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Popular in World War II in Europe
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Date Created: 04/19/15
HIST 0187 WWII in Europe 16 Background of WWII 800 Charlemagne crowned emperor of Holy Roman Empire ruler in Europe since 768 christianized Europe quotbaptized or die sent troops to help Pope fell apart in 843 considered First Reich Germany in 300 entities Diet voting body of HRE Prussia Austria Bavaria delegates got one if they pleased an emperor at some point 1800 s French Revolution Napoleon governing brought more modern and enlightened ideas of government to Europe HRE dissapears expanded borders to bring new French administration to areas 300 to 39 principalities beaten at Leipzig in 1814 exiled to island in the Mediterranean raised an army again and beaten at Waterloo in 1815 Louis XVIII conservative began to roll back enlightenment changes trend same in other areas of Europe Congress of Vienna Hans von Metternich leader quothis role to prop up the rotting corpse of old Europe back to traditional forms pushed out economic innovation guard against reemergence of France military alliances balance of power model 3 systems of alliances to maintain peace Realpolitikrealism Most countries on board except England thought we should build relationships through trade instead of military alliances interdependence Internationalism Concert of Europe Recitation 18 Blood and Iron speech Otto von Bismarck Unifying Germany 18 113 Otto von Bismarck Nationalist birth of Nationalism following Napoleonic wars rose quickly through ranks Ambassador to many places Chancellor of North German confederation states north of Mainz river outcome of war between Austria and Prussia gained control of many German states Prussia was the stronger of the two quot7 Weeks War Third War of German Unification Franco Prussian War catalyzed in Spain needed a new king determined next in line was Kaiser s nephew Leopold Hohenzollern France worried about being surrounded by enemy through dynastic connection France Napoleon lll adopted son of Napoleon Wilhelm I met with Napoleon s representative at Ems came to an agreement Leopold would not accept would not agree that a German would never rule Spain not the outcome Bismarck expected Ems telegram look like Bismarck had been insulted by French ambassador public saw and called for war fought a war July 1870 September 1870 Prussia won and claimed AlsaceLorraine and pay indemnity to Germany loser pays costs of the war helped Germany to industrialize After the war AlsaceLorraine and other states joined Germany close to a recognizable Germany upsets balance of Power big Germany a brand new threat to France and Russia other states go on the defensive new Germany militarization encourage big business integration and interlocking directorates very rapid industrialization change for peasants from farming to working in factories 18731896 economic crash workers formed socialist party threat to Bismarck outlawed socialism in 1878 led first state led relief for workers oldage insurance education new classes showing up factory owners lmperialism 18701890 France and England took over most of Africa some pushing Bismarck to do the same reluctant wanted to focus inward Berlin Conference 18845 invited nations that had a presence in Africa and countries that wanted a presence presented himself as an honest broker help people to be an arbitrator outsider did not have an investment in Africa build international credibility balance of power in Africa similar to Europe wanted nations to be a little tense but not with Germany New lmperialism driven by industrialization Hypernationalism worried about imperialism and growing nationalism racism Expansionism send Europeans to conquered territories overpopulation in Europe James Froude Ratzel Lebensraum same model of thought as Hitler 115 Racism Europeans felt they were superior to the rest of the world because they were able to conquer the other races Darwinism 1859 Took his ideas for imperialism applications some people are richer because they are more fit 1870 New Imperialism takes off Viersche anthropologist study of German school children eye and hair color 10 had blonde hair and blue eyes among Jewish 10 had blonde hair and blue eyes see racism across the board more rabid in France at this time March toward WWI different trends peace and international cooperation globalism series of conventions and conferences Geneva conventions first in 1864 established rules for rendering aid to wounded and sick on battlefield established Red Cross development of ideas of international law four of them Great Britain France Italy Prussia Berlin conference ongoing Hague convention 1899 called by Russian Tsar Nicholas lll limit arms buildup and what kind of weapons can be used in war establish international law permanent Court of Arbitration formed in 1901 help settle international disputes expansionism state officials and idealists made a number of statements on armaments prohibited use of projectiles and explosive from air balloons prohibited use of poison gas prohibited use of hollowpoint bullets 1903 Peace Palace Andrew Carnegie 15 million 120 progress of international law 1906 Second Geneva convention Translated to maritime law 1907 Second Hague convention supposed to occur every 7 years stopped by WWI called by Teddy Roosevelt progress on int l law maritime law consideration of rights and duties of neutral powers Carnegie endowment for peace Alliance systems 1879 Bismarck makes firm alliance with Austria 1882 Italy joins alliance Triple Alliance Germany AustriaHungary ltaly becomes Central Powers Great Britain and France rivals France and Russia ok Great Britain hates Russia has close ties with Germany King of England and Tsar of Russia were first cousins Wilhelm ll grandson of Queen Victoria same race AngloSaxon vs Slavic Russians not as threatened by Germany Wilhelm ll wants to build an empire seriously build its navy Britain and United States unhappy trade dispute arms race between Germany and England serious economic slump healed by increase in navy set up partnership between land owner as factory owners IronRye Pact in Germany vote in favor of gov t contracts if they vote in favor of grain tariffs 1868 General Tirpitz responsible for navy buildup concerned England new First admiral Sir John Fischer 1904 Britain and France become friendly England should build a gigantic ship Dreadnought 1905 stirred up trouble in Morocco wanted to pose a danger to France hoped to drive a wedge between Britain and France condemned by international community only Austria supported Germany 19041907 First genocide Germans wanted farm land that Africans had Sent military there to gain land Herrero genocide killed leaders and sent rest to desert 34000100000 people died Causes of WWI Imperialism national prestige search for resources Kaiser Wilhelm ll different outlook than Wilhelm l personally committed to acquiring prestige national and personal grandson of Queen Victoria of England driving force in German history pushed Bismarck out of office because he wasn t committed enough to imperialism chancellors are expendable German Navy buildup English response Britain controls the seas assumed they had a right Germans tried to undermine Britain s domain over the seas lndustrialism in Germany gain power on seas and become an empire beyond Europe Dreadnoughts Navy bill to build a ship to compete with English dredged out ports pushed Britain and France together brought in Russia Wilhelm ll antagonized British Boer War rooted for Dutch Daily Telegraph what is your intent with ships said not to worry Telegraph Affair Fall 1908 antagonized newspaper reading public stirred up sentiments of the masses announced twopower standard idea that Great Britain s navy should be at least as big as the second and third biggest navies other dynamics at work Ottoman Empire becoming weak and starting to crumble sick man of Europe others see as an opportunity especially AustriaHungary Balkans Serbia wants to expand and build Yugoslavia at odds with each other not a large power stand up to AH 1911 June 281914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand successor to the King Germany supported AustriaHungary blank check Austria to Serbia hand over all members of Black Hand or else Serbia stands up to Austria confident Russia will step in to back them up has agreements with France and Britain shortterm cause of the war Austria declared war on July 28 1914 Russia began to mobilize Germany challenged Russia Russia did not reply Germany declared war on Aug 1 Turkey entered war in October in place of Italy Italy eventually came In on snde of Britain and lrance Germany declared war on France in Aug 1915 hoped Britain would continue to stay out secret agreements between Britain and France in event of war British Mediterranean fleet would protect North Atlantic French NAtlantic fleet would protect Mediterranean Britain automatically involved Aug 5 1915 declared war on Germany atrocities in WWI desensitized world to atrocities of WWII Germany invaded neutral Belgium first big wave of volunteers to British Army Poison gas disallowed by Hague Convention Germans had better gas and gas masks than British uppenhand hear a lot about atrocity by British would change during war Machine guns never Europeans turning on other Europeans before trench warfare ignoble miserable and cowardly War from the air ungentlemanly civilians became involved sometimes impossible to bomb purely military targets Balloons bombing coastal British towns Oceans submarines gave people chance to evacuate before sinking stopped within 1 year of war signaled change from gentlemanly conflict to animalistic conflict Mines anything triggered without contact with enemy United States was a neutral power for much of the war trade with belligerent powers making lots of money raw cotton to Germany noncontraband materials wadding for explosive blockade by Britain Wilhelm pushed Germany toward unrestricted submarine warfare US bringing contraband to England Lusitania sank by Germans unrestricted submarine warfare brought US into war in winter 1917 antagonized US declared war in April of 1917 change dynamics of war Grand alliance Britain France Italy knock out blow obliterate Germany Impose peace on losers gave allies confidence US on board arrived in force in fall of 1917 October Revolution in Russia Vladimir Lenin sent back into Russia by Germany destroy Russia s capacity to fight on Eastern front exactly what happened land peace and bread Russia could not compete with industrialized nations soldiers not adequately equipped Lenin promised to pull Russia out of war pulled out in March 1918 peace meeting with German Peace of BrestLitovsk imposition of unilateral peace punitive peace pulling out of alliance obligations upset other allies feared another similar peace in WWII 122 WWI Invasion of Belgium Aug 4 1915 US entrance into war April 1917 David Lloyd George British prime minister knockout blow indicates intent to completely crush Germans no military strength to leverage in peace process means to unilaterally impose a peace demand surrender from Germans not allowed to until they met certain conditions abdication of Kaiser propaganda optimistic visions of postwar world war to end all wars biggest war ever last big war ever learn from horrors of this war war to make the world safe for democracy guarantee Germany will be a democracy thinking about new worldwide organization based on delegations from different countries itself be a democracy League of Nations members must be democratic 1916 October Revolution shortterm Lenin promised land peace and bread peace March 1918 Peace of BrestLitovsk sets background for WWII and 1919 Peace of Paris devastating for Soviets sent Leon Trotsky and inexperienced diplomats J AJ A LI A uLLu IJ get US DUI 0T U18 war no matter WflaI widespread civil war Antisoviets whites Aristocrats power depended on old Tsar Peasants devoted to Tsar father External powers sent aid to traditional powers many countries gained independence lost 26 of total population weakened new Soviet Union pay large war indemnity disastrous in backs of mind of Churchill and Roosevelt hoped Stalin wouldn t withdraw without consulting West want to regain territory lost US entrance turned tide of the war German people didn t understand what happened on the battlefield October 1918 German armies fairing poorly on battlefield Hindenberg and Ludendorff respected generals in Germany important for new government we have to surrender Kaiser didn t want to step down left someone else in control would return once things settled down Armistice on Nov11 1918 ceasefire armies stayed on field Jan 1919 work on treaty began ended in June quick as possible anxious to move society back from wartime Sloppy Peace of Paris 1919 Nations wanted their own states Big Four United States Woodrow Wilson Great Britain David Lloyd George ltaly Orlando France Clemenceau US GB and France did not take Italy seriously ltaly leaves did not feel they were adequately getting what they were promised unwieldy process needed translators to talk to each other experts reformulate natural boundaries Wilson idealist selfdetermination of nationsquot nations get their own states and boundaries highly complicated League of Nations Ewnnnl FldIIUU wondering how to defend itself from Germany barrier and buffer zone from Germany drive Germany back to preNapoleonic form Italy wanted other powers to honor their promises from treaty of 1915 George moderator between Clemenceau and Wilson League of Nations highly important to Wilson Clemenceau wanted to damage Germany Wilson did not would not agree to League of Nations if he did not agree to terms selfdetermination of nations Wilson wanted to redraw Europe Treaty of Versailles one of multiple treaties has to do with Germany take away Germany s powers strip Germany s extra European empire lost about 18 of territory 10 of population 15 of agriculture 20 of industry areas ceded to newlyformed Poland independent nations buffer zone between Germany and France demilitarization reduced Germany s army from millions to 100000 no military aircraft allowed navy reduced to 30 small and mediumsized boats no fortifications to west lose Saar area AlsaceLorraine returned to France Germany crippled by treaty Reparations not set in 1919 treaty War guilt clause agreed entire war was Germany s fault drawn up by John Foster Dulles made possible massive reparations direct and indirect costs of war would take 2 more years to come out 1921 132 billion gold marks had Germany making impossible payments until 1984 signed on anniversary of assassination of Franz Ferdinand Stab in the back theory Notes from Chapter 3 Rise of the Dictators Ideology crucial to totalitarian dictators CommunismMarxism in Russia changed under Stalin focused on consolidation of dictatorship rather than just being temporary as in Marxism Fascism in Italy Nazism in Germany put powers at odds over goals eventually caused Hitler and Mussolini to join forces Lenin and the Bolsheviks first totalitarian government of interwar period Bolsheviks were victorious in Russian Revolution Led by Vladimir Lenin 7 omnll minnril nF ha nnnoinn Olllall llllllUllLy Ul LIIG lJUIJUIaLIUII small tightly organized group of professional revolutionaries faithful to Marx doctrine resisted those in favor of more moderate socialism party vanguard of the revolution Russian Revolution Lenin in exile at beginning of Revolution returned in April 1917 believed he could topple weak provisional government overthrew but had difficulty consolidating power had difficulty establishing popular support for Bolsheviks gained only 25 of assembly was then dissolved wanted a temporary dictatorship Civil War in 1918 Bolsheviks reds vs MensheviksantiBolsheviks whites War Communism requisitions of grain and difficult production standards Red won decisively in 1920 but economy in shambles New Economic Policy NEP allowed peasants to sell their goods on openmarket eliminated forced requisition used in order to gain support of peasants and workers established hierarchical system of soviets real power belonged only to the Communist party Central Committee Politboro Secretariat and Organizational Bureau Secret Police eliminate enemies of the party and state Stalinist Era Josef Stalin wins power struggle to succeed Lenin more domestically focused than others purged all other leaders make himself undisputed around 800000 party members died launched massive program of industrialization wanted to make Russia an industrial power collectivization merge land holdings into collective farms resistance from kulaks murdered by secret police led to famines 95 by 1939 abolished private ownership drastically increased production standards Fiveyear plans drastically increase heavy industry 1930 s had established a strong and loyal Communist dictatorship Fascism in Italy movement began in 1919 Italians dissatisfied with aftermath of the war gained little from conflict disenchanted by western powers disgruntled veterans and nationalists formed paramilitary groups Mussolini led one and gained loyalty of the rest Black Shirts fiercely antisocialist Mussolini marched on Rome hnnamn nrnminr in hn nahinn39l39 Mnn39l39nrl n nunnhlnllu imnnen a Hinnnrehin UUUuIIIU PIUIIIIUI III lIIU UuUIIIUL VVuIIIUu LU UVUIIIuully IIIIPUOU u ulUlulUIOIIIP party used violence and intimidation to gain a massive majority murdered most outspoken critic of Fascism dissolved all nonFascist parties and began censorship established Fascist Grand Council system of corporativism create understanding between workers and industrialists eliminating selfish individualism division of economic activity into seven categories Ministries Mussolini valued nationalism imperialism and militarism spoke of a new Roman Empire led him to alliance with Hitler oneparty state less totalitarian preserved much of oldsystem church monarchy capitalism landowning class milder than Nazism Hitler and the Nazis what isn t already covered in the lecture notes Mein Kampf superiority of Aryan race inferiority of the Jewish race associated them with Marxism and the Weimar Republic envisioned his dictatorship German nationalism need for Germany to absorb areas of ethnic Germans Austrians Sudetenland Danzig and Poland goal of Lebensraum for the German people in Europe convinced Nazis needed to come to power legally had his opportunity from the Great Depression Heinrich BrUning chancellor of Weimar republic in 1930 authoritarian and financial austerity views ruled by presidential decree called a parliamentary election Nazis and communists won major gains Nazis 2nd largest delegation resigned and replaced by Franz von Papen Hitler used his SA and SS to gain control of the streets SA had 400000 men by end of 1932 Heinrich Himmler led the SS Nazis became Germany s largest party Hitler demanded chancellorship worked out a deal with Papen to become chancellor dissolved Reichstag and curtailed freedom of the press Nazis still not majority used intimidation strategies to gain two thirds majority brought state government under Nazi control eliminated other political parties and ousted opposing political figures Reichstag became Nazidominated assembly Changed educational curriculum established Hitler Youth foster love of Hitler and obedience to party and state Established secret police Gestapo created concentration camps Dachau and Belsin held political prisoners hgnnn tn hQFQQRII39I39Q thg Jaw quotvquI iv PIVIUVVMHV bl IV UVIVU purged from civil service faced discrimination and violence became more formal essentially completed revolution in 1934 Night of the Long Knives SA had become powerful nearly 1 million strong purge potential enemies in the SA army supported Hitler as a result Hitler wielded absolute power credited with German economic recovery deliberately had confusion duplication of effort and competition in government used to maintain unquestioning ascendancy over them synchonization 129 French in Ruhr valley didn t think German workers would fulfill the reparations worried about German ties to Soviet Union obstructionism workers stopped working not benefiting Germany French occupation used French imperial troops African troops upset Germans over underlying questions of race Weimar republic backed workers continued to pay them for no work led to hyperinflation Nov 1923 MunichBeer Hall Putsch planned by Nazi Party led by Hitler identify groups in Weimar republic that were threats modeled after march on Rome by Italian Fascists March from Munich to Berlin gather support along the way Police arrested leaders including Hitler convicted sentenced to 4 years at Lansberg prison wrote Mein Kampf released after 9 months Dawes Plan 1925 agreed to give a loan to Germany to help with hyperinflation 19251929 some prosperity Great Depression spike in appeal of Nazism ltaly postwar disenchanted with West after the war social and economic chaos Benito Mussolini organized fascist groups Blackshirts corporatism big business and land owners would cooperate with the government Fascism order in society order in the economy actionoriented idenlnnv dedication to empire building 210 Germany entered League of Nations 1926 won Nobel Peace Prize for it Hitler removed 7 years later Hitler set up Nazi parties in other nations received lots of support from Berlin Austria Sudetenland Danzig helped Germany expand into Austria and Czechoslovakia Poland lost faith that West would defend them entered nonaggression pact with Germany threatened Soviet Union entered League of Nations in 1934 worried about German aggression make relationship with Czechoslovakia and France Hitler and Mussolini not on good terms Hitler had strong hand in assassination of Austrian leader Dolfuss further undermined their relationship Hitler announced he was rebuilding air force and military justifies using western terms selfdetermination of nations blatant violation of terms of Treaty of Versailles Why doesn t the west take action instead appeasement don t want another war hesitate to enforce terms of treaty serious questions about treaty many thought it was unfair fear of Communism Stresa front April 1935 Italy France Great Britain Mutual Assistance Pact May 1935 Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia Naval Agreement June 1935 Great Britain and Germany German navy allowed to rebuild to strength of 35 of Royal Navy 45 of strength of submarines if Soviet Union emerges as a threat Germany is allowed to build to full strength France joins Mutual Assistance pact as a result October 1935 Mussolini rebuilding Roman Empire ltaly invades Ethiopia Great Britain appalled threatened to take to the League of Nations could only threaten sanctions threatened to bomb British fleet in Mediterranean if sanctions Nail in the coffin of the League of Nations Stresa front is dead turning point between two Fascist powers Germany supported ltaly s ambitions Hitler moved his troops into the Rheinland supposed to be a demilitarized zone violation of Treaty of Versailles gets rid of buffer zone between Germanv and France France builds Maginot Line Spanish Civil War 193639 Economic and political crisis in 1921 Crisis in Morocco Split in army Francisco Franco Fascist Mixed sides Republicans vs Fascists Stalin aided Republicans afraid of Fascist threat no one else would help the Republicans Mussolini sent thousands of soldiers Hitler sent less help wanted to prolong the war to keep focus off him international sides Communists sending aid grew from 40k to 250k sent 5th column Hitler waited until middle of the war to aid Franco s men asked him for help sent Condor Legion Junker airplanes test run for technologies in WWII Nov 1936 RomeBerlin Axis Axis world would revolve around the axis of Rome and Berlin Pact of Steel May 1939 AntiComintern Germany Italy and Japan Franco wins Spanish Civil War sent aid to Fascists organized spy network against allies stayed in power until 1978 Fascism still regarded as bulwark against Communism Austria Nazi party illegal not sympathetic to unification with Germany Schuschnigg wanted a plebiscite Hitler demands his resignation SeyssInquart put in power paved way for Anschluss west did nothing Fall 1938 moved to take over Czechoslovakia Sudetenland 3 million Germans Hitler made same argument as for Austria 4x6 notecard both sides for exam 212 Increasing tensions Mussolini originally didn t like German annexation of Austria changed when they became friends Czechoslovakia drawn by Woodrow Wilson selfdetermination of nations drawn to include two major ethnicities Czechs and Slovaks also lots of Germans 3 million mostly in Sudetenland area Sudeten German party driven by Nazi structure and ideoloqv Konrad Henlein agitated ethnic turmoil created as much publicity incidents of antiGerman violence publicized Hitler used as an excuse for intervention argued they should be ruled by Berlin Germans wanted them to hand over the Sudetenland refused thought they had a chance bc they would be backed up by France and Soviet Union Mutual Assistance Pact looked like Europe was about to go to war desperately wanted to avoid Munich conference September 1938 Neville Chamberlain ceded it to Germany Germany took over rest of Czechoslovakia War looks inevitable at this point Stalin upset that the West had kept him out understood he needed an alliance with Germany installed Molotov as his foreign minister practical military reasoning reasoned that Hitler would not want a 2 front war would want to make peace with Soviet Union Poland Hitler stirred up trouble in Danzig Gdansk East Prussia blocked from Germany by Polish corridor not officially politically Germany international city governed by League of Nations lots of Germans but also lots of Poles Nazi Party being manipulated from Berlin lead by Albert Forster told to instigate tensions between German and Polish officials Polish in charge of customs threatened to cut off import of foodstuffs Hitler argued danger to Germans Hitler needed to slow it down before he signed pact with Soviet Union called in League of Nations representative Burkhart trying to buy time for Molotov and Ribbentrop to sign a treaty Burkhart reported to Britain and France Ribbentrop told Mussolini to prepare for war Nazi Soviet Pact August 23 1939 On the surface 10year nonaggression pact promised neutrality if either country went to war with a third party secret parts Soviet Union promised return of land from Treaty of BrestLitovsk divided up Poland Everything set for war Operation Canned Meat Heydrich planted dead bodies in Polish uniforms stage an attack by Poland on Germany activated battleship in port of Danzig Schleswig Holstein September 1 1939 Hitler declared war on Poland Mussolini wanted negotiations with the West like Czechoslovakia Lebensraum Living space for ethnically German people Blood and Soil September 3 1939 Britain and France declared war on Germany Germany has rebuilt their army more people annexation of Austria and Sudetenland more industry Skoda works in Czechoslovakia still not completely on its feet ready for war generals not thrilled with war fielded 1500 tanks and 1250 planes 1 million men ready to go to war enough to beat Poland but not France and Britain Poland not very militarized War with Poland heroic efforts by Poland but an easy victory for Germany and Soviet Union 90000 of Polish army escaped south came back to fight elsewhere Polish Home Army ended on September 28 Germany and Soviet Union partitioned Poland Hitler accomplished what we wanted and asked for peace France and Britain refused 217 German Blitzkrieg attack on Poland Worked very well Special forces followed initial forces eliminated certain groups Jews Poles other Slavs Hitler sues for peace after invasion of Poland Hitler said that this was all the Lebenraum he wanted Britain and France still declare war Britain government still full of appeasers France still aware of the enemy they faced concerned with its own defense Maginot Line still didn t realize the technology of the coming war thought it would be trench warfare Charles de Gaulle Hitler saw war as the ultimate way to gain land ultimate goal of politics keep races fit quotwhat mankind has gained it has gained through struggle build an empire of constant conflict always a struggle against something not fully prepared for war in Fall 1939 believed if he conquered France England would surrender feeling in Germany to make good on sacrifices of WWI and correct injustices of Versailles people enthusiastic excited by the appeasement after Poland drop off of enthusiasm lukewarm some discontent ongoing policy in Germany avoid extraordinary draft committed to a traditional German household Hitler finds himself needing to settle discontent domestically and being at war with France and Britain plots against Hitler breaks in trust with high command Poland region has military importance for deployments already planning to break Nazi Soviet Pact ongoing racial policy difference in treatment of people west of Germany than those to the east starving and extracting labor from people Katyn Massacre AprilMay 1940 Soviets invaded from the east rounded up potentially important people executed 22000 8000 Polish officers get rid of military leaders denied by Soviet Union Hitler used as a diplomatic chip later in the war Strategizing about moving troops westward preparations in west Germany British anticipated bombings US set up Cash and Carry program willing to sell war materials to France and Britain policy changes through war Blitzkrieg in Poland SitzkriegquotPhony War in France Finland Winter Warquot NaziSoviet Pact was supposed to return losses of Treaty of BrestLitovsk included territory in Finland actually was very difficult for Soviet Union Finns outnumbered 31 lasted for 3 and a half months heavy losses for Soviet Union 127000 casualties vs 26000 for Finnish army fought on Finnish home terrain Finns better equipped and clothed lack of leadership of Soviet Army heavy purging of commanders by Stalin lack of experience in command Britain and France willing to help Finland couldn t get there Sweden and Norway wouldn t let them through officially neutral making money off Nazis led Hitler to underestimate the Soviet army heartened by this struggle eventually won Finland was important defensive zone for protection of Leningrad British naval blockade very ineffective wanted to cut off resources coming from Norway and Sweden port of Narvik recommend laying of mines around Narvik Winston Churchill April 1940 Hitler ordered invasion of Denmark and Norway April 9 1940 right after British finished mining end of the Phony War British and German forces fought at Narvik and Trondheim haphazard engagement turned out badly for British criticism of lack of accomplishment on the water still sunk many German ships have an impact on Germany s capacity to invade Britain May 10 1940 Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister regarded as a warlike official risktaker Dramatic changeovers in government Reynaud in France more war like difficult change over 224 Victory Column designed in 1864 built in 1870s made from a cannon from the wars of German unification Hitler had it moved away from the Reichstag still seen as an image of Nazi propaganda by some Reichstag center of German parliament decimated by Russians and bombed by British and Americans not restored until after the fall of the wall rebuilt with steel and glass symbol of democracy and transparency Watchhouse one of Hitler s favorite buildings destroyed during WWII restored used to remember victims of fascism and militarism built for victims of Napoleon memorial for different things central memorial for victims of war and tyranny Kathe Kollwitz sculpturer Castle symbol of monarch and aristocracy blown up by Soviets symbol of everything anti communist HQ of the Stasi Talked about Finland Poland Norway British laid mines along the Norwegian coast to prevent German shipping Hitler ordered invasion of Churchill takes power in May 10 1940 also date of westward attack British committed troops to defense of France and Belgium BEF British Expeditionary Force Maginot Line French didn t believe anyone could invade through Ardennes forest north of the line terrain too rough Manstein Plan Yellow Sickle cut invaded through Belgium French army caught south Germans chased armies north to Dunkirk German advance stopped for 48 hours why puzzled by such quick success purposely allowing escape remain on good terms with British Hitler micromanaging military some talk of a coup split between Hitler and his military commanders Dunkuk fled northward to the coast away from advancing Germans Operation Dynamo Royal Navy comes to rescue as many as possible any water worthy vessel Winston Churchill s call to the British public rescued 338000 troops lasted from May 27 June 4 evident France would fall ltaly officially enters the war June 10 German troops enter Paris June 13 Churchill negotiating with French premier joining country with Great Britain wouldn t have to surrender country Paris fell June 14 France surrendered on June 17 By end of June 1940 Germany had control of Poland Denmark Norway Belgium Holland and France killed 135000 men only lost 25000 226 Winston Churchill We will fight on the beaches June 4 1940 call to United States to enter the war Involvement in 1939 Cash and Carry program US doesn t enter until December 1941 Dunkirk evacuation June 4 1940 French people want to move away from the Nazis chaos in the streets ltaly enters the war on June 10 Germans in Paris on June 14 France surrenders on June 17 Charles De Gaulle flees France for London wartime speeches at BBC Radio overwhelmedby the tactics of the enemy wrote multiple books in interwar period wanted to build troops and rework war tactics gov t committed to Maginot Line instead Occupied France PM Reynaud became PM on March 21 only lasted 3 months elevated Charles de Gaulle to General not an appeaser steps down Reynaud in minority favor of combining with England Phillipe Petain takes his place Petain openly willing to cooperate with the Nazis wanted to avoid as much damage as possible from the Nazis Churchill Finest Hour speech June 18 Hitler ordered railway car where Germany surrendered to France where he wanted French to surrender left on display in Berlin Split into zones Coastal Military zone entry prohibited staging areas for invasion of Great Britain Vichy France collaborationist government governed by Petain from city of Vichy indirect rule by Germany unoccupied by the Nazis less important militarily Germany retakes AlsaceLorraine Lots of governments in exile in London Charles de Gaulle governing France in exile Churchill has all of these governments in his face making plans for post war French Imperial troops troops guarding empire and mandates many troops naval ships and equipment terms of surrender were to disband army and turn over equipment to Germans active strategy by de Gaulle failed Free French movement De Gaulle wanted a Free French army resisters in France establish a fourth republic after the war reformulate France all together imagined a democratic government after the war selfappointed authoritarian leader during the war calls for return to tradition French revolution ideals of liberty and fraternity Resistance movements spike in 1941 Germany turned on the Soviet Union breaking of the Nazi Soviet Pact Socialists become activated as resistance de Gaulle rules from Algeria when North Africa was liberated mistrust of De Gaulle FDR and Churchill didn t like him didn t tell him about Operation Overlord until hours before Eisenhower didn t want to liberate Paris but de Gaulle did Hitler turns his eyes to England part of a bigger plan made peace approaches would not surrender needs to deal with England before the Soviet Union already has full plans to invade Soviets planned since 1939 full articulation of plan by May 1941 wanted to conquer England by then certain obstacles for invading England had to adjust Blitzkrieg plan Operation Sea Lionquot launch an amphibious assault wanted to gain air superiority figured it would take 4 days to wipe out Royal Air Force Radar detection towers on the east coast of Britain know when planes are coming RAF less experienced than Luftwaffe some had experience back to the Spanish Civil War extended estimate Admiral Rater s Germany confidence hurt lost confidence after attack on Narvik delayed invasion didn t feel he had enough equipment to invade England Enigma machine 1920 s Polish agents stole it and duplicated it worked to decode messages Ultra communications WWII in Europe Week of 224 224 Victory Column designed in 1864 built in 1870s made from a cannon from the wars of German unification Hitler had it moved away from the Reichstag still seen as an image of Nazi propaganda by some Reichstag center of German parliament decimated by Russians and bombed by British and Americans not restored until after the fall of the wall rebuilt with steel and glass symbol of democracy and transparency Watchhouse one of Hitler s favorite buildings destroyed during WWII restored used to remember victims of fascism and militarism built for victims of Napoleon memorial for different things central memorial for victims of war and tyranny Kathe Kollwitz sculpturer Castle symbol of monarch and aristocracy blown up by Soviets symbol of everything anti communist HQ of the Stasi Talked about Finland Poland Norway British laid mines along the Norwegian coast to prevent German shipping Hitler ordered invasion of Churchill takes power in May 10 1940 also date of westward attack British committed troops to defense of France and Belgium BEF British Expeditionary Force Maginot Line French didn t believe anyone could invade through Ardennes forest north of the line terrain too rough Manstein Plan Yellow Sickle cut invaded through Belgium French army caught south Germans chased armies north to Dunkirk German advance stopped for 48 hours why puzzled by such quick success purposely allowing escape remain on good terms with British Hitler micromanaging military some talk of a coup split between Hitler and his military commanders Dunkirk fled northward to the coast away from advancing Germans Operation Dynamo Royal Navy comes to rescue as many as possible any water worthy vessel Winston Churchill s call to the British public rescued 338000 troops lasted from May 27 June 4 evident France would fall ltaly officially enters the war June 10 German troops enter Paris June 13 Churchill negotiating with French premier joining country with Great Britain wouldn t have to surrender country Paris fell June 14 France surrendered on June 17 By end of June 1940 Germany had control of Poland Denmark Norway Belgium Holland and France killed 135000 men only lost 25000 226 Winston Churchill We will fight on the beaches June 4 1940 call to United States to enter the war Involvement in 1939 Cash and Carry program US doesn t enter until December 1941 Dunkirk evacuation June 4 1940 French people want to move away from the Nazis chaos in the streets ltaly enters the war on June 10 Germans in Paris on June 14 France surrenders on June 17 Charles De Gaulle flees France for London wartime speeches at BBC Radio overwhelmedby the tactics of the enemy wrote multiple books in interwar period wanted to build troops and rework war tactics gov t committed to Maginot Line instead Occupied France PM Reynaud became PM on March 21 only lasted 3 months elevated Charles de Gaulle to General not an appeaser steps down Reynaud in minority favor of combining with England Phillipe Petain takes his place Petain openly willing to cooperate with the Nazis wanted to avoid as much damage as possible from the Nazis Churchill Finest Hour speech June 18 Hitler ordered railway car where Germany surrendered to France where he wanted French to surrender left on display in Berlin Split into zones Coastal Military zone entry prohibited staging areas for invasion of Great Britain Vichy France collaborationist government governed by Petain from city of Vichy indirect rule by Germany unoccupied by the Nazis less important militarily Germany retakes AlsaceLorraine Lots of governments in exile in London Charles de Gaulle governing France in exile Churchill has all of these governments in his face making plans for post war French Imperial troops troops guarding empire and mandates many troops naval ships and equipment terms of surrender were to disband army and turn over equipment to Germans active strategy by de Gaulle failed Free French movement De Gaulle wanted a Free French army resisters in France establish a fourth republic after the war reformulate France all together imagined a democratic government after the war selfappointed authoritarian leader during the war calls for return to tradition French revolution ideals of liberty and fraternity Resistance movements spike in 1941 Germany turned on the Soviet Union breaking of the Nazi Soviet Pact Socialists become activated as resistance de Gaulle rules from Algeria when North Africa was liberated mistrust of De Gaulle FDR and Churchill didn t like him didn t tell him about Operation Overlord until hours before Eisenhower didn t want to liberate Paris but de Gaulle did Hitler turns his eyes to England part of a bigger plan made peace approaches would not surrender needs to deal with England before the Soviet Union already has full plans to invade Soviets planned since 1939 full articulation of plan by May 1941 wanted to conquer England by then certain obstacles for invading England had to adjust Blitzkrieg plan Operation Sea Lionquot launch an amphibious assault wanted to gain air superiority figured it would take 4 days to wipe out Royal Air Force Radar detection towers on the east coast of Britain know when planes are coming RAF less experienced than Luftwaffe some had experience back to the Spanish Civil War extended estimate Admiral Rater s Germany confidence hurt lost confidence after attack on Narvik delayed invasion didn t feel he had enough equipment to invade England Enigma machine 1920 s Polish agents stole it and duplicated it worked to decode messages Ultra communications WWII in Europe Week of 33 33 Plane spotters Women in the war effort crucial agricultural work plane spotting factory work Women s Auxiliary Air Force keep track of plane movements supply and transport planes Battle of Britain 19401942 most intense period of German bombing of England first limited their targets to military Hitler believed he could wipe out RAF in four days attacking air bases and fighters on the ground shift of strategy retaliation England launched successful raid on Berlin September 7 bombing of London began Hitler realized not possible to knock out the RAF that quickly mild relief for command of RAF unsure how much longer they could39ve hold out September 13 RAF launched successful attack on German buildup of landing craft at French coast near Dunkirk Germans believe they are on the verge of air superiority planned naval attack with troops following RAF sunk 84 barges sunk 104 the next day devastating to German navy postpone invasion of England Luftwaffe ramping up attacks on British cities wanted to break the morale of the population indirect military effect dehouse 25 of workers shut down industrial production proved impossible German fighters had limited time over Britain range British fighters had the edge home field advantage more range and assistance from the ground 300000 British casualties in Battle of Britain 60000 dead 30000 in London counterintelligence Operation DoubleCross German spies and agents in Britain planned to turn them into doubleagents feed bad information back into Germany able to round up every single German spy September 1940 Tripartite Pact Germany Italy and Japan purpose was to assist one another in economic and military means defend against the United States suspect US will eventually enter the war tensions between Japan and United States mounting domination of the Pacific Battle of Britain ended in November 1940 Bodeker raids Germans attacking land marks World at War documentary Chapter 4 Alone 194041 35 Battle of Britain 1940 Italy declares war on Great Britain takes immediate action Italy desires more landholdings around the Mediterranean and in Africa modern reestablishment of the new Roman Empirequot June 11 Mussolini orders army in Libya to make advances toward British controlled Egypt defeated by a much smaller British force Hitler compelled to help out his ally Churchill elected to reinforce Greece and Crete instead of Africa ltaly attacks reinforced by Germany defeats British North Africa 194043 Erwin Desert Fox Rommel launches attacks in 1941 General Bernard Montgomery for the British back and forth fighting Invasion of the Soviet Union Hitler planning to invade Soviet Union before NaziSoviet Pact never intended on fulfilling pact planned to invade May 15 delayed by turmoil in Yugoslavia terrorist group bankrolled by Fascists Ustachi March 1941 signed Tripartite Pact triggers espionage agents from Great Britain instigated an uprising were able to establish only some control Josip Broz Tito Operation Barbarossa reference to a crusader delayed until June 1941 Stalin should have known something was up Germany became more cold towards them upset Germany established relations with Finland Great Britain and United States warning of impending invasion Stalin went into denial Soviet Union has a massive army Germany had a 32 million strong army estimated he would be done by October 2000 aircraft destroyed in a week killed 500000 in 2 weeks outran supply lines soldiers told to fend for themselves Soviet citizens were treated worse than anyone towards the west planned to use the area as Lebensraum enormous number taken prisoner 97 died large resistance network organized by Stalin believed the West would invade became paranoid ended up regarding as potential threat Fall 1941 Belarus and Ukraine under Nazi control moving towards Moscow lots of partisan activity government would eventually take an active hand in helping partisans progress slowed down October winter sets in cold rain gt mud German armor gets stuck generals wanted to stop until spring Hitler said no Soviets brought in troops from the east to reinforce Moscow Stalin anticipated attack from Japan to the east Germans not equipped for Winter don t have enough food or winter clothes German prisoners met with same standards as Germans Soviets regain some territory in December war declared on the United States Recitation notes Segregation imposed by the nazi regime Klemperer and Kaplan limits The final solution nanced plans of carrying it out it was followed through Were Jewish people passive sufferers WWII in Europe 319 AntiSemitism Hitler not alone in blaming Jews Sentiment echoed overseas HS Chamberlain and Henry Ford Jewish people had brief legal equality under Napoleonic Code spiked after 1917 People associated Jews with Communism associated with the Stab in the back theory scientific racism between classes difference between races white and nonwhite used to justify racism Social Darwinism Scott progress through spontaneous competition Hitler didn t believe in western idea of progress believed one race fit other race not fit identify and plan drive to endgame Aryans culture creators lebensborn Slavs culture bearers Semitics culture destroyers quotmarriage loan 10000 marks loan for Aryan couple upon marriage forgiven by 25 for every healthy child brought Slavic women who appeared Nordic for breeding purposes Final Solution Hitler encouraged Jewish people to leave Germany 1932 600000 Jewish people lived in Germany 1939 only about 275000 people left 1945 about 25000 surviving Jews Dachau Dec 8 1941 first death camp Wannsee Conference Jan 20 1942 Final Solution WWII in Europe 324 324 Lebensraum Hitler had very specific plans for Poland and Soviet Union expand Aryan people at expense of Slavs destroy cities of Kiev Leningrad and Moscow use areas for agriculture small towns in the area instead SS Originally Hitler s bodyguards offshoot of the SA Death s Head Corps trained at Dachau lead by Theodor Eicke established in 1935 Eugenics 70000 people killed after 1933 killings took place in hospitals medical profession first to be Nazified got some kind of response T4 Project intensification of this program at one specific location Tiergartenstrasse in Berlin short 19391941 experiment with different methods of killing Zyklon B Extermination camp Chelmno first camp Treblinka Belzec Sobibor Auschwitz Hunger Plan Ost differing resistance in the West and East policy was to eliminate population to the East Soviet POWs Slavs did not want to wipe out West considered them closer to Aryans Warsaw Ghetto neighborhoods where people chose to live together WWII in Europe 331 and 42 331 Film Come and See Life under Stalinist regime What is going on in the Soviet Union towards the end of the war Stalinist propaganda Nazi attrocities help explain actions of partisans move children out of danger Info about the final exam Thursday 8301020 Imposition of Nazi power and resistance differs between east and west Soviet Union not completely conquered by Germany France completely conquered not all occupied unoccupied territory governed by collaborationist Vichy gov t led by Phillippe Petan had to get approval from Germany for major decisions de Gaulle building up French nationalism resistance portrayed romantically only around 2 part of resistance most collaborationists twoway dynamic not as harsh against the French as they were against other Hitler ordered to destroy people in Poland and east order not given against France held Mussolini back from destroying France wanted to be on the side of the victor looked like Germany would win the war wants to gain territory allow France to gain some of Britain s empire way to shield French citizens from German atrocities not a particularly good argument Berlin took advantage of the French economy took indemnities extracting wealth and resources rounding up Jewish people in France Vichy police especially enthusiastic justified it by saying they are not French protecting French Jewish people by sending German Jewish people back to Germany not true rounding up all Jews de Gaulle leading the resistance from London many smaller groups of resistance Chambonsur Lignon small town in south east of France took in about 5000 Jewish children during war had them pose as own children England at war but never invaded Churchill authorized Special Operations Executive SOE organization point for resistance in England reach out to those who resisted around Europe units with the purpose of training partisans headed by person with code name M NKVD OSS Operation Anthropoid Benes gave Churchill thumbs up aim to assassinate Reinhardt Heydrich Hitler s favorite and number 2 head of administration of Czechoslovakia 2 Czechoslovakian assassins set out trained by SOE in England positioned selves on road to Prague managed to lob a bomb at Heydrich wounded him but not badly asssassins hid but were betrayed by SOE agent wound became infected died a few days later Hitler ordered their village wiped out killed everyone except for younger and older women bulldozed town managed to kill everyone even those not in village at time 42 Final similar to Mid term Essay comprehensive ld postmidterm more ambitious connect pairs North Africa Mussolini rebuild the Roman Empire impacts the relationship between him and Hitler Mussolini screws up and Hitler goes to save him 1940 Italy invades Egypt bogged down in a few weeks turned attention to Greece at that point England was sending many more troops to North Africa Hitler sent Erwin Rommel in February 1941 NovDec 1941 Fighting continuing Britain not doing great United States enters the war one of the first places US troops reinforce British Following Pearl Harbor Churchill meets with FDR in Washington talk about the postwar world Atlantic Charter United States fill Greenland Gap with ships reminiscent of 14 points signed before United States enters the war Jan 1942 Declaration of a United Nations solid and specific proposal for postwar world began UN after the war counter to the Nazi proposal signed by 26 nations groundwork for military strategy US immediate crosschannel invasion Churchill said no worried about fighting in France didn t want more trench warfare did not want destruction similar to the Soviet Union proposed an attack from the south soft underbelly can t settle on what attacks to make decide US should enter the war in North Africa Oct 1942 Montgomery ready to launch his attack Attacked from the east wanted to be able to overpower Rommel massive buildup Great Britain lost tanks much faster but AngloAmerican forces landed in Algeria Vichy French forces occupied area surrendered quickly to invaders Darlan High Vichy official in France 2nd in command to Petan called ceasefire put in charge of French North Africa assassinated in December Allies installed Giraud more credible than Darlan not a collaborator Foundation to push eastward Nazis surrendered on May 14 1943 Victory important for territory resources and base for launching attacks into ltaly Obvious their next attack will be in Sicily expected stiff resistance Captain Bill Martin of the Royal Marines man who never was diversion engineered by Ian Fleming at Ml5 divert the Nazis from Sicily plant false plans Operation Mincemeat plant plans on a body of an officer stage as a plane crash at sea set adrift of the coast of Spain found a few hours later showed invasion would go through Sardinia Allies able to land men and equipment on Sicily for two weeks before Nazis took it seriously WWII in Europe 47 and 49 47 19421943 Spring 1943 Battle of the Atlantic decided in favor of Allies closing various gaps Portugal changed policy allowing allies in their sea territory Allies made many technological advances Radar Hitler beginning to quotlose itquot physically worn down dependent on his physician no longer the strong confident Hitler from Nazi propaganda spent lots of time ranting on different topics obsession with the opera loss in Russia undermines his view of postwar world goes to the heart of his Lebensraum plan Russian front Siege of Leningrad September 1941 November 1942 starved the city rather than attacked Hitler obsessed due to the names strategically important important for Hitler s post war plan intended to level the city Moscow Counterattack in December 1941 Stalemate in the Soviet Union Losses are enormous more than all other allies combined most German resources are committed to the Russian front Stalingrad began in August 1942 until February 1943 all out attack on the city not militarily important had more to do with its symbolic value fighting block by block and building by building Soviet Partisans organized smaller groups Storm troops dispatched through city to fight and hold building made up of combination of Red Army and partisans end of December German defeat imminent Russian production capacity increased in 1942 halt production move factories east of Urals now able to supply troops tank production stepped up T 34 crucial for Russian victory 65000 produced over the course of the war General Paulus taken prisoner Germans surrendered on Feb 1 90000100000 Germans taken prisoner only about 5 survived Easier for Russia to find people to put in the field Battle of Kursk Summer 1943 Hitler worried Kursk to be a launch point for further Soviet offensives both sides wanted to resupply Soviets learned about the German operation Citadel built up major defenses antitank guns mines trenches in response Germany improve tanks improved on Mark V Panther Mark Vl Tiger Ferdinand artillery piece disguised as a tank Red Army had 3200 tanks T 34 reliable easy to fix Germans had 25002700 tanks second week of July Hitler called a halt during Allied invasion of Sicily January 1944 Soviet army pushing into Poland Soviets from the east Allies from the west West Fighting in North Africa fighting in ltaly Aerial war September 1939 FDR called upon everyone to avoid firebombing of civilians Chamberlain agreed and Churchill temporarily agreed Churchill maintained position until the Battle of Britain began 1940 British bomb Berlin way to win the war absolutely devastating exterminating bombing attack Approaches to bombing bombing of only military targets precision bombing with some civilian collateral damage technologically impossible only 3 out of every 100 bombs came within 57 miles of target carpet bombingquot Mortality rate of bomber crews not unusual to have more personnel killed than those on the ground not worth it to attempt precision bombing United States entered the war believed precision bombing still best way Sir Arthur Harris new leader of RAF firm believer in carpet bombing bombed historic towns on the German coast Rostock and Lubeck most buildings made of wood went up in flames get some good results get money for RAF from Parliament real turn in philosophy 49 Radar capacity increases allows for bombing further inland bombings of Cologne and Nuremburg US came in the war with ideals limit civilian casualties bomb only military targets highly successful daylight bombing raids in Germany Schweinfurt and Regensburg after those experiences committed to precision bombing Harris RAF managed to destroy 20000 houses and kill 200000 Germans in Cologne Dehouse left many people homeless terror bombing destroy morale of people of urban centers actually increased the resolve Churchill and FDR at Casablanca come together on bombing strategy set up the CBO Combined Bomber Offensive statement of intent drafted by 3 American generals primary objective increased destruction of military and economic centers and weakening morale of German people Harris changed wording undermine morale of German people JulyAug 1943 Operation Gomorrah Firebombing of Hamburg massive bombing runs more than 700 bombers on each run created quotcolumn of fire 15 miles long first to be carried out with a new radar deflection mechanism Operation Window strips of tin foil reflected radar Baedeker Raids Canterbury Exeter Bath German retaliation for raids on Lubeck and Rostock revenge makes the bombings of cities more and more destructive 1944 Big Week concentrated attack on factories producing items for Luftwaffe drop off on German production of planes Germans experimenting with Jet propulsion Jet Fighters Hitler said was a terrible idea New plane for Allies P51 Mustang start building end of 1943 Bombing of Oil fields in preparation of DDay cut German production of fuel drastically Bombing of Dresden February 1945 have the practice of firebombing down to a science now highimpact bombs Blockbusters intended to destroy underground second explosive 4 hours later lots of refugees high death toll WWII in Europe 414 and 416 414 PreD Day Stalin getting antsy starting to think Western allies letting Soviet Union bleed itself dry enemy pre and post war enemy of Communism demands a crosschannel invasion planning limited record of invasions North Africa Sicily Anzio little experience attacking fortified beaches only experience Dieppe 1942 used as background needed better air support intelligence vehicles port make a bigger invasion Hitler becoming unravelled Germans suffered large losses in North Africa and Eastern Front lost many as POWs believes East is a lost cause diplomatic approaches break apart East and West alliance approach US and Great Britain team up against Soviet Union bulwark against communism has to brace for invasion from the West Allies only 500 km from German industrial heartland 1000 km from Berlin poses bigger immediate threat than losses in Russia US vastly increasing human resources US Army strength 1940 170000 men 1943 7200000 men and women includes Air Corps industrial goods being produced at a high rate reorganization of domestic economy November 1943 Churchill FDR and Stalin met at Teheran coordinate military actions appoint Eisenhower as leader of AngloAmerican forces Stalin retains his autonomy Hitler concerned recommitting resources to France change in strategy no longer Blitzkrieg Hitler s preferred tactic no longer had the resources Operation Sea Lion cancelled gone back to a defensive stance adjusted Maginot Line Atlantic Wall didn t know where the invasion was coming had to build up all of Normandy coast limited its effectiveness thousands of mines manned by young sickly old troops from conquered territories not physically capable inexperienced or not committed to the cause Operation Overlord huge buildup in England of American forces equipment better suited for invasion Higgins Landing Craft produced 23300 of them Landing Ship Tank Tanks specially outfitted quotHobart s Funnies equipped with chains explode mines before tank gets there Mulberries build their own ports better intelligence used DoubleCross used British holiday pictures special camera set up barge across the channel in the middle of the night send across during a lightning storm attack supposed to come in May delayed until June by end of June over 1 million men in France take Cherbourg move southward and eastward context of Valkyrie plot in July outburst of French resistance De Gaulle wanted to liberate Paris Eisenhower didn t care liberation on Aug 25 1944 Fall 1944 FDR campaigning for reelection Moscow conference Churchill met with Stalin Percentages Agreement dividing up the postwar world Battle of the Bulge Dec 1944 Jan 1945 shape of front line February 1945 France liberated Rheinland Campaign Feb Mar 1945 George Patton Soviet troops moving from the East meet at Berlin AngloAmerican forces must push into Germany Germany become fully Soviet occupied territory West should control part of Germany Yalta Conference FDR Stalin Churchill FDR American idealism and optimism Declaration on Liberated Europe promised after liberation people in different territories would choose their government point of contention Berlin 1945 brutal fighting fought street to street 416 Germany s Surrender Goering surrendered to the allies on May 8 Considered Victory in Europe VE Day Unconditional surrender 5 Ds of PostWar Germany Denazification Hitler and co took society and conformed it to Hitler s will through propaganda one of the hardest things to deal with ingrained propaganda films made about German atrocities rebuild German identity Demilitarization Germany premier military power in central Europe limited size of Wehrmacht gutted Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe Germany could not be a military threat to W European powers in the near future Democratization Decentralization Authoritarian movements needed centralization takes power out of Berlin Disassemny of industrialized Germany Henry Morgenthau not as much as the first war get rid of war economics things that allowed them to become a great military power would be inaccessible Nuremberg Trials Europe never experienced anything close to the Holocaust before not prepared to deal with perpetrators quotHow do we hold them accountable lMTs tried 22 highest ranking Germany officials 4 major allies presiding and prosecutors Chief Colonel Jeffrey Lawrence lead convict them of Crimes against Humanity World Court 12 sentenced to death 7 sentenced to life in prison 3 acquitted 2 had charges dropped Robert Ley committed suicide weeks after trial started Albert Speer only Nazi to take personal responsibility and express remorse wanted to get justice not look like tribunal is a sham created idea that an international court should be established more war crimes trials across Europe went unevenly Belgium France Soviet Union Poland Jews Holocaust survivors not happy about staying in Europe UN approved Partition Plan for Israel Palestinians who lived there unhappy tensions were high 14 May 1948 Britain ended mandate Jewish people settled areas around Jerusalem violence ensued Re building Europe Marshall Plan European Recovery Plan Economic stimulus package 13 billion to governments of 18 European countries distributed on a per capita basis UK received about 25 France 20 Germany 10 presided over by Americans reboot European production get factories back online European currency wouldn t bottom out like in WWI bring Europe back to a point where they would buy American goods and pay off their debt fight communism Potsdam Convention Harry Truman president at this point talked about War in the Pacific Atomic bomb fully developed been in the works since the beginning of the war not just being worked on in the United States made in America far enough away from the war to be secure Germany dabbled in building a bomb Summer 1945 US managed to test a bomb Soviets entered war days after United States dropped atomic bomb Final Japanese surrender on September 2 1945 VJ Day
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