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C OF C / Biology / BIOL 112 / What is the common name for mosses liverworts and hornworts?

What is the common name for mosses liverworts and hornworts?

What is the common name for mosses liverworts and hornworts?

Description

School: College of Charleston
Department: Biology
Course: Evol, Form, and Func of Organisms
Professor: Bidwell
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study guide
Description: this cover what may be on exam 2
Uploaded: 02/14/2017
4 Pages 71 Views 1 Unlocks
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Biology Study Guide on Plants- form and function


What is the common name for mosses liverworts and hornworts?



1. A term used to refer collectively to the hornworts, liverworts, and  mosses. All three are simple with no roots, stems, and leaves, and little or no vascular tissue is known as Non vascular plants.

2. (Ex: ferns, horsetails, gymnosperms, angiosperms) have tissues made  of cells that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant. These  are known as Vascular plants. 

3. What is the structural adaptation that differentiated gymnosperms and  angiosperms from other plants? Gymnosperms and angiosperms  produce seeds, through cones and flowers respectively.

4. How are angiosperms classified? Monocots and eudicots 5. Monocots have  

a. One cotyledon

b. Veins in leaf run parallel


What is the structural adaptation that differentiated gymnosperms and angiosperms from other plants?



c. Flower parts in multiple of 3s  

d. Primary vascular bundle in stems are scattered

6. Eudicots

a. Two cotyledons

b. Veins in leaves net-like

c. Primary vascular bundles in stem are in rings

7. What are dicots? Dicots are used to call eudicots “dicots”, but genetic  data showed it was an incorrect grouping because of the phylogenetic  tree shows dicots are not natural grouping.

8. The equivalent of stem cells; undifferentiated cells where cell division  occurs is known as apical meristems 

9. Some plants can dedifferentiate and return to totipotency 10. What makes up to 90% of the plants volume and is essential for  keeping plant upright and for growth? Vacuoles  


How are angiosperms classified?



If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of gel electrophoresis in genes?

11. Rigid; cells cant move around; has implications for how plant can grow is known as Cell Wall.

12. What happens during the initial steps of embryogenesis? The  zygote divided through mitosis

13. What happens in the end of embryogenesis?  

a. The apical-basal axis is established  

b. The radial axis is established  

c. The root & shoot apical meristems are established  

d. Some of the plant tissues have begun to differentiate  14. Difference between animal vs plant cells?

a. Plant cells have cell wall of cellulose  

b. Centrioles only present in lower plant forms rather than all like in  animal cells

c. Plant cells have plastids, animal cells don’t

d. Lysosomes usually not evident in plant cells

e. Cilia is very rare in plant cells

15. What is respiration? Using energy from molecular bonds in  sugars, fats or proteins to make ATP.

16. Photosynthesis is the process by which plant can make  the biomolecules (fats, sugars, proteins) that eventually feed  into cellular respiration  Don't forget about the age old question of What should you do if an agency tells you a record is not public?

17. What are the 3 main cell types of plants? Parenchyma,  collenchyma, sclerenchyma

18. Parenchyma- majority of cells in plants, totipotent,  metabolically active, important for storage & photosynthesis 19. Collenchyma- alive when mature, cell walls are thickened at  corners, found at bases of leaves & nonwoody stems, flexible support 20. Sclerenchyma- thickened secondary cell walls, major  fuction=support, mainly performs functions after death, two types:  fibers and sclereids

21. What are the three types of tissue systems found in  plants? Dermal-forms outer covering of plant (epidermis) & usually  consists of a single cell layer, Vascular- plumbing; transports water &  nutrients from production site/intake to where needed, & ground- most  of plant body; storage support and photosynthesis.

22. Xylem- vascular cells that transport water and mineral ions from roots to rest of the plants

a. Formed from sclerenchyma cells

b. Dead when mature  

c. Thick cell walls

23. The conducting cells that xylem contains which undergo  programmed cell death are called tracheary elements 24. What are the 2 types of xylems cells? Tracheids & vessel  elements Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of the big bang?

a. Connects via pits in cell walls  

b. Connect end to end

25. Pholem- vascular cells that transport carbohydrates from sites of  production to sites of use or storage

26. What are the organs of a plant? Leaves, roots, stems, flowers 27. Pericycle – lateral roots arise from here

28. Root in eudicots have xylem arranged in “x” formation; roots in  monocots have xylem arranged in a ring  

29. “middle of leaf”; parenchyma cells; photosynthetic is known as  mesophyll

30. What are the two types of mesophyll? Palisade and spongy 31. Stomata – modified epidermal cells which open & close for gas  exchange/prevent water loss

32. Plants grow in what ways?  

a. Plants make more cells through cell division

i. Meristem makes more cells

b. Cells expand through cell elongation/expansion

i. All subsequent growth

ii. Can expand 1,000-1,000,000

33. Meristem – cells that remain totipotent, clustered in specific  regions

34. Indeterminant growth – some parts of a plant can grow  throughout lifespan (shoots & roots)  

35. Primary growth? In apical & root meristems; makes plant taller  and longer Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of a gerontologic nurse generalist?

36. Secondary growth? In lateral meristems; makes plants  thicker/wider

a. Vascular cambium & cork cambium

37. What protects root apical meristem? Root cap

38. What plants develop a secondary plant body? Woody plants 39. What stage of cell development occurs at the zone of elongation  in the root? Cell differentiation

40. Vascular cambium- 1 of 2 lateral meristems  

a. Makes new xylem & new phloem

41. What is heartwood & sapwood? Oldest xylem gets clogged, anti rot resins get laid down-heartwood.

42. Where is the cork cambium? Near the perimeter of the stem;  produces waxy-walled protective cells We also discuss several other topics like What did thomas hobbes study at oxford?

43. What is the term used to describe the ability of genetically  identical plants to change form based on its environment? Phenotypic  plasticity  

44. What is the function of the dermal system? It separates the  outside world from the inside, controls the amount of water loss, and  minimizes diseases.  

45. Why can plants continue to grow for their entire lifespans? Plants have meristems, which are tissues with cells that remain able to divide  by mitosis to produce new cells that have the ability the differentiate  into specialized cells.  

46. What are some of the downfalls of the biological species  concept? It is hard to use for asexual species and fossils. Biologists  much guess when deciding if species that are geographically isolated  would be able to reproduce

47. What are some of the limitations o the morphospecies concept?  It doesn’t catch cryptic species or polymorphic species. Some species  may not interbreed even though they look identical.  If you want to learn more check out When did the iranian revolution start?

Vocabulary

1. Allopatric speciation- speciation that occurs when populations of the  same species become geographically isolated, often due to dispersal or vicariance.

2. Allopolyploid speciation- the process when organisms contain two or  more sets of chromosomes that are from a different species. The  offspring has the genetic make-up of two different species which  

makes it a hybrid. Resulting in the creation of a new species 3. Anchor root- root whose main function is to hold the plant in place in  the soil

4. Annual- referring to a plant whose life cycle normally lasts only one  growing season- less than one year. Perennial- describing a plant  whose life cycle normally lasts for more than one year.

5. Autopolyploid speciation- the state of having more than two full sets  chromosomes due to mutation that doubled the chromosome number.  All chromosomes come from same species

6. Axillary bud- a bud that forms at node and may develop into a lateral  (side) branch. Apical bud- a bud at the tip of a stem or branch, where  growth occurs to lengthen the stem or branch

7. Bark-the protective outer layer of woody plants, composed of cork  cells, cork cambium and secondary phloem

8. Biological species concept- the definition of a species as a population  or group of populations that are reproductively isolated from other  groups. Members of a species have the potential to interbreed in  nature to produce viable, fertile offspring but cant interbreed  successfully with other species

9. Casparian strip- is the band of cell wall material deposited in radial and transverse walls of the endodermis, and is chemically different from  the rest of the cell wall

10. Chloroplast- a chlorophyll-containing organelle, bounded by a  double membrane. Found in plants and algae

11. Companion cell- in plants, a cell in the phloem that is connected  via many plasmodesmata to adjacent sieve-tube elements. They  provide materials to maintain sieve-tube elements and function in the  loading and unloading of sugars into the elements

12. cork- a cell in the protective outer most layer of a woody stem  and root that produces and accumulates waxes that make the cell less  permeable to water and gases

13. cortex- in plants, it’s the ground tissue found outside the  vascular bundles of roots and outside the pith of the stem

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