Exam 1 Study Guide History 1301
∙ Central, Southern Mexico and Guatemala.
∙ Migrated from North.
∙ Capital=Tenochtitlan located in Lake Texcoco (Larger city at that time, 350,000) ∙ Indians= Mercenaries
∙ Dominant force in Central Mexico.
∙ Hernan Cortes invaded and destroyed this ancient civilization.
∙ Fell on 21 August 1521.
∙ Religion: Polytheistic, cult of Huitzilopochtli
∙ Emperor= Moctezuma II, 1502
∙ Social Structure:
o Important Groups (Ex, priests)
∙ Agriculture in floating gardens.
∙ Macana= main weapon
∙ Noche Triste=main battle
∙ Not unified empire Honduras to Yucatan.
∙ Religion: Polytheistic
∙ Food: hot chocolate and turkey.
∙ Aesthetics: definition of beauty, they colored their teeth.
∙ System of writing in stone and wood.
∙ Accomplishments: architecture, math, agriculture, and calendars. ∙ Political Organization:
∙ Collapse because of overpopulation, not enough food. War also contributed. Bacon’s Rebellion:
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∙ Popular revolt in Virginia 1676.
∙ Led by Nathaniel Bacon.
∙ High taxes, low prices for tobacco, and resentment against special privileges given those close to the governor.
∙ Def: Tradition of neglect.
∙ British Pryminister Robert Walpole 17271760.
∙ Britain’s absence in colonial America due to pressing issues in England left the colonies alone for the most part to govern themselves.
∙ Navigation Acts: govern trained
∙ Privy Council: responsible for administrate the entire English empire. ∙ British Officials: not well qualified, they obtained the job because of political connections.
∙ Connect the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea.
∙ During the Ice Age, Alaska and Siberia were connected by land where the strait now is, Native Americans crossed the land bridge to North America.
Iroquois Confederation: We also discuss several other topics like How do you practice transcribing?
∙ The "Five Tribes" that first joined to form the Iroquois Confederacy, were the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca
∙ The tribes spoke the Iroquoian language which was a family of North American Indian languages spoken by the Iroquois peoples. We also discuss several other topics like Why are electric field lines important?
∙ Also known as the people of the long side.
∙ Found in 1550
∙ Why created?
o To eliminate incessant intertribal warfare.
o To create peace and give united strength.
o To create a powerful force of tribes.
o To safeguard existing Iroquois territory and defend against invasion o To expand their territories.
o To establish a democratic government with representatives from each of the tribes to ensure fairness and equity. If you want to learn more check out What is the significance of race and ethnicity in latin america?
o To end the custom of cannibalism. If you want to learn more check out What is the politics of revolution?
Salem Witch Trials:
∙ Began in 1692, in Salem Village.
∙ The Massachusetts General Court later annulled guilty verdicts against accused witches and granted indemnities to their families, bitterness lingered in the community, and the painful legacy of the Salem witch trials would endure for centuries.
∙ Catholic Priest 1517.
∙ Faith is important to survive.
∙ Dutch entrepreneurs established New Netherland, a series of trading posts, towns, and forts up and down the Hudson River.
∙ New York City's original name was New Amsterdam.
∙ In 1609, two years after English settlers established the colony of Jamestown in Virginia, the Dutch East India Company hired English sailor Henry Hudson to find a northeast passage to India.. We also discuss several other topics like What is the content of thompson’s thought experiments?
∙ After unsuccessful efforts at colonization, the Dutch Parliament chartered the "West India Company," a nationaljoint stock company that would organize and oversee all Dutch ventures in the Western Hemisphere.
Treaty of Paris:
∙ British defeated French.
∙ Ended the war.
∙ French lost Canada and territory east of Miss. To English.
∙ New Orleans and land west of Miss. To Spain.
∙ Began at the tail end of Europe’s Protestant Reformation in the 17th century, 1681. ∙ In North America, they became heavily involved in Pennsylvania politics before reversing their views on government participation in the mid1750s.
∙ The Protestant reformers of the sixteenth century attempted to eliminate intermediaries between God and people, the Society of Friends, or Quakers, may be regarded as the fullest expression of the Reformation.
∙ Quakers relied upon the direction of what they called “Christ within” or the Inner Light. Their worship consisted of waiting in silence until the Inner Light led members to share their religious concerns with the brethren (George Fox). ∙ William Penn: pacifist who believed in equality for women.
∙ Georgia 1733: buffer zone, last colony.
∙ Tremendous impact.
∙ Began in Europe.
∙ Lead to scientific advances such as: the sun is the center of the universe, math, and gravity laws.
∙ Arrived to American in early 1700s.
∙ Benjamin Franklin: electricity, medicine, astronomy and physics advances. ∙ Impacted religion negatively because there was no need to had faith.
∙ Came to the American looking for gold, land, and religion.
∙ Arrived to Veracruz in 1519.
∙ The Totonacs and Tlaxcala tribes served him.
∙ Attempt to reverse lack of piety.
∙ Itinerant Preachers: went to place to place holding religion revivals. ∙ John and Charles Wesley 1730: English founders of Methodism religion revivals. ∙ George Whitefield: individuals can be forgetting by confession.
∙ Jonathan Edwards: leader minister
∙ Belief: predestination.
∙ Emotional results: to feel GOD.
∙ Increased religious diversity.
∙ Tolerance of Protestants denominations.
Albany Plan of Union:
∙ Plan to place the British North American colonies under a more centralized government. On July 10, 1754, representatives from seven of the British North American colonies adopted the plan. Although never carried out, the Albany Plan was the first important proposal to conceive of the colonies as a collective whole united under one government.
∙ Big gap between race and religion.
∙ White males.
∙ Dame Schools: schools out of home.
∙ Women: only a tiny percent went to school.
∙ Black people did not receive any kind of education because of the fear of rebellion. ∙ Indians were instructed by their own community.
∙ Basic legal procedures.
∙ Different from England.
∙ Different punishments: individuals accused of crimes were executed. Zenger Case:
∙ John Peter Zenger was a GermanAmerican journalist and newspaper publisher who became famous for going to trial for libel charges after printing pieces that opposed the governor.
∙ Biological and cultural exchange.
∙ Syphilis: American to European.
∙ Genocide: killed Native Americans.
∙ Crops and animals; sugar cane, bananas, hoses, goats.
∙ Interracial sex.
∙ American to European: corn, tomato, potato, chili pepper.
Alvaro Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca:
∙ One of the first Spanish who arrived to America in 1529.
∙ Seven cities of Cibola: cities of gold.
∙ In 1536 he made Indians thought that he was there to help them.
Agriculture: more variety
Industry emerged. Candle makers
Georgia and South Carolina raced rice
Fishing techniques. Used oil as lubricant.
Industry did not emerge.
Extractive Industries: lumber and other minerals
No major cities
∙ Voyage to America from Africa.
∙ Horrible experience for slaves.
∙ Death rate: 5% to 20%.
∙ Where slaves lived.
∙ 75% plantations with at least 10 slaves.
∙ 25% plantations with more than 50 slaves.
∙ Slaves had extended families.
∙ Salves Culture: African religion and Christianity.
∙ Far away from towns.
∙ Found in Virginia and Maryland.
∙ Defender of faith, Henry VIII vs. Pope, Henry wanted to divorce but Pope did not let him do it.
∙ Church of England (Anglican Church)= Henry.
∙ Mary 15331558: killed Protestants.
∙ Elizabeth halfsister of Mary: introduced reforms.
o Most radicals.
∙ James I 16031625: persecuted puritans.
∙ Served as a refuge for Catholics.
∙ Religion tolerance law.
∙ Government: governor and two house assembly.
∙ Economy: tobacco.
∙ Labor: slaves.
∙ Headrights: land.
∙ Established in 1620.
∙ Puritan community.
∙ Served as example for other Christians.
∙ Native Americans taught them how to hunt.
∙ Poor community.
∙ The ChosenElect: GOD put them in America.
∙ Religious liberal who became one of the founders of Rhode Island after her banishment from Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Huguenots (French Protestants):
∙ French Protestants most of whom eventually came to follow the teachings of John Calvin, and who, due to religious persecution, were forced to flee France to other countries in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Juan de Oñate:
∙ Conquistador who established the colony of New Mexico for Spain. ∙ During his despotic governorship, he vainly sought the mythical riches of North America and succeeded instead in unlocking the geographical secrets of what is now the southwestern United States.
Effects of French and Indian War:
∙ Great expansion of British territorial claims in the New World.
∙ The cost of the war had greatly enlarged Britain's debt.
∙ The war generated substantial resentment towards the colonists among English leaders, who were not satisfied with the financial and military help they had received from the colonists during the war.
Massachusetts Bay Colony:
∙ Puritan refugees from England.
∙ One of the original 13 colonies in America.
∙ The Massachusetts Colony was one of four colonies that made up the New England Colonies, which also included the New Hampshire Colony, the Connecticut Colony, and the Rhode Island Colony.
∙ The Massachusetts Colony was founded in 1630, and existed until 1776 when it joined in the fight for independence against Great Britain.
∙ John Winthrop, a Puritan, founded the Massachusetts Colony, naming it as such after an Algonquin tribe. Massachusetts means 'at the great hill', or 'large hill place'.
∙ Greatest theologian and philosopher of British American Puritanism, stimulator of the religious revival known as the “Great Awakening,” and one of the forerunners of the age of Protestant missionary expansion in the 19th century.
∙ Preacher and public figure who led many revival meetings both in England and the American colonies. He became a religious icon who spread a message of personal salvation and a more democratic Christianity.
∙ Indentured servants first arrived in America in the decade following the settlement of Jamestown by the Virginia Company in 1607.
∙ The idea of indentured servitude was born of a need for cheap labor.
∙ The earliest settlers soon realized that they had lots of land to care for, but no one to care for it. With passage to the Colonies expensive for all but the wealthy, the Virginia Company developed the system of indentured servitude to attract workers.
∙ Indentured servants became vital to the colonial economy.
∙ 100 members of the Virginia Company founded the first permanent English settlement in North America on the banks of the James River.
∙ Famine, disease and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years brought Jamestown to the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies in 1610.
∙ Tobacco became Virginia’s first profitable export, and a period of peace followed the marriage of colonist John Rolfe to Pocahontas, the daughter of an Algonquian chief.
∙ 1620: Jamestown expanded from the area around the original James Fort into a New Town built to the east; it remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699.
∙ About the same time John Smith and the Jamestown settlers were setting up camp in Virginia, France was building permanent settlements of their own.
∙ Samuel de Champlain led a group of French colonists through the mouth of the St. Lawrence River to found Quebec in 1608.
∙ The fur trade led fortune seekers deeper and deeper into North America.
∙ French Jesuit missionaries boldly penetrated the wilderness in the hopes of converting Native Americans to Catholicism.
∙ 1700: France had laid claim to an expanse of territory that ranged from Newfoundland in the Northeast, down across the Great Lakes through the Ohio Valley, southward along the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico, and as far west as the Rocky Mountains.
Proclamation of 1763:
∙ Prohibited settlement west of Appalachian Mountains.
King George III:
∙ Assumed throne in 1760.
∙ Not suited for throne.
∙ He wanted the colonies to paid high taxes to raise the English empire. German Immigrants:
∙ Germans came to the United States seeking economic opportunities or religious or political freedom.
∙ There were many different motivations behind the mass migrations from Germany that took place between 1800 and 1920.
∙ Williams’ Nonconformist leanings lured him across the Atlantic to Plymouth in 1631. He was an extremely bright and enthusiastic individual, and rarely avoided an opportunity to argue his convictions.
∙ His views on religion and government quickly embroiled him in disputes with the Massachusetts authorities in Salem and Boston. He upset the elders by denouncing the Massachusetts Bay charter, which allowed the confiscation of Native American lands without compensation and the punishment of purely religious transgressions by the civil officials.
∙ In 1635, he was expelled from the church and placed under an order of expulsion from the colony.
∙ The first English Colony of Roanoke was founded in 1585, under the ultimate authority of Sir Walter Raleigh.
∙ In 1584 Raleigh had been granted a patent by Queen Elizabeth I to colonize America.
∙ This Colony was run by Ralph Lane after Sir Richard Grenville, who had transported the colonists to Virginia, returned to Britain for supplies. ∙ When Drake picked up these colonists, he left behind 15 of his own men, who were never heard from again. This foreshadowed one of the great mysteries of North America, Roanoke's socalled "Lost Colony" of 90 men, 17 women and 9 children, founded in 1587 and discovered to be missing in 1590.