Science of Language
Study Guide for Quiz 2
Language in the Brain
1. Central nervous system – made up of brain and spinal chord 2. Gray matter – cell bodies of neurons
White matter – bundles of axons
3. Cerebral cortex – thin layer of gray matter that covers the surface of cerebral hemispheres, extends down into folds of the brain
4. Gyri – raised portions of convolutions of cerebral cortex
Sulci – lowered portions of convolutions of cerebral cortex
5. Corpus callosum – large white matter tract that connects right and left hemispheres
6. *Be able to label the brain!
7. In which lobe of the brain would you find
o Primary motor cortex – frontal
o Primary visual cortex – occipital
o Primary somatosensory cortex – parietal
o Primary auditory cortex – temporal
8. Lobe and function of
o Prefrontal cortex – frontal lobe, underlies executive functions like planning, goal-directed behavior, and self-regulation
o Broca’s area – frontal lobe, active in language production
o Wernicke’s area – temporal lobe, active in language comprehension 9. Lateralized function – if one hemisphere plays a dominant role in controlling a particular function in the brain
10. Left hemisphere – language is lateralized in 93% of total population, stronger effect in 90% of right-handed individuals (60% of left-handed individuals)
11. Examples of lateralized function – left hemisphere is dominant for perceiving/processing fine details; right hemisphere is dominant for visuospatial processing, holistic/“big picture” perception, If you want to learn more check out How can “theory” help us understand current world problems?
1. Aphasia – impairment of language production/comprehension caused by damage to the brain (usually stroke)
2. Aspects of language affected by aphasia – syntax, semantics, phonology, morphology across modalities (spoken, written)
3. Aphasia – NOT a disorder of general cognition/intelligence; people with aphasia can have normal (nonverbal) intelligence
4. Nonfluent aphasia – speech sounds effortful, frequent hesitations, short utterances, words are not connected in grammatical strings (agrammatic); location typically anterior
5. Fluent aphasia – auditory comprehension may be affected, speech sounds effortless, usually grammatically well-informed, speech may not make sense due to word-finding errors (including paraphasia) We also discuss several other topics like What is the most objective methods known for acquiring knowledge?
6. Agrammatism – words are not connected in grammatical strings o Associated with nonfluent aphasia
o Patients tend to omit/misuse telegraphic morphology/speech, like tense markers and articles
7. Paraphasia – substitution of a word in place of the intended target o Associated with fluent aphasia
o Semantic paraphasia – misplaces meaning of word
▪ Ex.) dog ???? cat
o Phonemic paraphasia – misplaces sound of word
▪ Ex.) dog ???? dig
8. Double dissociation – when X is affected but Y is not or vice versa, tells us how language is processed and represented in the brain
o Ex.) Fluent aphasia – nouns impaired, verbs relatively spared o Ex.) Nonfluent aphasia – verbs impaired, nouns relatively spared
1. 3 Pieces of Information Part of Lexical Entry for a Word
o Semantic knowledge
o Phonological knowledge
o Lexical category
2. Arbitrariness of the sign – the sounds of words are not intrinsically related to their meanings We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of sociological imagination?
3. Examples of Lexical/Grammatical Categories
o Noun – dog, cat, mouse, etc.
o Verb – to walk, to run, to swim, etc.
o Adjective – pretty, cool, cute, etc.
o Adverb – quickly, prettily, elegantly, etc.
o Prepositions – for, under, with, to, around, etc.
o Conjunctions – and, but, or, so, etc.
o Determiners – the, a, many, some, my, which, this, etc.
4. 3 Factors for Lexical Categories
o Parts of speech
o Syntactic classes
o Types of morphemes
5. Morpheme – smallest unit of meaning in a language
o Simple/monomorphemic – words that contain 1 morpheme Complex/polymorphemic – words that have 2 or more morphemes o Free – can stand alone without additions We also discuss several other topics like Dendrochronology means what?
Bound – cannot stand alone, often serve to modify meaning of primary morpheme in complex word
o Root – main part of the word, determines its primary meaning Affix – modify meaning of root, always bound, includes
o Prefix – come before the root
Suffix – come after the root
o Open-class/lexical – “content” morphemes, includes
Closed-class/functional – “function” morphemes, includes conjunctions/prepositions/articles We also discuss several other topics like In merching class, artists were trained in what?
7. Free closed-class – Ex.) sister, jacket, hippopotamus, etc. Bound open-class – Ex.) -s, -ed, -ize, -ation, culp-, cran-, etc. 8. Circumfix – prefix and suffix combine to express single unit of meaning
o Ex.) German past tense – ich lerne ???? ich habe gelernt
9. Infix – morpheme that is inserted into the root
10. Expletive infixation – shows untaught nature of language because it is rule governed by a rule that people did not learn through explicit teaching o Ex.) Fan-f*cking-tastic, abso-f*cking-lutely, Phila-f*cking-delphia 11. Lexical/content morphemes – called “open-class” morphemes because we are constantly generating/learning new words in these categories 12. Functional morphemes – called “closed-class” morphemes because it is rare to form/learn new words in these categories (not truly “closed”) We also discuss several other topics like What does the unemployment rate mean?
1. 3 Major Categories of Morphological Change
o Category change
2. 8 Inflectional Affixes of English
o Noun-s ???? plural
o Noun-‘s ???? possessive
o Verb-ing ???? progressive
o Verb-ed ???? past tense
o Verb-s ???? 3rd person singular
o Verb-en ???? past participle
o Adjective-er ????comparative
o Adjective-est ???? superlative
3. Subject-verb agreement inflection – one word is inflected to match grammatical properties of another word; verb agrees with subject in person/number
o Ex.) The wolf runs ???? The wolves run
4. Inflexion vs. Derivation
o Influence on grammatical category – inflection
o Influence on lexical category/word meaning – derivation
▪ Inflectional affixes – highly productive
▪ Derivational affixes – less productive
o Order – derivational affixes always come before inflectional 5. Complex derivation – multiple derivational affixes
o Ex.) Industry + al + ize + ation ???? industrialization
6. Complex derived ambiguous form – ambiguity tells us words have hierarchical internal structure
o Ex.) “Unlockable” can mean “UNLOCKable” or “unLOCKABLE” 7. Morphological productivity – how freely a morpheme can combine with other morphemes to create new words
o Highly productive derivation – can combine with many morphemes ▪ Ex.) “-ness” ???? sad-ness, dark-ness, careless-ness, etc.
o Less productive derivation – can’t combine with as many morphemes ▪ Ex.) “-ant” ???? assist-ant, combat-ant, but not *help-ant, *fight-ant
8. Semantically transparent – meaning of a complex word is readily derivable from the meanings of its components
9. Highly productive morphemes – associated with high semantic transparency
10. Novel word/coinage – newly added root + highly productive affix o Ex.) Google-able
11. Backformation – when speakers perceive productive affixes in words that did not originally contain that affix
o Ex.) “Peddler” reanalyzed as “peddle + er”
o Ex.) “Resurrection” reanalyzed as “resurrect + ion”
12. Libfix – word parts reanalyzed as affixes, can become (partially) productive o Ex.) “Godzilla” reanalyzed as “God-zilla” ???? bride-zilla, mom-zilla 13. Compound – 2 existing words combine to form a new word; free morphemes combine into a new word (whereas complex words include bound morphemes)
14.The part of the compound that determines its lexical category is called the head of the compound. In English, this is always located at the right-most side of the compound.
15. 3 Factors for Compound Words
o Stress – compounds typically have strong stress on first syllable ▪ Ex.) GREENhouse, not *greenHOUSE
▪ Ex.) BLUEbird, not *blueBIRD
o Modification – modifiers like “very” cannot apply inside a compound ▪ Ex.) The man caught in the rain wore a very wet suit; not *The diver wore a very wet suit
o Inflection – inflectional markers apply at the level of entire compound
▪ Ex.) The player drop-kicked the ball; not *The player
dropped-kick the ball
16. A single morpheme may have multiple forms that are pronounced slight differently. These are called allomorphs.
17. Allomorphy – English has 2 allomorphs
o “A” before a word that begins with a consonant
▪ Ex.) A party
o “An” before a word that begins with a vowel
▪ Ex.) An actor
18. If a morpheme is spelled differently in 2 contexts but is pronounced in the same way (like “create” vs. “creat-ive”), these are NOT considered distinct allomorphs.