Text Study Questions Test 2
Text Study Questions Test 2 PSY 311
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Puck Reeders on Sunday April 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 311 at Geneeskunde Universiteit Utrecht taught by Ray Winters in Spring2014. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at Geneeskunde Universiteit Utrecht.
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Date Created: 04/19/15
Exam 2 Text study questions PSY 311 Chapter 5 1 What is the KluverBucy Syndrome and indicate what it tells us about the role of the amygdala in emotion KluverBucy Syndrome a pattern of emotional changes accompanying removal of both anterior temporal lobes including the amygdala Animals with such damage didn t recognize the emotional implication of objectsthey would approach snakes mice approach cats etc humans putting disgusting things in their mouth 2 What is the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning the prediction of an impending shock the recognition of fear and anger in facial expressions Do people with amygdala damage experience fear Individuals with amygdala damage seem to not be afraid of anything After the same training period in which the tines predicted electrical shocks the amygdaladamaged rats showed much weaker freezing responses and increases in blood pressure after hearing the time than did brainintact rats Rats with amygdala damage not only fail to learn new signs of danger but they also lose fear they had learned from this kind of training before the brain damage People with amygdala damage are impaired at recognizing facial expressions of fear People with amygdala damage say they continue to feel fear more or less normally but reported almost no arousal to the unpleasant pictures one patient reported knowing that the color slide meant the loud noise was coming but did not show physiological symptoms of fear Spend much more time looking at nose and mouth instead of eyes trouble recognizing fear 3 What is the role of the amygdala in the consolidation of longterm episodic memories People with damage to the amygdala do not show memory bias can recall a random memory just as wellbad as a gruesome intense memory Amygdala important to the formation of emotional memories but not neutral ones The amygdala damage did not interfere with the patient s ability to learn facts just to respond emotionally to those facts The amygdala s connection to the hippocampus is thought to mediate the formation of vivid episodic memories for events as distinct from factual memory The amygdala helps to direct our attention toward stimuli we already know to have emotional implications and also amygdala activation associated with the experience of a strong emotion facilitates the consolidation of long term episodic memories by the hippocampus 4 Describe the results of studies of brain damaged war veterans and posttraumatic stress disorder Koenigs et al 2008 and indicate the implications of the results in terms of understanding the function of amygdala Amygdala activation might tag particular memories as having strong emotional significance and instigate processes that enhance these memories for future reference US soilders who were wounded in combat of those who suffered brain damage outside of the amygdala 40 developed PTSD Of those with brain damage that included the amygdala NONE developed PTSD Discuss the role of the hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system in homeostasis Use studies of vasopressin as an example Hypothalamus responsible for regulating the overall internal environment of the bodymonitors temperature sugar levels hydration etc continuously and then initiates corrective change when a factor is out of the rangeto maintain homeostasis Hypothalamus sets of change via the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinehormone system The hypothalamus receives cues that the homeostasis is likely to be disrupted and prepares the body accordingly When the hypothalamus detects that your blood pressure is too low it instructs the pituitary gland to release an antidiuretic hormone called vasopressin which encourages the kidneys to reabsorb uid into the body rather than expelling it into the bladder However with prolonged psychological stress the hypothalamus will trigger the pituitary s release of cortisolso the hypothalamus is the central structure controlling changes in the body that we experience during strong emotion Describe differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus SDN of heterosexual and homosexual male and female humans and sheep SDN a substructure within the hypothalamus appears to be important for sexual behavior and different for males and females Nearly 2x as large in males than females higher testosterone during fetal development Very important for male sexual behavior not so much females SDN may help direct male s sexual orientation Studies with humans and sheep found that the SDN of homosexual males is about the same size as the SDN of females What is the role of the insular cortex in emotions Insular cortex or insula region of the cortex etc association of this area to the experience of disgust region specially activated when viewing pictures of disgust and also frightening pictures Acts as a map of visceral sensations 0 More gray matter better at detecting their own heart rate etc feeling very strong emotions 7 What are the functions of the prefrontal cortex 0 Associated with advanced cognitive functions such as planning working memory inhibition of impulses judgment decision making facilitates the use of emotional information in making good decisions 8 Describe the types of problems that Elliot the man with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex encountered after his surgery Be specific 0 Trouble making decisions 0 Deliberate endlessly about unimportant details I then making bad decision 0 Couldn t plan for the future or follow other s plans 0 Interrupt important task to do something trivial 0 Continue doing something unimportant when he should quit 0 Reading one document for the whole afternoon I fired 0 Divorced first wife married a bad choice 2rld wife 0 Invested everything in one project I failed 0 His only prominent abnormality was a lack of emotional reactivity 0 I logically understand this and the consequences but I wouldn t know what to do 0 Does not anticipate the feelings associated with consequenes no motivation to behave one way or another 9 Describe the results of studies Anderson et al 1999 that assessed the effects of damage to the prefrontal cortex during infancy 0 Two patients who suffered prefrontal damage during infancy never developed any sense of right or wrong I they frequently stole lied and hurt other people without any signs of guilt 10 Discuss the reward circuit nucleus accumbens prefrontal cortex and VTA in terms of wanting or anticipating something and consuming and enjoying something 0 Reward circuit includes the ventral tagmental area VTA and the nucleus accumens and some of the frontal lobes 0 This circuit is activated by a signal that a reward is on the way 0 Nucleus accumbens shoes enhanced released of neurotransmitter dopamine both during a reinforcing experience and during anticipation of the reinforce 0 VTA and nucleus accumbens rapidly learn about the relationships between events that predict rewards and rewards themselves 0 Important distinction between the emotion associated with anticipating a reward wanting something and the emotion associated with actually consuming and enjoying that thing 0 The reward cicuit is associated with anticipation rather than consumption or enjoyment 0 System becomes highly active if you see something you want within reach 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 Discuss the relationship between the amount of neural activity in two components of the reward circuit the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex and the magnitude of a reward and the probability of a reward occurring 0 Activation in the nucleus accumbens increased proportionally to the magnitude of a possible reward no response to possible losses and activation in the prefrontal cortex increased proportionally to the probability of reward on that trial Describe the effect of drug addiction alcohol cocaine amphetamines on dopamine receptors in the reward circuit 0 Domaminergic neurotransmission appears to be crucial for feelings of anticipation and reward motivating goaloriented activity 0 Recreational drugs have their effect by altering the dopaminergic reward system 0 Cocaine binds to the transporters that would normally facilitate reuptake of dopamine into the axon of the presynaptic neuron so that dopamine hangs around longer in the synapse and has longer effect 0 Amphetamines actually enter the axons of reward circuit neurons and push dopamine into the synapse 0 Alcohol increases dopamine activity in the reward circuit indirectly Which of the following would in uence dopamine activity in the reward circuit gambling sex food playing a video game shopping Would you expect additions to any of these activities to in uence the number of dopamine receptors in the brain 0 All could in uence dopamine activity in the reward circuit Discuss the role of genes in addiction 0 Certain genes for dopamine receptors may increase the risk of addiction to any substances or behaviors that strongly activate this system Explain how it is possible that medications for Parkinson s disease can lead to a gambling addiction 0 Drugs used to alter dopamine in one region will also affect another region Treatments for parkinson s disease can increase the risk for gambling addiction due to altered dopamine activity in reward circuits Indicate the effect of lowering brain serotonin level for the following people with a previous history of violence people with a history of depression and people with a history of substance abuse 0 What is the role of the opiate peptides in pain grieving and separation from a loved one 0 Opiate peptides 3rd class of neurotransmitters Beta endorphin serves as the body s natural painkiller I like selfproduced morphine Endorphin activity in periaqueductal area curbs pain Linked this to emotional pain as well Social loss and grief decrease endorphin release Guinea pigs separated from moms I distress and low endorphine release Pigs given morphine replacing decreased endorphine they stopped crying If given naloxone blocks endorphine they cried even more Emotional pain that accompanies grieving or separation may be mediated by changes in the same neurotransmitter that responds to physical pain Page 326328 of chapter 14 1 What is a somatic marker and what is its function Chapter 7 1 Several investigators have reported that if a monkey observes observational learning another monkey showing a fear of snakes it acquires the fear too even though the observer monkey has never been bitten or even seen another monkey bitten Discuss this finding in terms of preparedness and indicate its relevance to the types of phobias people are likely to develop People learn fear for snakes very quickly I bc snakes have been around through evolutionary history Monkeys show withdrawal from snakes the first time they see them if nothing bad happens it lessens but the initial weariness shows their predisposition towards fear If monkey see another monkey scared of snakes also will be scared even if never bitten or seen the snake bite the other monkey Movie of monkey running away from snakes fear Monkey running away from owers nothing We may be born with a predisposition to fear certain objectsthings Also people typically develop phobias toward objects that are unpredictable uncontrollable and seldom experienced in a safe context like snakes Fears arise also greatly due to the appraisal of the situation categorical appraisals how far is the gun 2 Distinguish the emotions of fear sadness and anger in terms of their appraisal components e g controllability uncertainty as described by the component process theory Fear provoked by something unexpected unpleasant externally caused uncertain and uncontrollable Sadness provoked by something unpleasant externally caused not uncertainty so much Anger provoked by something unpleasant externally caused not uncertainty so much situation might make you angry if you are in a higher position boss or fear if you are powerless employee 3 Discuss the results of the Egloff Wilhelm et al 2002 study which used the dotprobe task to examine biases in attention among fearful people Two words displayed simultaneously on a screen for one second one above the other and then a dot is presented in either the up or down position Observer has to press a computer key to indicate whether the dot appeared in the upper or lower part When one of the words is related to anxiety worry nervous etc people respond faster if the dot was in the same location as the fearrelated word Effect specially strong among ppl who report being anxious worried More fearful people direct their attention toward fearrelated words less fearful people are also less biased 4 Define and indicate the significance of the following micro expression startle response startle potentiation emblems and the Behavioral Inhibition System BIS Microexpression involuntary momentary expressions that contradict the intended expression of calmness Most valid guide in discerning peoples hidden feelings Startle response sudden loud noise muscles tense rapidly Specially neck muscles eyes close tightly shoulders pull close to the neck and arms towards the headeverything to protect the neck Occurs in less than 15 of a second PonsljmedulaEIspinal cord Startle potentiation different situations I different reaction to same noise Walking through the guetto vs at home you startle in both cases but different intensities Emblem certain gestures sometimes culture specific When people intend to make these gestures they display them openly People concealing an emotion sometimes make a brief partial emblem Partial shrug when lying BIS slowing heart rate indicated second physiological system other than sympathetic Increases attention while inhibiting action but increasing muscle tension just in case May be responsible for trait anxiety lion and impala 5 Describe the results of studies and observations of SM a woman with UrbachWiethe disease and indicate the significance of the findings in terms of understanding the function of the amygdala SM approaches people REALLY closely Lacking in fear when watching horror movies Has been raped and other horrible things due to lack of fear Impaired at recognizing expressions of fear Shows no PTSD Maybe amygdala interferes with being able to form an emotional memory 6 Indicate what the following findings reveal about the function of the amygdala 1 Studies of people with a social phobia 2 fMRI studies of amygdaloid responses in soldiers in combat Admon et al 2009 3 Studies by Buchman et al 2009 and by Boucsein et al 2001 that assessed the impact of amygdala damage on the ability to identify emotional expressions in the face and the ability to determine whether two faces are expressing the same or different emotions Social phobia show specially strong amygdala responses to the sight of an angry or contemptuous face threatening stimulus Soilders fMRI scans maybe amygdala activation is important to feel any strong emotion Soldiers showed pictures before combat and their amygdala s measured Those who were most stressed during combat had shown most amygdala activation during pictures Possible that amygdala responds most strongly to ambiguous stimuli for which processing takes some effort People w amygdala damage have trouble identifying the expression in a face SM gave lower ratings to pictures of expressions 7 Explain how anxiolytic tranquilizers medications such as Valium reduce fear and anxiety by their effect on the amygdala Anxiolytics act by facilitating the effectiveness of neurotransmitter GABADthe main inhibitory neurotransmitter for all of the brain including the amygdala They temporarily produce some of the same emotional affects associated with amygdala damage more than just suppression of fear Ppl on anxiolytics have trouble identifying other people s facial expressions of emotion The effects of anxiolytics suppress activity in much of the brain Neurotransmitter CCK 8 What are the effects of the stress hormones such as cortisol and alcohol on the amygdala Stress hormones cortisol increase the responsiveness of the amygdala Alcohol decreases responsiveness in amygdala like tranquillizers 8 Describe the results of studies of gender differences in fear and anxiety Women report more fear and anxiety than men More often victims of rape and domestic abuse Gender diff appears before age 1 Men and women equal responses to shock or predictshock Women more intense startle response Equal likelihood of social phobia claustrophobia fear of injury Women more scared of animals 9 Describe the results of the study conducted by Oxley et al 2008 in which the relationship between political views and amygdala responses was assessed 0 Fear and anxiety in uence our thinking 0 Group that supported strong military guns etc was more prone to anxiety and reacted more intensely to loud noise feel a need for protection Cha ter 13 1 What are the five factors that emerged from a factor analysis of items in the Big Five questionnaire Are the Big 5 factors the key dimensions of personality in other cultures 1 extraversion agreeableness conscienciousness neuroticism openness to experience LIIPWN 0 Yes these factors are also the key dimensions of personality for other cultures 2 Which of the Big 5 factors is associated with the highest level of happiness Which factor is linked to emotional instability and poor mood regulation 0 Extraversion happiness 0 Neuroticism emotional instability poor mood regulation 3 What do the results of the McNiel and Fleeson 2006 tell us about the role of social interactions simple conversations in the unhappiness of people high in neuroticism 0 People instructed to behave more neurotically during the conversation actually reported more distress 0 Neurotic people perhaps engage with other people in a way that elicits unfriendly behaviors in return increasing their unhappiness 0 Perhaps more distress than others in same situation 0 Neuroticism has been associated with a short version of the serotonin transporter gene that impairs this neurotransmitter s activity in the brain 0 The trait neuroticism accounted for the relationship between the short allele and depression 5 Describe the coping strategies used by people high in neuroticism compared to other individuals What do the results of the Tamir 2005 study tell us about the role of worrying in performance among people high in neuroticism 0 Neurotic people rely more on wishful thinking withdrawl emotional responsefocused strategies and less on more effective strategies such as problem solving and reappraisal 0 Neurotic people reported less use of reappraisal to regulate their emotionsnegative affect 0 Study shows that neurotic individuals TRY to make themselves more worried and upset when they have to perform a difficult task and that worrying improves their performance 6 Which of the Big 5 factors is associated with more frequent and intense experiences of love and compassion and forgiveness and lower proneness to anger 0 agreeableness 7 Based on studies described in the textbook discuss the role of the following factors in agreeableness oxytocin the serotonin transporter gene that is involved in serotonin neurotransmission blame and anger emotion regulation specifically activity in the prefrontal cortex while viewing distressing photographs Activation of the prefrontal cortex is important to willful emotion regulation 0 oxytocin social bonding feelings of love and trust 0 serotonin transporter gene facilitates serotonergic neurotransmission 0 prefrontal cortex agreeable people showed more activity in the prefrontal cortex when viewing distressing photographs 0 people who tend to think of the world in terms of blame predicted their angry feeling only if they were disagreeable 0 more agreeable people seemed able to blame someone for a negative event yet feel less anger toward them 8 Describe the results of the J ensenCampbell et al 2007 in which each subject was asked to choose a drink to give to a person who just criticized an essay the subject wrote In terms of selfcontrol what was the interpretation of these findings 0 Participants with higher conscientiousness scores reported less anger after apparently being insulted and angry feelings were not as strongly associated with aggressive behavior 0 Anger strongly predicted aggression among people who scored low in conscientiousness 0 Conscientiousness re ects an overall tendency toward good self control I enhances people s ability to regulate their emotions as well as their thoughts and actions 0 10 What is the relationship between frontal asymmetry and the behavioral approach system and the behavioral avoidance system Which side right or left of the frontal lobes is activated during anger 0 Greater right frontal activation behavioral avoidance 0 Greater left frontal activation behavioral approach 0 Left hemisphere specialized in happiness and anger 10 Describe the results of the Thompson et al 2004 study that assessed the ability to recognize emotion in speech among individuals with musical training 0 People with musical training excel at recognizing emotion in others speech Chaper 15 1 Describe the roles of the following in vulnerability to depression default mood note earthquake study by NolenHoeksema and Morrow 1991 depressed relatives both male and female and young and old the serotonin transporter gene other disorders such as alcohol dependency antisocial personality disorder bulimia panic disorder migraine headaches and attentiondeficit disorder Default mood and earthquake study everyone felt sad after the earthquake but those who had already been mildly depressed before the earthquake reacted more strongly to it and remained depressed for longer Risk for depression is higher in people whose FEMALE relatives became depressed at a YOUNGER age Serotonin transporter gene ppl with certain versions of this gene are more likely to experience depression after a stressful life event Major depression runs in the same families with alcohol dependence other substance abuse antisocial personality disorder bulimia panic disorder add other problems If you have a relative with any of these A disorders your risk is above average for developing the same disorder or any of the others Males more issues with alcohol females with depression 2 What is the role of previous bad experiences such as sexual abuse in risk for depression See the Kendler et al 2004 and the Nelson et al 2002 studies Having gone through previous bad experiences may predispose people to react more strongly to new bad experiences and become depressed Most likely to happen to women specially sexually abused women In study the twin that was sexually abused was more likely to develop depressioncommit suicide 3 Describe the results of studies that tested the reward insensitivity hypothesis of depression 0 Depressed participants did not increase their yes answers when those answers has a chance of being rewarded I less responsive to rewards 0 In gambling task depressed people showed normal activation of nucleus accumbens but they showed a greater activation of the anterior Cingular cortex mediates con ict uncertainty than nondepressed people I depressed people may still feel the wanting associated with potential reward but may perceive greater risk in trying to attain that reward 4 What is the role of dopamine in depression 0 People with depression might show some kind of dysfunction in the dopamine circuits that mediate reward 0 Decreased levels of metabolites in people with depression 0 Manipulations of dopamine activity in the reward circuit can produce depressed like behavior 10 What are the differences in the symptoms and neurotransmitters between Typical melancholic depression and Atypical depression 0 Typical melancholic depression characterized by decreased appetite and weight loss insomnia psychomotor agitation 0 Atypical depression increase in appetite and weight gain sleeping too much psychomotor retardation What are the roles of explanatory style and dysfunctional beliefs in vulnerability to depression 0 Explanatory style characteristic way of making attributions for success or failure Blaming failure on lack of effort is optimistic I you believe you have the capability to do better next time Blaming failure on your lack of ability I am stupid is pessimistic internal and prones one to depression What is the role of rumination thinking repeatedly and nonconstructively about negative events in vulnerability to depression 0 People who ruminate more about negative events are more likely to become depressed 0 Women who ruminate extensively and have lower mastery scores show greater risk to depression 0 Rumination appears to be a casual factor in depression In terms of explanatory style and dysfunctional beliefs what is the goal of cognitive therapy 0 Cognitive therapy seeks to alter the explanatory styles and dysfunctional biases that characterize disordered individuals 0 Goal is that the client over time will internalize new ways of interpreting events What is the effect of temporarily depleting the brain of serotonin in people with a history and depression Neumeister etal 2004 0 Deplete the brain of serotonin diet rich in most amino acids but lacking tryptophan the amino acid the brain converts into serotonin 0 This procedure triggers a bout of depression in people with a history 0 However low serotonin by itself does not cause depression it has that affect only in people who are already predisposed to it Describe the results of the study by Seligman et al 1999 involving cognitive reappraisal of negative life events and negative thoughts in college students 0 The idea is to interpret unfavorable events in a way that avoids excessive discouragement and selfblame 0 Students who received the 8week workshop training reported significantly fewer episodes of anxiety and depression over the next 3 years 11 What is the relationship between agoraphobia and panic disorder 0 Panic disorder characterized by repeated attacks of panic sharply increased heart rate rapid breathing sweating trembling chest pains more frequent in women fear that they are having a panic attack The FEAR of having a panic attack I increases anxiety level increases probability and intensity of future attacks 0 Agoraphobia many people with panic disorder develop agoraphobia I excessive fear of public situations due to the fear they will not be able to escape in the case of a panic attack Uncommon in people without panic disorder Person fears they could be embarrassed by a panic attack in public 12 Do people with phobias recall an experience or experiences that led to their phobias 0 Usually not 13 Discuss findings from studies of amygdala responses eg as measured by fMRI that assessed the role of the serotonin transporter gene specifically the long and short form of the gene in the etiology of phobias and panic disorder 0 There is a gene that controls production of the serotonin transporter protein 0 People with the short form of this gene were more likely to develop various anxiety disorders than were people with the long form of the gene 0 One study used fMRI to measure amygdala responses as people examined photographs showing expressions of anger or fear Those with the short form of the gene showed stronger responses in the amygdala 14 Describe the results of the posttraumaticstress disorder PTSD study Gilbertson et al 2002 in which the size of the hippocampus of identical male twins who had served in the military was measured What do these findings tell us about the role of genetics in PTSD 0 People with PTSD have a smaller than average hippocampus responsible for control of stress hormones and memory 0 Both twins one who had ptsd from war and the other who hadent gone to war and did not have ptsd had a smaller hippocampus than average Small hippocampus is a predisposing factor not a result of ptsd 15 What is exposure therapy Which disorders is exposure therapy used to treat 0 Used to treat phobia Exposed to the object of fear in increasing doses level by level until tolerance or comfort is achieved 16 Which neurotransmitter mediates the effects of benzodiazepines tranquillizers such as Valium on anxiety 0 GABA the main neurotransmitter throughout the nervous system including the amygdala 17 What is the effect of benzodiazepines tranquillizers such as Valium on the amygdala and on the ability of people to identifying other people s facial expressions of emotions 0 Trouble identifying expressions of anger or fear 18 What is the role of empathy in antisocial personality disorder 0 Profound deficits in empathy
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