Chapter 1 4. Scientific 12. Matter
variable composition! & No Pure substances
(Mixture Seporable into simpler
r Uniform throughout? substances?
Yes Herogeneous) Homogenous (Element) [Compound
Tea with Helium
Intensive properties :- Does not depend on the (intense intense heat amount of substance present
boiling point) - Used to identity substances
- Melting point, color, boiling point Extensive properties : - Depend on the quantity of (extend length) substance present
If you want to learn more check out Who is hippocrates,the father of medicine?
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- length, mass, volume
1 inch = 2.54cm
1m L =
K = °C + 273,15
Co K-273,15 of = 9/5 (°C) +32
(=[of -327 5%. We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of gel electrophoresis in genes?
4. Significant figures
- Lean rules of sig figs - Addition and subtraction: Final answer should
have some number of decimal places as
measurement with fewest number of decimal placed - Multiplication and division : Final answer
should contain some number of sig figs as measurement with least number of sig
given & We also discuss several other topics like What is an exemption?
2.5cm = 31.8cm
11. Three laws that led to atomic theoryl 1. Law of conservation of mass
• Mass remains constant during a
• Number of substances may change
but mass stays the same. Mass of reactants mass of product
2. Law of definite proportions We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of red shift?
• All samples of a given compound, regardless
of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of elements.
• Mass ratio: Mass of one element.
- Mass of second element
• Divide larger number by smaller
3. Law of multiple proportions.
- When two elements (A and B) form two NO2 2.28 g = 4.00 different compounds, the masses of N20 0.570g element B that combine with 1 g of Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of stochastic theory?
element A can be expressed as a *NO2 contains ratio of small numbers 4x more & oxygen than NO2 contains 2.28g oxygen to every 100g nitrogen NO NO contains .570g oxygen to every 1.00g nitrogen
) Study Soup
2 Atomic Symbols, isotopes, numbers
A X = The symbol of the Atom or Isotope
x = Atomic symbol of element z = Atomic number = #protons.
A = mass number - protons & neutrons
Isotopes atoms of an element with the
same number of protons, but a
different number of neutrons. 3 Periodic Table
- Learn where transition metals, inner transition
metals, gases are found
y atomic number (protons)
1 atom of Clin amu
Cation positively charged ion.
Anion : negatively charged ion
In forming an ionic compound, the cations and onions will combine
so the net charge of the compound is neutral.
• Metals tend to lose elections to become cations
Nonmetals tend to gain electrons. to become anions
6 Calculate atomic mass from percent abundance
and isotopic mass, Problem Silver (Ag : Z=47) has 46 known isotopes,
but only two occur naturally, oth and 10 A
Given the following mass spectrometric data, calculate the atomic mass of Agi Isotope Massa Abundance 107 Aa L 106.90 Sogo 51.84%
108.90476 - 48.16%
(0.5184 x 106.90509) + (0.4816 x 108.90476) = 155.41)
152.44) = 107.867 #remember sig figs.
How many Cu atoms Weighing 3.10g!
Given info: 3.10 g copper penny
mw = 63.546 g/mol
Avogadro's number: 6.022 x 10 Solution :
3.10 gto 1 mol 16.022x102 Cu atons
63.5520 L Imol.
2.9441022 Cu atoms
MI Study Scur
Chapter 3 Concepts Naming Compounds Ionic compounds. Transfer of elections to non-metal.
Covalent compounds formed when elements share elections, which usually occurs between non-metals
name of/ charge of base name Ionic metal and nonmetal
(cation of onien
» iron (111) chloride
i base name of est dement) pictix 1 second element tid!
Binary acids (two element)
hydrol of nanmetal
Ex. HCl hydrochlovic acid @ Polyatamic ions Memorized
Carbonate: CO 2 - Sulfite: SO2 - Nitrite: NO2
Sulfate: 304 Nitrate : NO
Chlorite: Clog I Phosphate : PO 3 -
chlorate : Clo,
Naming Compounds Na S3 = Dinitrogen trisulfide /Covalent because (it doesn't have la metal
Na Cl ionic
FeSO4 = Ironcinsulfate Ivan (11) Sulfate
Dous + Acid
+6 I Fez (SO4)3 * HNO2)
psulfate ic + 6 H2SO4
Problems Exam 1 Study (vide
les 9.88 16 lft
1 ft3 1728 in?
1 in 2.34cm3
lin? 16.387 cm3
453.599 = 0.1582 6 / mL
= 10. 158 9/mL
(same sig figs as the 9.881b/ft3 which was starting
125 years ?
= 125 yr x 365.24 days 24 hr 60 min & 60 sec
lyr Iday Ihr Imin = 3944592000 = 13.94x109/
3 You have 253.5g of Cu wire
a) How many moles is this?
253.5 g Cox
= 3.989 mol of Cul
I b) How mong
3.989 mol x
6.022 x 102 atoms = 2.402 x 1024
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons, but different number of neutions.
Calculate the atomic mass of bromine given the following information: Br-79=78,918 amo 51% abundance Br-
81= 80.916 amu 49% abundance
(78.918 amu) (0.51) = 40.248 (80.916 amo) (0.49 = 39,649
& Identify the number of neutrons and the element
for the isotope below.
13 1 Xe neutrons : 77
A cation is a positively charged species when an atom loses an election, and an anich is a negatively charged species when on atom
gains an election.
) Study Soup
You know that carbon has an average isotopic mass of 12.05 amo. Calbon has two isotopes one with 6 neations and one with 7 neations. What is the isotopic abundance of each species?
(= bet + b n = ( 12 = 12.x
bet + 7 h = 613 = 13.1-x
12.05 12 (X) + 13 (1-x) = 12.05amu
12x + 13 - 13x = 12.05
12+ - 13x = -95
x=.95F 95 % for
Determine the molecular formula for a
compound that is 49.48% carbon, 5.19% Hydrogen, 28.55% Nitrogen , and 16.48% Oxygen,
The molar mass is 194. 19 g/mol.. 49.48gC l ml
24 Hs No 0 = 97g/mol imol 2
194.19 - 16.48 g Olnog = 1
5.199 H 28.859 N