Quiz 4 Study Guide
Quiz 4 Study Guide History 2702
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abigail Grable on Sunday April 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 2702 at Ohio State University taught by Sam White in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Food in World History in History at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/19/15
Normal Borlaug father of the Green Revolution biologist humanitarian and Nobel laureate Hybridization combining the best traits of different plant varieties often in hopes of increasing harvests BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy mad cow diseasequot contracted when cows were fed the rendered remains of dead animals Iustus von Liebig German chemist who is widely credited as one of the founders of agricultural chemistry theorized that Nitrogen Phosphorous and Potassium levels are the basis for determining healthy plant growth NPK soil chemistry HaberBosch Process method of directly synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen nitrogen fixation Bt gene borrowed from one strand of a common soil bacterium intellectual property of Monsanto included in its NewLeaf potatoes Ht herbicidetolerant designed to tolerate specific broadspectrum herbicides which kill the surrounding leaves but leave the cultivated crop in tact Eutrophication the enrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients typically compounds containing nitrogen phosphorous or both Pesticide and Herbicide Resistance decreased susceptibility of a pest population or a weed population to a pesticide herbicide that was previously effective at controlling the pest weed Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs chemicals or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections bacteria survive and continue to multiply causing more harm William Sylvester Graham Protestant preacher advocating food reform that called for avoiding foods that science had deemed deleterious and that aligned with strivings for moral purity his scientific ideas were derived from vitalist theories and based his initial crusade against alcohol pushed for consumption of unrefined graham our and a wholewheat diet Iohn Harvey Kellogg coinventor of corn akes and director of the sanitarium at Battle Creek Michigan views mimicked those of Graham s and also cautioned against autointoxication blended new scientific theories with older calls for moral uplift and an array of special vegetarian diets Horace Fletcher wealthy American businessman who coined the term Fletcherizing which entailed eating less eating less protein and chewing thoroughly New Nutritionquot9 discovery that food s energy could be measured in calories and that they were composed of carbohydrates proteins and fats each with a unique physiological function application of these new ideas to the horrific social problems created by the industrialization and urbanization in America Newer Nutritionquot9vitamincentered way of thinking that emerged around 1928 Negative Nutritionquot9warned against eating certain kinds of foods such as cholesterol and sugar in the 1970s 1990s Metabolic syndrome symptoms such as high blood pressure high levels of triglycerides and glucose in the blood low HDL and high LDL Thrifty Genotype Hypothesis claims that Natural Selection during the Stone Age favored thrifty genes that gave owners a propensity to store as much fat as possible Insulin hormone that shuttles energy from food into the body s cells High glycemic foods that rapidly and markedly elevate blood sugar levels Atherosclerosis9hardening of the arteries Franchising independent businessmen are kept under close control to ensure uniform food quality Ray Kroc purchased the right to franchise the McDonald s system in 1954 Slow food movement dedicated to the preservation of the leisure of delicious regional cuisines Iose Bove sheep farmer who demolished a McDonald s restaurant under construction in Millau France Hydrogenated oil liquid oils to which hydrogen has been added to turn them into a solid form Highfructose corn syrup any of a group of corn syrups that have undergone enzymatic processing to convert some of its glucose into fructose to produce a desired sweetness commonly used in processed foods Standard American Diet SAD9high in saturated fat and refined sugars low in complex carbohydrates prominence of American brands green revolution commodities supermarkets etc Monoculture the use of land for growing only one type of crop NewLeaf potato engineered by Monsanto to protect themselves from insects and diseases by producing their own insecticide Key technologies behind the Green Revolution Highyielding seed irrigation fertilizer pesticides and farm machinery as well as genetic modification of crops Economic benefits and costs of the Green Revolution Output of principle staples such as maize wheat and rice increased dramatically so that the number of undernourished people remained relatively stable amidst rapid population growth Threat of diminishing returns due to stagnating yields declining outputs relative to inputs especially with wheat pesticide and herbicide resistance and possible loss of resilience Economic costs have been high with much dependency 0 Cost of seeds is a sunk cost since seeds cannot be reused 0 High costs of mechanization fertilizers chemicals and water 0 Favors large farmers who can achieve economies of scale I Small farmers paid a disproportionate share of the burden for financing industrialization o Favors market production as land and other resources were taken away from subsistence agriculture to grow export commodities o Slight nutritional advantage of imported grains over native staples did not offset the costs of depending on foreign supplies further undermining local agriculture Local inequalities in distribution left many people starving even during plentiful harvests Environmental consequences of Green Revolution agriculture and accelerating livestock production Increasing livestock production creates rising demand for meat and beef and thus lopsided purchasing power for meateating consumers Livestock production is inefficient since animals must be fed many calories thus meat has created global supply problems Increased energy usage increased nitrous oxide emissions high water needs pesticide poisoning chemical runoff fertilizer runoff eutrophication dead zonesquot Considerable ow of animal waste in piles and lagoons Ammonia greenhouse gas emissions about 14 due to livestock production in America high energy costs Health consequences such as fecal contamination antibiotic resistance zoonotic infections hazardous work conditions Major factors behind the rise of obesity in America Americans have changed what they eat 2 1St century adolescents in the US secrete far more insulin than their parents produced as a result of eating more glucoserich foods Have willingly filled out environments with devices that decrease our physical activity levels while the pharmacological industry has developed an array of drugs that enable the lifestyles that cause obesity Processed foods typically contain excess fats and sugars that are converted into body fat at a quicker rate than whole foods due to both their increased presence and their lack of fiber they also enhance rather than suppress appetite Global sugar glut indicates that sweetness has increased by 50 in America since the 1950s Genes sleep stress gut bacteria exercise The connection between high glycemic foods metabolic syndrome and related diseases such as type 2 diabetes High glycemic foods are broken down very quickly and provoke an overshoot of insulin which causes one to become ravenous and crave more calorie dense foods to achieve a higher blood sugar level again These foods promote type 2 diabetes by keeping blood glucose levels high in instances of insulin resistance also the excess visceral fat provoked by the consumption of high glycemic foods contributes to that insulin resistance Rapid elevation of blood sugar levels causes increased triglycerides in the bloodstream Successes and failures of nutrition science in improving nutrition in America Success against major vitamin deficiencies such as pellagra scurvy and rickets once basic vitamin needs were identified Proven effectiveness of moderate exercise and traditional diets with less sugar fewer processed foods and more whole grains and nuts However there exists an irreducible complexity of food and nutrition as a limit to reductionism identifying the essential measurable chemical pathways and components of the body Practical difficulties of nutrition studies weak results of dietary experiments failures of modern dietary advice Fat cholesterol in the diet doesn t contribute directly to more fat in the bloodstream Simplification and sensationalization of nutrition studies Hype of expensive miracle foodsquot and dietary gimmicks Association between inequality poor nutrition and obesity Strong correlation between inequality and health consequences High stress in impoverished conditions Limited access to medical care Limited access to quality foods in food desertsquot Poverties of time knowledge and resources Economies of fast and processed foods make them cheap and affordable Impact of agricultural subsidies on American food supplies Rise of agriculture commodity subsidies in the New Deal era and during the 1970s 1990s Earl Butz Farmers were paid to produce less thus conserving soil and driving up food prices Those that benefit most are biggest commodity producers and those producing feed crops for livestock Thus food supplies favor processed foods and meats not necessarily fresh produce New food processing products of the late 20th century Chemical separation of corn and soy has produced soybean oil hydrogenated oils high fructose corn syrup and starch and proteins for processing New preservatives and avorings Rise of food science Why agricultural subsidies and the rise of processors tend to favor food with poor nutrition Those that benefit most from subsidies are biggest commodity producers and those producing feed crops for livestock Thus food supplies favor processed foods and meats not necessarily fresh produce Horizontal and vertical integration of food processing creates economies of scale Focus on shelf life thus few whole foods few fresh vegetables and highly milled our Inexpensive additives for avor and consistency namely fats sugars and starches and salt Economic and social factors behind the globalization of the standard American diet Characteristics American brands green revolution commodities foreign food firms supermarkets marketing to the developed world Drivers of growth liberalization of markets middle class income urbanization smaller families spend more per child changing family and gender roles youth culture that helps restaurants capture the market at a young age Organic food standards what they require and what they don t USDA standards 3rd party certified no synthetic fertilizers pesticides standards for livestock that are more of an abstraction than an actual change in the way animals live Relative yields of organic and conventional agriculture Varied results in yield comparisons Both advantages and disadvantages to polycultures and crop rotations Organic farming might be able to feed the world something specific If we change what we are demanding and accept different types of each crop during each season organic agriculture could work
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