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NYU / OTHER / CSCDUE 001 / What is the meaning of gray matter in the brain?

What is the meaning of gray matter in the brain?

What is the meaning of gray matter in the brain?


School: New York University
Department: OTHER
Course: Science of Language
Professor: Tara mcallister byun
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Language, Linguistics, NYU, morphology, and morphemes
Cost: 50
Name: Science of Language: Quiz 2 Study Guide
Description: Study guide for Quiz 2
Uploaded: 02/14/2017
6 Pages 56 Views 5 Unlocks

Eun-Sung Chang

What is the meaning of gray matter in brain?

Science of Language

Study Guide for Quiz 2

Language in the Brain

1. Central nervous system – made up of brain and spinal chord 2. Gray matter – cell bodies of neurons

White matter – bundles of axons

3. Cerebral cortex – thin layer of gray matter that covers the surface of  cerebral hemispheres, extends down into folds of the brain

4. Gyri – raised portions of convolutions of cerebral cortex

Sulci – lowered portions of convolutions of cerebral cortex

5. Corpus callosum – large white matter tract that connects right and left  hemispheres

6. *Be able to label the brain!

7. In which lobe of the brain would you find

o Primary motor cortex – frontal

What is the meaning of white matter in brain?

o Primary visual cortex – occipital

o Primary somatosensory cortex – parietal

o Primary auditory cortex – temporal

8. Lobe and function of

o Prefrontal cortex – frontal lobe, underlies executive functions like  planning, goal-directed behavior, and self-regulation

o Broca’s area – frontal lobe, active in language production

o Wernicke’s area – temporal lobe, active in language comprehension 9. Lateralized function – if one hemisphere plays a dominant role in  controlling a particular function in the brain

10. Left hemisphere – language is lateralized in 93% of total population,  stronger effect in 90% of right-handed individuals (60% of left-handed  individuals)

What is the meaning of cerebral cortex?

11. Examples of lateralized function – left hemisphere is dominant for  perceiving/processing fine details; right hemisphere is dominant for  visuospatial processing, holistic/“big picture” perception,  If you want to learn more check out How can “theory” help us understand current world problems?

expressing/understanding emotions

Language Loss

1. Aphasia – impairment of language production/comprehension caused by  damage to the brain (usually stroke)

2. Aspects of language affected by aphasia – syntax, semantics, phonology,  morphology across modalities (spoken, written)

3. Aphasia – NOT a disorder of general cognition/intelligence; people with  aphasia can have normal (nonverbal) intelligence

4. Nonfluent aphasia – speech sounds effortful, frequent hesitations, short  utterances, words are not connected in grammatical strings (agrammatic);  location typically anterior

5. Fluent aphasia – auditory comprehension may be affected, speech sounds  effortless, usually grammatically well-informed, speech may not make  sense due to word-finding errors (including paraphasia) We also discuss several other topics like What is the most objective methods known for acquiring knowledge?

6. Agrammatism – words are not connected in grammatical strings o Associated with nonfluent aphasia

o Patients tend to omit/misuse telegraphic morphology/speech, like  tense markers and articles

7. Paraphasia – substitution of a word in place of the intended target o Associated with fluent aphasia

o Semantic paraphasia – misplaces meaning of word

▪ Ex.) dog ???? cat

o Phonemic paraphasia – misplaces sound of word

▪ Ex.) dog ???? dig

8. Double dissociation – when X is affected but Y is not or vice versa, tells us  how language is processed and represented in the brain

o Ex.) Fluent aphasia – nouns impaired, verbs relatively spared o Ex.) Nonfluent aphasia – verbs impaired, nouns relatively spared

Morphology I

1. 3 Pieces of Information Part of Lexical Entry for a Word

o Semantic knowledge

o Phonological knowledge

o Lexical category

2. Arbitrariness of the sign – the sounds of words are not intrinsically related  to their meanings We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of sociological imagination?

3. Examples of Lexical/Grammatical Categories

o Noun – dog, cat, mouse, etc.

o Verb – to walk, to run, to swim, etc.

o Adjective – pretty, cool, cute, etc.

o Adverb – quickly, prettily, elegantly, etc.

o Prepositions – for, under, with, to, around, etc.

o Conjunctions – and, but, or, so, etc.

o Determiners – the, a, many, some, my, which, this, etc.

4. 3 Factors for Lexical Categories

o Parts of speech

o Syntactic classes

o Types of morphemes

5. Morpheme – smallest unit of meaning in a language

6. Terms/Contrasts

o Simple/monomorphemic – words that contain 1 morpheme Complex/polymorphemic – words that have 2 or more morphemes o Free – can stand alone without additions We also discuss several other topics like Dendrochronology means what?

Bound – cannot stand alone, often serve to modify meaning of  primary morpheme in complex word

o Root – main part of the word, determines its primary meaning Affix – modify meaning of root, always bound, includes  


o Prefix – come before the root

Suffix – come after the root

o Open-class/lexical – “content” morphemes, includes  


Closed-class/functional – “function” morphemes, includes  conjunctions/prepositions/articles We also discuss several other topics like In merching class, artists were trained in what?

7. Free closed-class – Ex.) sister, jacket, hippopotamus, etc. Bound open-class – Ex.) -s, -ed, -ize, -ation, culp-, cran-, etc. 8. Circumfix – prefix and suffix combine to express single unit of meaning

o Ex.) German past tense – ich lerne ???? ich habe gelernt

9. Infix – morpheme that is inserted into the root

10. Expletive infixation – shows untaught nature of language because it is rule  governed by a rule that people did not learn through explicit teaching o Ex.) Fan-f*cking-tastic, abso-f*cking-lutely, Phila-f*cking-delphia 11. Lexical/content morphemes – called “open-class” morphemes because we  are constantly generating/learning new words in these categories 12. Functional morphemes – called “closed-class” morphemes because it is  rare to form/learn new words in these categories (not truly “closed”) We also discuss several other topics like What does the unemployment rate mean?

Morphology II

1. 3 Major Categories of Morphological Change

o Category change

o Order

o Productivity

2. 8 Inflectional Affixes of English

o Noun-s ???? plural

o Noun-‘s ???? possessive

o Verb-ing ???? progressive

o Verb-ed ???? past tense

o Verb-s ???? 3rd person singular

o Verb-en ???? past participle

o Adjective-er ????comparative

o Adjective-est ???? superlative

3. Subject-verb agreement inflection – one word is inflected to match  grammatical properties of another word; verb agrees with subject in  person/number

o Ex.) The wolf runs ???? The wolves run

4. Inflexion vs. Derivation

o Influence on grammatical category – inflection

o Influence on lexical category/word meaning – derivation

o Productivity

▪ Inflectional affixes – highly productive

▪ Derivational affixes – less productive

o Order – derivational affixes always come before inflectional 5. Complex derivation – multiple derivational affixes

o Ex.) Industry + al + ize + ation ???? industrialization

6. Complex derived ambiguous form – ambiguity tells us words have  hierarchical internal structure

o Ex.) “Unlockable” can mean “UNLOCKable” or “unLOCKABLE” 7. Morphological productivity – how freely a morpheme can combine with  other morphemes to create new words

o Highly productive derivation – can combine with many morphemes ▪ Ex.) “-ness” ???? sad-ness, dark-ness, careless-ness, etc.

o Less productive derivation – can’t combine with as many morphemes ▪ Ex.) “-ant” ???? assist-ant, combat-ant, but not *help-ant,  *fight-ant

8. Semantically transparent – meaning of a complex word is readily derivable  from the meanings of its components

9. Highly productive morphemes – associated with high semantic  transparency

10. Novel word/coinage – newly added root + highly productive affix o Ex.) Google-able

11. Backformation – when speakers perceive productive affixes in words that  did not originally contain that affix

o Ex.) “Peddler” reanalyzed as “peddle + er”

o Ex.) “Resurrection” reanalyzed as “resurrect + ion”

12. Libfix – word parts reanalyzed as affixes, can become (partially) productive o Ex.) “Godzilla” reanalyzed as “God-zilla” ???? bride-zilla, mom-zilla 13. Compound – 2 existing words combine to form a new word; free  morphemes combine into a new word (whereas complex words include  bound morphemes)

14.The part of the compound that determines its lexical category is called the  head of the compound. In English, this is always located at the right-most side of the compound.

15. 3 Factors for Compound Words

o Stress – compounds typically have strong stress on first syllable ▪ Ex.) GREENhouse, not *greenHOUSE

▪ Ex.) BLUEbird, not *blueBIRD

o Modification – modifiers like “very” cannot apply inside a compound ▪ Ex.) The man caught in the rain wore a very wet suit; not  *The diver wore a very wet suit

o Inflection – inflectional markers apply at the level of entire  compound

▪ Ex.) The player drop-kicked the ball; not *The player  

dropped-kick the ball

16. A single morpheme may have multiple forms that are pronounced slight  differently. These are called allomorphs. 

17. Allomorphy – English has 2 allomorphs

o “A” before a word that begins with a consonant

▪ Ex.) A party

o “An” before a word that begins with a vowel

▪ Ex.) An actor

18. If a morpheme is spelled differently in 2 contexts but is pronounced in the  same way (like “create” vs. “creat-ive”), these are NOT considered distinct  allomorphs.

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