1 PSY430 Biological Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Introduction and Philosophy 1. What is the mind-body problem? a. Philosophical Question: How does mental stuff (mind) interact with physical (brain)? What is the relationship between between the mind and brain? Is there a correlation? If you want to learn more check out If the company has a marginal tax rate of 40%, what was its net income for last year?
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Are they separate or the same? b. Stimulus ???? Selection ???? Interpretation (Bottom-up processing) c. Interpretation ???? Selection ???? Stimulus (Top-down processing) 2. Dualism vs. monism a. Dualism: both exist b. Monism: only one exists i. Physicalism: MATTER > mind ii. Idealism: matter < MIND iii. Neutral Monism: 3rd SUBSTANCE > Matter & Mind iv. Most monists believe in the idea that everything is physical (materialism) v. Mind-body identity theory: the mind is the brain/ brain states 3. Descartes’ perspective on the mind-body problem a. Substance Dualism (Cartesian): there are two kinds of substances in the world – physical (brain) and mental (mind, has thought and feeling) b. What is substance dualism? i. Physical events like light and sound are able to induce thoughts ii. Thoughts are able to produce actions which affect the world iii. Pineal gland: the location where mental and physical stuff interacts iv. System worked like a hydraulic pump –body contained tubes fluid-filled tubes attached to pineal gland History 1. Holism vs. Localizationism (who did what and support which idea) a. Holism: entire brain i. Pierre Flourens (1821) ii. Demonstrated that the main divisions of the brain were responsible for different functions – but could not locate any specific area for higher cognition such as memory 1. Localized lesions of the brain in rabbits and pigeons (living) 2. Removed the cerebellum >> resulted in loss of sense of balance or motor coordination 3. Remove brainstem – death b. Localizationism: specific brain areas i. Franz Joseph Gall (1781): Phrenology: analysis of shape and lumps of skull would reveal person’s personality and intellect, each area is for a particular intellect ii. Bouillaud (1825): frontal lesions resulted in speech loss iii. Marc Dax (1836): had an aphasia patient which was similar to Broca’s finding 2. Flourens’ experiment (findings, supported which perspective, criticisms on method) a. Flourens supported Holism and demonstrated that the main divisions of the brain were responsible for different functions however he could not find specific area for higher cognition like memory 1. Localized lesions of the brain in rabbits and pigeons (living) 2. Removed the cerebellum >> resulted in loss of sense of balance or motor coordination 3. Remove brainstem – death 3. Broca and Wernicke’s findings a. Carl Wernicke (1874): damage to the left posterior, superior temporal gyrus which resulted in language comprehension deficits, Wernicke area: language comprehension b. Paul Broca (1861): localized brain area for speech production, he had patient Leborgne, ‘Tan’, lesion in the frontal lobe of left cerebral hemisphere, Broca area: language production 4. Broadmann’s cytoarchitectonic map a. Korbinian Broadmann (1909): cytoarchitectonic map of brain which is a map of the brain divided into 52 areas based on the cellular appearance 5. Visualizing neurons (who did what) a. Camillo Golgi (1843 – 1956): silver staining tissue slices b. Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852 – 1934): observed and illustrated neural cells, neuron doctrine (brain Is made of neurons and neurons communicate, synapse) c. Both had shared Nobel Prize in 1906 Method 1. Brain lesion method, human cases, general procedure on animal a. Deficit-lesion method for studying brain functions b. Human lesion studies: studying behavior or task performance of patients with brain damage, determining the site of damage in post-mortem analysis, acquired brain damage due to head injury, stroke, drug or alcohol use, and surgery, not under control of the experimenter, usually are single-case or group studies c. Phineas Gage: 19th century railroad construction foreman, had an accident where iron rod went through his head, it destroyed most of his frontal lobe, produced effects on personality and behavior, friends said he was no longer the person they used to know2 d. Inducing damage in animals like rats in a specific area e. Operating on rats with stereotaxic instrument: the rat is anesthetized and is place in instrument and held in place, the stereotaxic atlas is used to find brain area, hole is drilled in specific area, an electrode is but into brain at certain depth, high level of electricity used to damage part of the brain around tip of electrode f. After lesion: recovery period, test rats in tasks, compare performance to control group, if lesioned group performs differently from controls, it is then assumed that the lesioned brain area used for that task g. Logic: If function x is disrupted by lesion to brain region y then brain region y supports function x. 2. Single dissociation, double dissociation a. Single dissociation: patient with damage to area X is impaired in function A but not function B b. Double dissociation: patient w/ damage to area X is impaired in function A but not function B, Patient with damage to area Y is impaired in function B but not function A 3. Limitation of lesion studies a. Problems i. Variability in patients, e.g., IQ differences, age ii. Variability in lesion iii. Correlational in human studies iv. Using results from animals to infer about humans b. Possible solutions i. Group studies to control for IQ, age, etc. ii. Lesion overlap across patients – lesion venn diagram c. More problems i. Is a brain region critical for a specific function? ii. Split-brain patients: severing the corpus callosum leads to certain cognitive impairments, but it is not the corpus callosum that carries out these functions iii. Like sitting on a two legged stool iv. Function not of area x but of brain without area x 4. Electrical and chemical stimulations a. Chemical stimulation of brain: Some psychologically active medications (anesthetics, antianxiety medications), recreational drugs (nicotine in tobacco, heroin, cocaine), more used in animal studies b. Electrical stimulation in animals such as DBS and use of electrodes 5. Deep brain stimulation in human a. Used for epilepsy, depression (brain pacemaker), Parkinson’s for treatment of symptoms (e.g. tremor treatment) 6. Magnetic stimulation (TMS technique) a. Application of an intense magnetic field to a portion of the scalp (TMS or Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) b. Temporarily inactivates neurons 7. Single and multiple unit recording (general procedure similarities and differences among animal lesion, electrical stimulation, and single/multiple unit recording) a. Stereotaxic Surgery b. Electrophysiological Signal: action potential and seen when recording a neuron c. Determining receptive fields i. Receptive field is area of space in which a neuron can be influenced (maximally) d. Multiple recording of a population of neurons in hippocampus during spatial navigation and making new memories???? small group e. Done in nonhuman animals, but does it generalize to humans? f. How do workings of a few neurons relate to macroscopic/population level? Multiple-unit recording, e.g., 100+ neurons simultaneously 8. EEG and ERP a. EEG: large population of synchronous neural firing which produce electrical potentials i. Skull and scalp passively conduct signals that can be amplified and measured, stadium/microphone analogy (single voice and cheering crowd) ii. Important for studying sleep and diagnosing epilepsy and brain damage iii. Signature rhythms relate to state of arousal 1. Beta: alert, low amplitude, high frequency 2. Alpha: resting with eyes closed, high amplitude 3. Theta: deeply relaxed b. ERP (Event-Related Potential): analysis method for statistical comparison i. Pros: very good temporal resolution, specific physiological markers (components), e.g., N1 P3, etc. can be linked to certain cognitive processes ii. Cons: poor spatial resolution (~1cm), largely cortical, difficult to get at some brain regions – e.g. medial temporal lobes, subcortical structures 9. CAT / MRI / fMRI / MEG / EEG (based on what technology, detecting what signal, structural / functional, spatial and temporal resolution, pros and cons) (you will be asked to identify which technology is the most/least suitable for particular research purpose) a. CAT (structural): Large series of 2D x-ray slices combined by computer into 3D image, structural imaging, poor spatial resolution (0.5 to 1 cm and used to identify large structures) b. MRI (structural): quest for better resolution, brain coverage, require very strong magnet (1 Tesla = 10000 gauss, Earth’s magnetic field = 0.5 Gauss, 3 Tesla x 10000 = 0.5 = 60000 x earth’s magnetic field) i. Many organic elements are magnetic (H is most abundant in human body) ii. Proton spin around a give random axis iii. When placed in a magnetic field, protons become aligned in parallel iv. Very high spatial resolution (<1mm) c. FMRI (functional): shows brain activity, takes a pic every few seconds (pic slices) to see parts of brain which are engaged in activity, Blood Oxygen Level Dependent signal (BOLD) i. Low resolution (~3mm) and many images 3 ii. When neural activity goes up, blood flow goes up and concentration of H goes up so FMRI signal goes up iii. Pros: non-invasive, no radiation, can do multiple sessions w/ same subject, high spatial resolution, OK temporal resolution iv. Cons: expensive d. PET (functional): radioactive isotopes tracers, isotopes decay rapidly (~2 min half life), emit positrons, positrons collide with electrons, 2 photons are emitted, photons travel in opposite directions, allows location of collision to be determined, shows the distribution of blood flow (more blood flow, more radiation) i. Pros: track metabolic processes, possible early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease ii. Cons: invasive, radioactive isotopes, can only be administered limited number of times, limited spatial resolution (5-10 mm), real-time but highly limited temporal range, limited by the half life of the isotope used e. MEG (structural and functional): records magnetic fields naturally generated by neural brain activity, magnetic fields pass unaffected through brain tissue and skull, so it can be recorded outside of the head, magnetic fields are analyzed to find the location of the neuronal sources within the brain i. Clinical use: pre surgical evaluation of patient’s w/ epilepsy, identify focus of seizures ii. Pros: good spatial and temporal resolution and also tolerant towards movement iii. Cons: expensive, used in magnetic shielded room away from electrons, etc. Neurons and Neural Communication 1. Function and structure of each part of a neuron a. Function is to communicate from cell to cell, structure allows this through electrical current, chemical output from terminal bouton b. Cell body (soma, grey matter), dendrites (branch like extensions), axon hillock (signal begins), Myelin sheath (glia and white matter), synaptic terminals (boutons), synapse (terminal/dendrite) c. Dendrites: relation to neuron, post-synaptic, receive inputs from other neurons, most of the receptive surface, there are billions of neurons and connections d. Axon: extends from cell body, transmits signals to synapse, surrounded by myelin e. Myelin Sheath: Myelin acts as an electrical insulator for vertebrate nerve cells -Like insulation around wires, composes alternating layers of protein and lipid, faster conduction 10x, little loss of signal strength f. Terminal boutons: presynaptic terminals, inter-neuronal contact where release of chemicals occurs to communicate w/ other neurons, origin of neurotransmitter release g. 2. Glial cells and their functions a. Mechanical and metabolic support for neurons b. Control chemical transfer c. Protection: defend against virus d. Insulation: increase axonal conductance i. Astrocytes (absorb/release ions, remove waste, regulate nutrients and recycle glutamate) star-shaped, around axon terminal ii. Microglia (removes toxic material) very small, injured/damaged brain areas iii. Oligodendrocytes (for myelin sheath) few branches iv. Schwann cells (for myelin sheath) peripheral nervous system v. Radial glia: guides neuronal migration and development 3. Blood-brain barrier a. Neurons do not regenerate- critical for blood brain barrier to block viruses from coming in and other harmful material b. Immune system destroys damaged or infected cells in body c. Is a mechanism that surrounds the brain and blocks most chemicals from coming in d. Active transport – protein- mediated process that expends energy to pump chemicals from the blood into the brain (includes hormones, glucose, amino acids and vitamins which are brought into brain) e. Is essential to health, but creates difficulty in allowing chemotherapy chemicals for brain cancer to pass the barrier 4. A neuron at rest (ion concentration, electrical state) a. Polarized, inside a neuron: ~ -70 mV: negatively charged proteins and chloride ions inside b. Membrane of neurons is selectively permeable i. Free: oxygen, carbon dioxide, urea, water ii. Blocked: large ions and molecules iii. Sometimes: sodium potassium, calcium, and chloride4 iv. Voltage-gated ion channels v. When at rest: sodium channels are closed, potassium channel are closed, but leaky 5. Electrical gradient and concentration gradient a. Two natural forces b. Sodium (Na+) ions: into neurons i. Diffusion (b/c more Na+ outside so this pushes them into neuron) + electrical force (b/c negative charge inside neuron, this pushes Na+ into neuron) c. Potassium (K+) ions: a small flow out i. Diffusion (b/c more K+ inside, this pushes them out of neuron) – electrical force (b/c negative charge inside neuron, attracts K+ inside neuron) 6. Sodium-potassium pump a. To maintain a steady state or resting potential, pumps are used i. Protein complex ii. Pumping uses energy or ATP iii. 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in 7. Hyperpolarization / depolarization / threshold a. Hyperpolarization: negative change in the charge inside a neuron b. Depolarization positive change in the charge inside a neuron c. Threshold: the critical level to which the membrane potential must be depolarized in order to start an excitation of the neuron 8. Action potential (change in the membrane potential, movement of ions, channel open/close)5 9. Absolute and relative refractory period 10. All-or-none law a. Intensity of stimulus when pass threshold of 15 mv does not affect characteristics of an action potential b. Characteristics of action potential (amplitude, velocity, shape) i. Consistent for specific type of neuron ii. Vary among neurons c. How does neurons code the intensity of stimulus? i. By frequency and rhythm of excitation 11. Salutatory conduction a. Myelin sheath of axons are interrupted by short unmyelinated sections or nodes of Ranvier b. At each node of Ranvier, action potential is regenerated by chain of positively charged ion pushed along by the previous segment or portion 12. Benefits from myelin sheath a. Myelin sheath: electrical insulation i. Depolarization: occurs only at Nodes of Ranvier ii. Ion channels: cluster at Nodes of Ranvier iii. Action Potential: jumps from node to node iv. Benefit: increases speed and distance of Action Potential – more energy efficient b/c of localization of ion channels and Na+/K+ pumps 13. Synapse a. Functional junction that mediates information transfer between neurons or between neurons and effector cells i. Electrical: neurons that are electrically coupled via protein channels and allow for direct transfer of ions ii. Chemical: specialized for release and reception of chemical neurotransmitters (most synapses), the release point is the presynaptic membrane or terminal bouton, synaptic cleft, and to postsynaptic membrane 14. synaptic transmission (activity of neurotransmitter) a. 1. action potential arrives at terminal bouton: local depolarization voltage-gated open Ca2+ enters 2. NT vesicles bind to the presynaptic membrane 3. NT is released into Synaptic cleft/ called exocytosis 4. NT binds with receptor molecules: transmitter-gated b. Inactivate: broken down by enzyme/ reuptake: recycled by transporter proteins 15. postsynaptic potential (EPSP, IPSP) a. Neurotransmitters bind to postsynaptic membrane b. Graded potentials i. PSPs are small (0.5 – 5 mv) ii. EPSP (excitatory PSP, depolarization, NA+ channels open) iii. IPSP (inhibitory PSP, hyperpolarization, K+ or Cl- channel open) 16. temporal and spatial summation a. temporal summation i. repeated stimuli within a brief time have a cumulative effect ii. second comes before the first one ends iii. algebraically summates amplitude of the previous potential at the point where the second begins b. spatial summation i. synaptic inputs from separate locations combine their effects on a neuron ii. important for sensory inputs – PSPs are small 17. dopamine (function and two major pathways) a. type of neuron transmitter6 b. plays major role in cognition and behavior i. reward/motivation ii. learning: reinforcement and memory iii. executive control > ADHD iv. motor control > Parkinson’s disease c. major pathways i. synthesized in ventral tegmental area (VTA), released in nucleus accumbens (reward), frontal cortex (executive control), hippocampus (memory) ii. synthesized in substantia nigra released in striatum (motor) Neuroanatomy 1. law of specific nerve energies a. states that each sensory nerve has a specific sensation associated with it and that these specific sensations will occur no matter how the nerve is stimulated. b. All nerves produce same action potentials – Sherrington c. Sensation specificity of nerves vs. cortical regions i. Ear (sound), eye (light) ii. Depends on where in the brain the nerves connect iii. Localizationism 2. methods to make sense of the brain a. Phrenology b. Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area c. Cytoarchitectonic map d. Cartography of mind: brain maps i. Separate sensory maps (Vision (>30 areas): color, motion, depth, Audition, somatosensation ii. Cortical magnification: fovea >> periphery iii. Cognitive maps (memory – hippocampus for new memory, emotion – orbitofrontal cortex, pos vs. neg feelings) e. Ontogeny and phylogeny i. Increase in brain structural complexity (neocortex for consciousness, spatial reasoning, language, development from infant to adult, evolution from reptiles to humans) f. Comparative neuroanatomy and how complexity of sulci increased throughout evolution 3. terms for navigating the brain (e.g., dorsal/ventral, lateral/medial …) a. dorsal: above, medial: middle, anterior: front, posterior: back/tail, lateral: side, ventral: below b. horizontal, coronal (up and down), sagittal (front to back) c. contralateral (opposite side) and ipsilateral (same side) 4. CNS / PNS a. CNS/ Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord i. Spinal cord ???? hindbrain (pons, medulla, cerebellum)???? midbrain ???? forebrain (interbrain: thalamus and hypothalamus)????cerebrum (basal ganglia, limbic system: hippocampus, cerebral cortex: neocortex) b. PNS/ Peripheral nervous system i. Sensory system: sensory nerves (input/afferent) ii. Somatic nerve system: somatomotor (output/efferent) iii. Autonomic nervous system: sympathetic and parasympathetic (output) 5. Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems a. Sympathetic: hyper arousal, flight or fight, increase breathing, heart rate, decrease digestive activity b. Parasympathetic: vegetative, feed and breed, decrease breathing, heart rate, increase digestive activity, conserves energy 6. Spinal cord (dorsal and ventral roots, function, damage) a. Division of input/output: dorsal – input/sensory, ventral- output/motor b. PNS: sensory/motor and ganglia: cluster of neurons c. CNS: spinal cord d. Simple reflexes: little cognitive control/intervention e. Spinal cord injury: paralysis 7. Various structures of the brain (general location, function, consequence of damage): medulla, pons, cerebellum, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, substantia nigra, thalamus, hypothalamas, basal ganglia, hippocampus, cortex a. Hindbrain i. Medulla: Continuous w/ spinal cord, cranial nerves (from the brain), function: somatosensation, crossing of somatosensory fibers, controls many vital functions like respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, reflex, Damage: fatal, opiates suppress medulla activity ii. Pons: bridge, superior to medulla and main connection between cerebrum and cerebellum, crossing of motor fibers: contralateral control, function: diverse like eye movement, balance, sleep/wake, REM sleep, dreaming, Damage: impaired sense of balance iii. Cerebellum: little brain, cortical layers 3, purkinje cells, function: maintenance of balance, movement control, motor learning, walking, speech, piano playing, ipsilateral control, higher cognitive function such as attention control and timing b. Midbrain: i. Structure/function: inferior colliculus ????sound localization, reflexive orienting to sounds, superior colliculus ???? orienting to visual events foveation, substantia nigra ???? dopamine projection to subcortical motor system, damage ???? impairments in vision, audition, motion c. Interbrain i. Thalamus: subcortical nuclei, sensory gateway to cortex, everyday sensory modality, auditory and vision except olfaction, Cortico thalamic feedback: from same cortical areas like focusing attention, visual cortex -> lateral geniculate, function: tune sensory 7 transmission, switchboard of info., sleep/wake cycle, consciousness and awareness, Damage: depends on the nuclei, impairment in sensory, motor, memory, coma, similar to cortical projection sites ii. Hypothalamus: ventral to thalamus, controls autonomic nervous system, endocrine function: hormone release, function: homeostasis, regulation of eating, drinking, activity level, flight or fight, light-dark cycle, Damage: disruptions in growth, water balance, milk production, sleep cycle d. Cerebrum i. Basal ganglia: cluster of cells, 3 main subdivisions: caudate (long tail), putamen (lateral), globus pallidus (medial), function: motor control, executive functions, reward learning, damage, Parkison’s, Huntington’s, OCD ii. Limbic system/ hippocampus: older cortex, 3 cortical layers, function: inhibition, memory: new memory, spatial skills: cognitive map, damage: impairment in memory, spatial navigation, hyperactive e. Cerebral cortex: outermost layer of gray matter making up the superficial aspect of cerebrum, human one is 1-5 mm thick and up to 6 layers of cells, heavily wrinkled with higher order functions 8. Sulci and gyri, major fissures (location) a. Gyri: elevated ridges “winding” around the brain b. Sulci: small groves dividing the gyri c. Increased surface area, decreased axonal distance d. Fissures: deep grooves which divide large regions or the lobes of the brain i. Lateral fissure, transverse fissure, central sulcus 9. Occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal lobes (location, function, cortical regions) a. Occipital: located in the back, functions: processing, integration/primary, interpretation of visual info. /stimuli ,Cortical regions: primary visual cortex and visual association area b. Temporal: side of brain, functions: hearing, organization and comprehension of language, memory retrieval, some emotional function, Cortical region: auditory, olfactory, Wernicke’s area: left temporal lobe for language comprehension c. Parietal: located on top near the back, functions: senses of sensation, spatial awareness and perception, awareness of body and space, numerical info., Cortical regions: primary somatosensory cortex (processing tactile info), somatosensory association cortex (awareness and interpretation/integration of sensations, contralateral rep. and distortion), primary gustatory cortex (taste) d. Frontal lobe: cortical regions – motor, Broca’s (speech production left frontal lobe), olfactory bulb, orbitofrontal cortex (lobotomies), contralateral rep and distortion 10. Communication and information integration in the brain a. Arcuate fasciculus: white matter that connects Broca’s to Wernicke’s, allows for coordinated and understandable speech b. Conduction aphasia: auditory comprehension and speech articulation are preserved but people cannot repeat heard speech c. Synchronization theory (Time): two sensations are perceived at the same time d. Feature integration theory (space): two sensed features of the same object come from the same location e. Hierarchical structure and neural code