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BSU / Psychology / PSYS 100 / meehl's maxim

meehl's maxim

meehl's maxim

Description

School: Ball State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychological Science
Professor: Biner
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Psychology, Intro to Psychology, and Cognitive Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Psychology Week 1-6
Description: Psychology information from Dr. Forbey's first 6 weeks *all the notes
Uploaded: 02/14/2017
21 Pages 104 Views 0 Unlocks
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o What if you didn’t find anything interesting?




Why does anyone believe in ESP?




With all our sensory inputs, how do we focus?



Psychology-Dr. Forbey Test 1: Lecture 1 Sign up for SONA Psychology and Scientific Thinking: What is psychology? ∙ Scientific psychologists: Study the mind and behavior ∙ Spans many levels of explanation, from biological to social  influences o Gain new knowledge from each vantage point ∙ Attempts to answer many exceptionally difficult quIf you want to learn more check out daniel holstein unlv
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estions  o “Mysterians”- believe that certain questions regarding  human nature are unanswerable 10 things that make psychology challenging ∙ Behavior is difficult to predict o Meehl’s Maxim  Past/Future behavior connection ∙ Behavior is multiply determined o Question single-variable explanations  ∙ Psychological influences are rarely independent of one  another o “Multicollinearity”- overlap among different causes of  behavior ∙ Psychological influences are often unknown ∙ People affect each other o “Reciprocal Determinism” ∙ Many psychological concepts are difficult to define  ∙ The brain didn’t evolve to understand itself  o “Paradox of Reflexivity” ∙ People in psychological experiments usually know they’re  being studied o Problem of reactivity ∙ People differ from each other- individual differences in  thinking, emotion, and behavior ∙ Culture influences people’s behavior o Emic (insider) vs. Etic (outsider) approaches to studying a culture’s behavior Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology∙ Structuralism ∙ Functionalism ∙ Psychoanalysis ∙ Behaviorism ∙ Cognitivism ∙ Structuralism o Wundt, Titchener and others aimed to identify the basic elements of psychological experience  Wundt delivered first “psychology” lab  ‘Map’ the elements of consciousness (sensations,  images, feelings) using introspection ∙ Introspection= self-reported, subjective,  mental experiences o Findings lacked reliability  Underscored importance of systematic  observations Systematic Observations ∙ One definition of Systematic Observations o Being able to get results that are standardized, not  based on casual or informal observations o Need to be repeatable under the same or similar  conditions Functionalism-aimed to understand the adaptive purposes  (instead of elements) of psychological characteristics (behavior,  emotions, thoughts) and consciousness ∙ William James o Said mental events could be quantified via description  of conscious experience (i.e., introspection) and other techniques  A little more systematic, but not substantially so o Individual differences in purpose/adaption to  environment  EducationPsychodynamic/ psychoanalytic- focuses on internal  psychological processes (impulses, thoughts, memories) of which  we’re unaware ∙ Maintains that our everyday lives are filled with symbols,  which psychoanalysts must decode ∙ Emphasis on the role of early experiences ∙ Unconscious processes Behaviorism- focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking outside the organism to rewards and punishments delivered by the environment  ∙ Psychological science must be objective, not relying on  subjective reports ∙ Founded by John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner was follower ∙ Black Box- their view of the mind: an unknown entity which  we need not understand in order to explain behavior Cognitivism- proposes that our thinking (cognition) affects our  behavior in powerful ways ∙ Rewards and punishments can’t fully explain behavior  because our interpretation of these is a crucial determinant  of behavior ∙ We also learn by insight o Making connections between events Modern Psychology Critical Multiplism- ∙ Approach of using many different methods in concert o Surveys, laboratory experiments, real-world  observation, etc. ∙ Basic and Applied Research o Translating research finding into real world applications  Lime-Yellow easier to detect  Yellow Fire Trucks  Additional visual information (especially closer to  eye level)  Third Brake Light  Predict College Achievement  SAT/ACT Popular Psychology ∙ Popular psychology industry- the sprawling network of  everyday sources of information about human behavioro Self-help- about 3,500 self-help books are published  each year and the internet is exploding like a supernova  Rarely screened  The quality of the information can be good,  misleading, or even dangerous ∙ Rebirthing o Therapeutic technique used to treat a person who  suffered a traumatic event or had some other form of  psychological issue  The “idea” is to simulate a second birth ∙ “creates a fresh start in the mind of the  patient” Psychology as a Science ∙ Science is an approach to evidence, a toolbox of skills used  to prevent us from fooling ourselves o Involves:  Communalism: willingness to share our findings  with others  Disinterestedness: attempt to be objective when  evaluating evidence ∙ Disinterestedness o Stanford University researcher had a financial  connection to a drug-development company  Abortion drug as an “antidepressant” o Harvard child psychiatrist whose work has helped fuel  an explosion in the use of powerful antipsychotic  medicines in children  Senator Grassley pushed for disclosure of financial issues o Emory University psychiatrist   Editor for journal of Neuropsychopharmacology  Senator Grassley again identified a conflict of  interest ∙ Science as a Safeguard against Bias o Scientific Bias  A focus on info that supports our beliefs, while  discounting other information o Confirmation Bias Tendency to seek out evidence that supports our  hypothesis and neglect or distort contradicting  evidence  Scientists need to design studies that may  disprove their theories o Belief Perseverance: tendency to stick to our initial  beliefs even when evidence contradicts them  Belief remains typically through confirmation bias ∙ Scientific Thinking and Everyday Life o Strive to think scientifically- think in ways that minimize errors  Become aware of your biases  Use the tools of the scientific theory and method  to try to overcome them ∙ Scientific Skepticism  o As scientists, we should  Evaluate all claims, with an open mind  But also insist on persuasive evidence before  accepting these claims o Pathological skepticism- tendency to dismiss any claims that contradict one’s beliefs  Robert park and Sonofusion example o Disconformation Bias- tendency to seek out evidence  inconsistent with a hypothesis we don’t believe, and  neglect information consistent with it  Evidence that suggests the hypothesis is wrong  blindly accepted  ∙ Evidence that suggests that the hypothesis is correct is GREATLY scrutinized o Oberg’s dictum – premise that we should keep our  minds open, but not so open that we believe virtually  everything  Wegner and Pangea o Role of “authority”- we should be unwilling to accept  claims on the basis of authority alone Basic Principles of Critical Thinking ∙ Critical Thinking- set of skills for evaluating all claims in an  open-minded and careful fashiono Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence o Falsifiability- for a claim or theory to be meaningful, it  must be capable of being disproved   “All people are Mortal” ∙ Vs.  “All people are immortal” o Occam’s Razor (parsimony)- simplest explanation for a  given set of data is the best one o Replicability- findings must be duplicated, ideally by  independent investigators o Ruling out rival hypotheses- need to consider  alternative hypotheses o Correlation is not causation   Correlation- causation fallacy A  B or B  A  Third Variable Problem ∙ If A and B are correlated: or C  A or B From Inquiry to Understanding  ∙ Reliability: Getting similar results under similar conditions  and/or at different times ∙ Validity: Getting “accurate” results, or measuring what you  are intending to measure ∙ Scientific Method: A toolbox of skills o Allows us to test specific hypotheses derived from  broader theories of how things work  In psychology, and other areas, theories are never  proved, by hypotheses can be supported (or not  supported) Naturalistic Observation ∙ Watching behavior in real-world settings ∙ High degree of external validity o Extent to which we can generalize our findings to the  real world ∙ Low degree of internal validity o Extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect  inferences Case Study Designs∙ Depth is emphasized rather than breadth ∙ Common with rare types of brain damage or psychological  disorders o Capgras Syndrome ∙ Helpful in providing existence proofs o But can be misleading and anecdotal Correlational Design ∙ Correlation can vary from -1 to +1 ∙ 0 means no relationship ∙ Depicted in a scatterplot- each dot represents 1 person  ∙ Illusory Correlation: Perception of a statistical association  where none exist ∙ Correlation cannot determine causation- merely shows  things are related or associated Experimental Design ∙ Experimental Studies o Permit some cause and effect determination  ∙ Random Assignment of Participants to condition o Experimental group- receives the manipulation o Control group- does not receive the manipulation  Experimental Design: What Makes a Study an Experiment ∙ Independent Variable o Experimenter manipulates ∙ Dependent Variable o Experimenter measures to see whether manipulation  had an effect ∙ Correlation Approach has no true IV or DV ∙ Cause and Effect o With an experiment-possible to infer  With random assignment and manipulation of  independent variable ∙ However, for both correlational and  experimental design, there can always be a  third variable∙ Confounds o Any difference between the experimental and control  groups, other than the independent variable;  Makes independent variable effects  uninterpretable  ∙ Pitfalls of Experimental Design:  ∙ Placebo Effect o Improvement resulting from the mere expectation of  improvement  Subjects must be blind- unaware of whether they  are in the experimental group or the control group  Placebos show many of the same characteristics  as real drugs ∙ Experimenter expectancy effect o Phenomenon in which researcher’s hypotheses lead  them to unintentionally bias a study outcome  Clever Hans, the mathematical horse  Rosenthal’s Rat study ∙ Double-blind design o Neither researchers nor participants/subjects know who  is in the experimental or control group  Designed to counteract experimental expectancy  effects  Self-esteem vs memory ∙ Hawthorne Effect o Phenomenon in which participants’ knowledge that  they’re being studied can impact their behavior  Demand characteristics: cues that participants  pick up from a study that allow them to generate  guesses regarding the researcher’s hypotheses  To minimize Hawthorne effects: ∙ Covert observation and/or deception Ethical Issues in Research Design ∙ Covert observation/deception dangers o Tuskegee Study (1932-1972)  399 African American men living in rural Alabama  diagnosed with syphilis U.S. public health service never fully informed, or  treated the men  Merely studied the course of the disease ∙ 28 men died of syphilis ∙ 100 of related complications ∙ 40 wives were infected ∙ 19 children were born with it  In 1997, President Clinton offered a formal apology Modern Ethical Guidelines ∙ Institutional Review Boards (IRB) o Informed Consent o Justification of deception  Milgram’s obedience study o Debriefing of subjects afterward Statistics: The Language of Psychological Research ∙ Descriptive statistics: numerical characteristics of the nature of the data set ∙ Central tendency: where the group tends to cluster o Mean, Median, Mode ∙ Dispersion: sense of how loosely or tightly bunched scores  are o Range, standard deviation, variance ∙ Inferential statistics: allow us to determine whether we can  generalize findings from our sample to the population o Statistical significance- finding would have occurred by  chance less than 1 in 20 times ∙ Deception with statistics o 100% increase vs 50% decrease The Brain ∙ Every part of the brain has a function Current News ∙ Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) o Unclear of exact mechanism  Possible protein/plaque involvement, scar tissue  Biological Psychology ∙ Study of the brain and behavior∙ The brain contains approximately 100 billion neurons (nerve  cells) o Born with 200 billion  The Forebrain ∙ Cerebral cortex- outermost covering o Contains:   Neocortex-most recently developed cortex  Cerebral hemispheres- left and right  ∙ Lateralization  Corpus Callosum-connects the two hemispheres ∙ Frontal lobe o Motor cortex- sends signals to muscles  Central sulcus o Prefrontal cortex- executive functions  Injury: ∙ Broca’s area & aphasia ∙ Phineas Gage & personality change ∙ Parietal lobe- perception of space, object shape and  orientation, actions of other, numbers o Integrates vision, touch, motor information  Somatosensory cortex ∙ Pressure, temperature, pain o Central Sulcus o Injury:  Acalculia, contralateral neglect ∙ Temporal lobe-hearing, language, comprehension,  autobiographical memories o Auditory complex  Injury: ∙ Wenicke’s area and aphasia  ∙ Occipital lobe- vision o Visual cortex The brain and emotion ∙ Limbic system- emotional center of the brain o Networked with the automatic nervous system to  influence blood pressure, heart and the endocrine  systemo Information about our internal state ∙ Hypothalamus- maintains internal bodily states by  overseeing the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems ∙ Amygdala- excitement, arousal, fear, social signals related to emotion ∙ Cingulate cortex- active during emotional expression ∙ Hippocampus- memory functioning, including spatial  memory Brain Mapping Methods ∙ Phrenology- early method (1800s) of linking mind and brain o Falsifiable ∙ Cases of brain damage- studying brain function following  damage o Naturally occurring damage in humans vs.  experimentally- induced brain lesions in non-human  animals ∙ Electrical stimulation and recording of the nervous system o EEG ∙ Brain scans o CT and MRI- structural imaging o PET and fMRI- functional imaging ∙ Magnetic stimulation and recording o Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) TEST TWO Sensation vs. Perception ∙ Detection (S) vs. Interpretation (P) of sensory information ∙ Naïve Realism: We like to believe the world is exactly what  we think it is o However, this is wrong o The world is not exactly as we see/experience it Sensation ∙ Transduction-conversion of external energies or substances  into a nervous system signal (excitation or inhibition) o Sense receptors- “transduce” specific stimuli  Sensory adaptationPsychophysics: Measuring the Barely Detectable ∙ Absolute Threshold-smallest stimulus energy needed for the  nervous system to detect o Human error increases as stimuli get weaker ∙ Just Noticeable Difference-smallest change in intensity of a  stimulus that we can detect 50% of the time o Weber’s law Sensory system organization within the cortex: not just a one-way street Sensory processing ∙ Parallel processing o Can attend to many senses at once o Bottom-up vs. top-down processing (co-exist) Perceptual Hypotheses: Guessing What’s Out There ∙ Perceptual sets-relationship between a stimulus and its  context o Grouping, contextual effects o Preconceptions, expectations With all our sensory inputs, how do we focus? ∙ Selective attention- process of focusing on one sensory  channel and ignoring others o Filter theory of attention and the dichotic listening task  Listen to info coming into one ear or the other o Cocktail part effect  Extrasensory perception (ESP) ∙ Perceiving events outside of typical sensory channels of  seeing, hearing, touch o 41% of Americans believe ∙ Three major types: o Precognition-predicting events o Telepathy-reading minds o Clairvoyance- detecting hidden objects or people Scientific Evidence for ESP ∙ Zener card studies: subjects scored better than chance  performance on precognition, telepathy, and clairvoyance,  but: o Not replicable o Methodology flaws (see-through cards)∙ Ganzfield Technique- experimental setup to reduce  background noise and increase sensitivity to ESP o Not replicable ∙ Parapsychologist terms for explaining away negative  scientific findings: experimenter effect, decline effect, psi  missing Psychic Trickery ∙ Cold Reading- a set of skills to persuade strangers that we  know all about them ∙ Failed psychic predictions o People forget these ∙ Multiple end points-open-ended predictions o Steve Jobs and Blu Ray Why does anyone believe in ESP? ∙ Fallacy of positive instances- we focus on events that appear to be amazing coincidences and forget those that don’t o Underestimation of coincidences:  Probability of shared birthdays in a group of 23?  A group of 58? Development ∙ Developmental psychology: the study of how behavior  changes over time  ∙ Special considerations o Post hoc fallacy- false assumption that because one  even occurred before another event, it must have  caused that event  o Correlation  A and B are correlated ∙ A  B o Stop A, stop B  NO! ∙ Bidirectional influences o Children’s biological makeup influences their  experiences, but their biological makeup is also  influenced by their experiences Developmental Research Designs ∙ Cross-sectional design- examine people of different ages at a single time point o COHORT EFFECT ∙ Longitudinal design- track the development of the same  group of people over time o Able to control for cohort effects to a larger extend o Still not a true experiment Cross Sectional vs Longitudinal ∙ Longitudinal designs o Better at controlling for confounds o But they are extremely time consuming o Would you be willing to spend decades of your life on  one project? o What if you didn’t find anything interesting? ∙ Cross-sectional designs o Findings may be discovered more quickly ∙ The best researchers attempt to use both types of designs/  some form of hybrid Myths of Early Experience ∙ Infant determinism- assumption that extremely early  experiences are more influential in our development than  late experiences o Actually experience shapes us throughout development ∙ Childhood fragility- assumption that children are extremely  delicate o Children are actually very resilient Nature vs. Nurture ∙ Nature- genetics/ nurture- environment ∙ They seem to interact o Prince and the pauper o Trading places o Or any of those teen movies about the ugly duckling  becoming the prom queen  ∙ Gene-environment interaction- the impact of genes depends  on the environment in which the behavior develops∙ Jane o Funny Coffee o Noises in Car o Savings o Anxiety/Negative Emotionality ∙ Nature vs. Nurture o Genetic predispositions can drive us to select and/or  create particular environments ∙ Jane’s Door Number 1 o Clinical Jane  TV is better than REAL LIFE  Quick Fixes  Friends?  Problems at work ∙ Jane’s Door Number 2 o Non-clinical Jane  Finds a partner who is not overly disturbed by her  worries  Exercise vs. quick fixes  Finds a job that allows her to express her uncanny  ability to spot potential problems  “Gonna buy me a dog” ∙ Gene Expression- some genes “turn on” or “turn off” only in  response to specific environmental events o Resetting to default state? Cognitive Development ∙ How do children learn, think, reason, and communicate? o Does development occur in stages or is it continuous? o Are cognitive skills domain- general or domain-specific? o Do children learn from physical or social interactions? o Piaget and Vygotsky each came up with their own  theories ∙ Piaget o Children aren’t miniature adults o Constructive theory- children construct an  understanding of their world based on observations of  the effects of their behavioro Stage theorist  Radical reorganizations at specific developmental  points o Equilibration  Balance between experience and thoughts about  the world o Assimilation  Absorbing new information into current knowledge o Accommodation  Altering a belief to make it compatible with  experience o Four Stages of Cognitive Development in Piaget’s  Theory  Sensorimotor  Preoperational  Concrete Operations  Formal Operations o Sensorimotor  Birth to 2 years of age  Physical interactions  Lack object permanence o Preoperational  2 until 7  Egocentrism ∙ Can’t see you ∙ Can’t see me  No Conservation o Concrete Operations  7-11 years of age  Conservation achieved  No abstraction o Formal Operations  12 years of age and up  Logic ∙ Hypothetical reasoning  Abstractions Strengths and Criticisms of Piaget∙ Strengths o Children are different than adults o Learning is an active process ∙ Criticisms o Development more continuous than stage-like o Cultural bias Vygotsky: Social and Cultural Influences on Learning ∙ Scaffolding-learning mechanism in which parents provide  initial guidance in child’s learning then gradually remove  structure ∙ Zone of proximal development- phase of learning during  which children can benefit from instruction Landmarks of Cognitive Development ∙ Physical reasoning o Object permanence actually emerges by 5 months  If tested without requiring physical research o Infants possess naïve physics (e.g. unsupported objects fall) ∙ Categorizing objects o Frees up time ∙ How? o Perceptual vs non-perceptual features  Unclear which dominates ∙ Mathematics-children must first learn that: o Numbers are about amount o Number words refer to specific quantities ∙ Concept of self and others o Occurs over toddler to preschool years  Rudimentary sense of self as early as 3 months o Theory of mind- the ability to reason about what other  people know or believe Social development ∙ Stranger anxiety- a fear of strangers developing around 8  months, same in all cultures ∙ Attachment- strong emotional connection we share with  those whom we feel closesto John Bowlby  Has strong impact early on ∙ And throughout life ∙ Imprinting- phenomenon observed in birds In which babies  begin to follow around and attach themselves to any large  moving object in the vicinity during the hours immediately  after hatching  Imprinting’s “Critical Period” ∙ Critical period o Gosling’s and other birds have a “critical period”  (around 36 hours) for bonding  Critical period= time window when something  needs to occur ∙ Sensitive period o Some evidence that humans and other mammals have  “sensitive period” for social bonding o Not everyone agrees, but 6 months seems to be a  replicable empirical finding Infant Bonding: Harlow’s Monkeys ∙ Studied infant rhesus monkeys separated from mother after  birth ∙ Two surrogate ‘mothers’ o One wire (but with milk), one warm cloth  Monkeys spent more time with cloth mother,  especially when scared ∙ Contact comfort- positive emotions afforded by touch-secure attachment Attachment Styles ∙ Strange situation task to evaluate infant attachment in the  U.S. o 8 Steps  1. Parent and infant Enter room  2. Infant explores  3. Stranger enters, parent leaves  4. Stranger interacts with infant  5. Parent returns, stranger leaves, parent leaves  6. Infant alone  7. Stranger returns with infant  8. Parent returns ∙ 2 aspects of child behavior are made o Exploration o Reaction to mother leaving/returning  Leads to classification of infant ∙ Secure Attachment (60%) o Develops through sense of connectedness and needs  being met consistently   Seen as most “adaptive” o Gets upset when mom leaves o Happy when mom returns  Secure base important ∙ Insecure-anxious/ ambivalent attachment (15-20%) o Develops due to inconsistent meeting of needs by  mother o Child distressed when mother leaves o Acts inconsistent when mother returns  Wants to be around, but also appears angry, wants to be away from mother ∙ Insecure-avoidant attachment (15%-20%) o Develops due to “disengagement” by mother o Demonstrates little emotion when mom leaves or  returns o Doesn’t explore much ∙ Disorganized attachment (5-10%) o Rarest form o Not derived from Ainsworth’s research o Dazed and confused? Temperament ∙ Basic emotional style that appears early in development and is largely genetic in origin o May interact with parent style to influence attachment ∙ Types: o Thomas and Chess Easy (40%)  Difficult (10%)  Slow-to-warm-up (15%)  Unclassifiable (35%) o Kagan: Behavioral Inhibition  Inhibited ∙ 10% o Risk for anxiety disorders  Uninhibited ∙ 20% o Risk for behavioral disorders  Middling ∙ 70% Basic Terminology ∙ Learning- change in an organism’s behavior or thought as  result of experience o Rapidly occurs in early stages of life  But constantly occurring throughout life ∙ Habituation- process by which we respond less strongly over  time to repeated stimuli ∙ Sensitization- process by which we respond more strongly  over time (especially for irritating stimuli) o Arm rubbing Classical conditioning ∙ British associationists o We acquire knowledge by connecting stimuli o Simple associations the building blocks to more  complex ideas ∙ Ivan Pavlov o Studied digestion in dogs, noted associative  conditioning between neural stimuli and meat powder  (Pavlovian conditioning) o Pavlov described classical conditioning, involving:  UCS unconditioned stimulus- biologically  significant stimulus that produces automatic  response UCR unconditioned response- automatic response  to a UCS that occurs without learning  CS conditioned stimulus- initially neutral stimulus,  becomes associated with the UCS through  conditioning  CR conditioned response- learned response o By virtue of CS-UCS pairing, the CS comes to elicit the  CR, a response closely related, but not identical, to the  UR ∙ Acquisition- learning phase during which a CR is established ∙ Extinction- gradual decrease and elimination of the CR when  the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS ∙ Spontaneous recovery- sudden reemergence of an  extinguished CR after a delay o In some cases, Pavlov’s dog would salivate occasionally to the appearance of the grad student, metronome,  etc.. ∙ Aversive conditioning- classical conditioning to an  unpleasant UCS o Avoidance response

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