Mosque and state: Mohammad was political and religious leader -Koran is the constitution in Saudi Arabia and the main source of law in the Islamic world: Islamic republic of Iran, Pakistan, etc.
-Saudi King is the protector of Islamic holy places
-Most European countries are secular, with a strict separation of church and state Exceptions: The UK, most Scandinavian countries
-“The force of argument is preferable to the argument of force”
4. Global legal systems
Look at #3
5. Theoretical approaches to the study of international communication: Globalization, media convergence, diffusion of innovations and international standardization of technologies, the digital divide, theories of media systems.
Globalization - Refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services, and labor.
Media convergence – Blending of print media, photography, movies, radio, TV, cable, with information and communication technologies. Technology innovations are convergence. Technological standardization and harmonization (led by Motion Picture Exports Group) MPEG.
Diffusion of innovations and international standardization of technologies - Standardize and harmonize communication technologies ex: MPEG 3= MP3 audio standard, MPEG 4=Video standard We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of gel electrophoresis in genes?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the basic history of openness in florida and the foia?
Theories of Media Systems
Telecommunication – to communicate across distances
Television – To see for, to see the images from afar
International Communication – Communication that crosses national borders as part of concerted public diplomacy or propaganda efforts
6. Origins of global communication: From the zero to the Internet.
-876 AD, Invention of the zero by ancient Hindus(India). Without the zero scientific, developments would have been impossible. Computer language is binary or digital communication. (composed of 2 digits 1,0)
-Arabs introduced the Indian system of numerals to Europe. Gave us the words “al jabr” (algebra), and “algorithm:
-1854, George Boole wrote “Investigation of the laws of thought” Computer circuiting and operations are based on Boolean algebra
- The telegraph was invented, peep the digital divide bullet point.
7. Historical development of the Internet, the World Wide Web and Social Media
-Network of computer networks transferring information in self-contained packets through packet-switching and TCP/IP (method of transmission) -At the start of the Cold War, U.S. Department of Defense was preoccupied with the survivability of its command and control networks
-The Internet was “system of systems” invented in 1969 by the ARPA (Advanced Project Development Agency of the U.S Departments of Defense) to consolidate research labs and counter soviet nuclear first strike. Conceptualized as a network that could not be brought down.
The World Wide Web
-1990 World wide web. Hyperlinked System with hypertext markup language (HTML) and hyper text transfer protocol (HTTP) developed by Tim Berners Lee at the European Particle Physics Lab (CERN)
-1992: Scientific and advanced technology Act of 1992. Permitted commercial activity on non-military parts of the internet (domain of academic researchers and computers science enthuasiats)
-1997: Clinton/Gore “Framework for electronic Commerce”, market based framework. Governments were to assume a minimalist regulatory posture towards electronic commerce.
8. Public diplomacy and propaganda: The major international broadcasters.
Public Diplomacy – Term coined in the 1960s by the United States Information Agency (USIA)
-Describes aspects of international diplomacy outside normal interactions between nation-states
-International communication in which nations and international institutions target international
publics other than their own for political, ideological and geo-strategic reasons. -The cultivation by government of public opinion in other countries -Ideological battle for the hearts and minds of the global community that packed during the cold war
Propaganda – Is the intentional manipulation of messages, meanings, and memory for political purposes
-Originated from the catholic church (congreatatio de propaganda) -Communists transformed it to, information intended to indoctrinate, convert and influence media audiences (disinformation, planting info that can be picked up and reported by domestic media)
International Propaganda – Lenn and Trotsky originated the idea of broadcasting communist propaganda. World revolution and inevitable triumph of communism over capitalism to peoples of other countries over the heads of their countries.
Few Examples include:
-Lenin and Trotsky Russian communists launched nternationl disinformation and misinformation (1922)
-(1933-1969) Age of Propaganda, Hitler and Goebbels also known as masters of the “big lie”
-Cold War (communism v. capitalism), Warsaw part and NATO directed radio programming to each other countries
The major International Broadcasters
-BBC, VOA, Radio France, Radio France International (RFI), Radio Deutsch Welle (Voice of Germany), Radio Free Asia, Voice of America, CBC News Network, etc.
9. International news and news agencies
-Associated Press (founded in New York in 1835), Thomson Reuters (founded in England in 1851), TASS – Russian News Agency (founded in 1902 in Russia. Most of the world thought they were spies in disguise), AFP – French News Agency(Discovered in 1944)
10. Major global news events from NASA’s moon landings to international terrorism. and global communication
-Major news, makes the global society be more in touch. In the moon landing everyone was in touch, and were in awe that they could view it on the spot from their television.
11. The concept of the global village, and the global imagined communities (nations, regions, cultures).
-1968, Marshall Mclunch and Fiore coined the term “Global Village” -“The medium is the message”
-They envisioned instantaneous communication linking all people of the world with the help of computers and satellites.
12. International human rights organizations.
International Press Freedom Organizations
-Defense of the Universal Declaration of Human rights (Grounded on the first amendment)
-Human rights are moral principles of norms that describe certain standards of human behavior
-“All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” (Article I) -These rights are not respected in most parts of the world.
-Human rights are more important than religious rite
-The right of the speaker trumps the feelings of the listener
Reporters without Borders
-Based in Paris, Reporters without Borders is world’s leading independent International Press Freedom Organization (NGO) with consultative status with the United Nations
-Founded in 1985 by 4 journalists, RSF is now one of the world’s leading defenders and promoters of freedom of information.
-Has bureau in 10 cities and as a network of correspondents in 130 countries
-Believe’s “freedom of expression and information will be the world’s most important freedom”
-Rsf issues press releases and reports in French, English, Spanish, Arabic, and Farsi (often, Chinese, Portuguese, and Russian) about the state of freedom of information throughout the world and how is it being violate
Committee to protect Journalists
-American Independent non-profit, non-governmental founded in 1981 -Based in New York with correspondents around the world
-CPJ promotes press freedom and defends the rights of journalists Amnesty International