Race and Ethnic Class Notes 1/12 race: symbolic category based on phenotype or ancestry and constructed according to specific social and historical contexts that is misrecognized to be biological 5 fallacies: individualistic: people carry a racist intent legalistic: if no laws state against race, then there is noIf you want to learn more check out teradta
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racism tokenistic: ex black president is a symbol of end of racism ahistorical: that the past has no relevance in the present world fixed: racism doesn’t change overtime 1/17 we made up race in order to categorize people which allows certain groups to control and dominate others race and class are in the real world interconnected The Origins of the Idea and Practice of Race and Racism race is an idea that did not exist in the minds of the ancient people like romans, Greeks, Spaniards, when they were trying to design their system of hierarchy no such thing as race at the time if race didn’t exist then, how does it exist today? race is an idea and a practice (ideology / institution) people do and it gets done to people race and racism is a social relation of difference and inequality groups being defined as a different and at an unequal status situation is needed for a racial issue until 1965 there was white supremacy in the united states white supremacy is a belief system of inequality race is the belief or natural inequality why a race does better at certain things are social political issues, such as resources provided for the individuals racism is the practice of subordinating races that are believed to be inferiorafter the 1960’s it is harder to see race and racism bc it the belief of race and natural inequality becomes illegitimate race and racism is a modern and western European phenomenon with the use of: science: the nature of man, replaces religion; modern scientists saying they found the connection of racism in the human body in regards to slaves (ex: cranium measurements) democracy: the rights of man; replaces aristocracy or absolutism (gov type: king, priest hood, and the rest of 95% are considered peasants); the king was looked at as more godly than human, so when Thomas Jefferson came along saying “all men are created equal”, it threw everyone off, but at the same time, TJ was a slave owner. capitalism: replaces feudalism; production for profit; individuals The Antecedents of Racism before racism: there were physical and cultural differences, but no idea that people belonged to difference RACES there was hierarchy, but no idea that social inequality was caused by innate biological differences between groups there was no idea of race thus structures of inequality were not organized by race there was however: religion slavery aristocracy: royal blood; king blood is passed generational warfare in order to understand racism, we have to understand that there is more than one kind of racism racism presents itself in different ways how do scholars explain the emergence of race? Aka “how did societies become racialized”?? main groups that help us understand such issue are: groups affected by the Medieval Spanish Christian treatment: jewswere believed to be a threat and evil based on their biology to Christians back in the day antijudaism: idea that jews are a problem; the problem is the wrong belief; they don’t believe that Jesus Christ is the son of God goal: assimilate / converting them into Christianity antisemitism: the jewish problem is not just their beliefs, but their entire culture associated with the devil, etc. goal: assimilation combined with expulsion antijewish racism: the jewish problem is rooted in the jewish body law was passed of “limpieza de sangre” prohibits anyone with jewish blood from holding office, being a conquistador, etc. the Spanish Christian church said its more than their beliefs and cultures… it’s their blood. goal: expulsion not full blown racism bc it is coming from a religious perspective and not from a scientific perspective development of antijewish racism was a long and complex social process christian church turned on them due to competitions for jobs and resources transformation of Jewishness from beliefs to their “bodies” the notion of jews as a unique “race” begins to appear with the idea of blood difference NOTE: this is not fullblown racism as jews can still convert to Christianity native americans people who were in the Americas before the Spaniards got here Africans 1/24 The Downward Spiral key: initially, slavery was akin to indentured servitude slaves could purchase their freedom slaves could marry (interracial) and own propertyslaves could sue employers in court for wages not paid slaves performed skilled labor alongside indentured 1660s – “slave codes” or “black codes” created legal and social differences between indentured and enslaved 1667 VA – “heathen ancestry” of Africans allowed enslavement despite Christianity paved the way for hereditary enslavement race laws (1600s) marriage restrictions (interracial) hypodescent one drop of black blood makes you black you belong to the lowest race of your ancestors prevents the creation of a mulato, or a mixed raced property owning people laws against manumission freeing of slaves looked at positively in Spain and Latin America looked down upon, fined, etc. with every slave you free system of racialized slavery is being stablished in the law limited rights to own property and bear arms laws indicate that poor whites and blacks were fraternizing white male masters fuck black women to create their own slaves white male masters prevent white women from having sex with black males Racism as Labor Control bacon’s rebellion (Jamestown Virginia, 1676) white indentured servants and black slaves united to fight for CLASS interests Race over Class Buyingoff Poor Whites white rebels granted amnesty African black folks were punished 1705 law granting freed indentured: affirmative action for whites affirmative action: gov acting upon a particular racial group 10 bushels of corn 30 shillings a gun50 acres of land racialization of servitude 1. white indentured servitude temporary; free promised land 2. black chattel slavery no legal rights, or basic humanity lifetime as well as descendants could not own property – even their bodies banned from learning how to read no social rights or protection Indian removal they are the smallest racial minority group in the US once the Europeans failed at enslaving them, the Indians were no longer seen as a useful source of labor, so the colonists left them alone for a while, but as more Europeans began to come over and the nation began to grow to the west, native Americans became an “obstacle” to the development of new ways goal: want the land justification for taking land: religion, assimilation, and natural selection said that native Americans were physically weak and were going to go extinct native Americans were going to disappear in two ways: 1. culture will disappear as assimilation to western culture 2. disappear to natural selection eventually, the US gov becomes powerful enough in a militaristic sense to void treaties with native americans and march them off to Oklahoma and off their land and push them to almost the point of extinction by the late 1900scrucial labor supply: African Americans obstacle to expansion and property ownership: Native Americans 1/26 Racialized Citizenship and Immigration Laws in the US racialization is a process race is not something we have, it’s a social process Golash shows how American society is racially engineered; it was designed economic and politics determine how “race” is defined and how groups are treated “whiteness” itself becomes a resource and only exists insofar as some people are excluded from it whiteness is a contested and changing racial identity and this remains the case today people become citizens by birth right citizenship aka “jus soli” (by the soil), and my naturalization (for immigrants) 1970, citizenship was limited to whites born in the US only african americans are not citizens native americans aren’t either 1857 – Dred Scott Case petitioned the supreme court for his freedom based on the fact that he was residing in a free territory he was slaved in Missouri, but his owner took him to a free territory became a big constitutional issue bc the northern part of the country wants to see slavery go away as opposed to the south chief justice said: “blacks, free or enslaved, had no rights which the white man was bound to respect black people has no rights whatsoever that a white person is bound to respectThe Reconstruction Amendments passed directly after the civil war 13th: abolished slavery almost was allowed as punishment 14th: full citizenshipequal rights (1868) 15th: right to vote and hold office Sherman Special Field Order #15 released black families from bondage Abraham Lincoln dies, then replaced by Andrew Johnson owned slaves himself; confederate; undid Sherman’s policy, and the land that he gave to blacks was given back to the white previous owners Period of Reconstruction in the South (18651877) federal occupation army of the north, stayed in the south for 12 years; protecting the freed slaves from the southerners during that time, African American leadership and politics flourishes 1876 Hayes vs Tilden the party that ended slavery was the republican party African Americans who were involved in politics were republican Radical Republicans: slave allies H and T make a deal: Tilden says I will give you my electoral votes if you retrieve your northern troops from our southern land; reconstruction ended and white supremacy was back into place through violence, KKK, ex confederate generals, etc lynching becomes a tool of intimidation naturalized citizenship immigrants becoming citizens 1st act of congress – 1790 Naturalization Act: only free whites were allowed for naturalization 1870: people of African Descent were made eligible for naturalization 1952: All others were eligible – neither white nor black chinese indians syrians native americansOzawa v United States (1922) he was denied citizenship foreign born Japaneseamerican sued for his citizenship on argument that his skin was lighter of many people who were considered white his claim was denied; the court argued that race science maintained that Asians are not Caucasians Singh Thind v United States (1923 claimed whiteness based on Caucasian race gov used “common knowledge” or what race is the avg man knows perfectly well that there are profound differences between a white and indian male went away from race science to common knowledge who’s white was based on what the US supreme court said from one case to another main goal: limit the rights of citizenship to EuroAmericans legal construction, cultural construction, social construction, etc. gov used any construct to get to what they want Immigration law who are we going to let in, and who are we going to keep out demographic impact regarding immigrants effects the racialization process that the groups undergo large minority group is more threatening to the white dominant group than a small minority group depending where you are (ex: Asians but not in san fran) the US had no defense in the borders until 1882 if you could get here, you were in type mindset as of 1882, restrictions on entry, starting with the chines exclusion act of 1882 based on both race and class R and C are imperially inseparable but remain analytically distinct diff things in terms on concept, but so tightly linked R and C are mutually constituted chinese laborers were not allowed in bc of threat to the work force chinese merchants were not restricted immigration act of 1917: the “Asiatic Exclusion Zone Act” extended the chinese exclusion act into all Asians of all classes europe 1840s1920s massive immigration of catholic irish the british treated them basically like slaves (Northern Ireland part of Great Britain; prodestants) the irish are migrating to the US during the race science is going on rise of the eugenics movement Madison Grant – author of the passing of the great race one of the g spaniard and Italians are more similar to Africans than to northern Europeans he believes there’s a biological basis for race the races of Europe nordic alpine mediterranean scientific racism: measuring intelligence from crainiometry – late 1800s turned to the more abstract idea of intelligence you could objectively measure intelligence (IQ) IQ varies per racial group notion of the IQ is not valid to argue that varies across races makes no sense bc there are no biological racial groups IQ doesn’t exist and cannot be distributed across racial groups tested immigrants who were knew to the language, culture, etc. JohnsonReed Act worry of all these European immigrants African People were targeted for slavery mainly bc they were easy to identifyput heavy restrictions of immigrations from europe in order to minimize bad Europeans by allocating quota visas per year wanted people from England and northen Ireland given a lot of visas (65K+) to them in comparison to African and Asian countries (100) or Italy (5K+) base number of visas on current population as ratio to allocate visas 1890: year they decided to use for ratio visas to keep Nordics number higher special case of mexico since we barred Italians, and chinese workers; needed a backdoor for workers there was disposable labor if we didn’t need them, we can just push them back as opposed to Asians and Italians were they are separated by oceans pull in and push out as much as we need Summary of class: citizenship and immigration laws represents a comprehensive effort to construct and maintain white supremacy the boundaries of the racial category white have changed over time access to whiteness, being seen as white, was a crucial resource for immigrant groups peoples/communities identified as “nonwhite” suffered under legal inequality african americans not granted citizenship de facto until 1965 asian americans 1952 native americans 1924 irish were at the bottom of the northern economic order irish were at one point at the level of an African american how did irish become white? the irish recognized that whiteness itself was a key resource that they needed the got white by distancing themselves from African americans by not working, living, or socializing with themeventually, the irish acquired whiteness 1/31 Racial Ideologie(s) in America 1920s2017 (chapter 3) ideology: set of ideas in the service of power; legitimates unjustifiable situations what is the objective of racial ideology: set of ideas that (1) divides people into racial groups; create difference and (2) with the creation of difference, creates inequality; serves the interests of one group. racism: prejudice + discrimination belief in racial difference and inequality (prejudice) and discrimination (action) individual prejudice and discrimination are shaped by racial ideology 3 racial ideologies: biological racism (dominant) it reaches its height in the late 18th century with scientific racism biological inferiority (how dominants view minorities) starts off in Europeans v Africans v native americans, then Nordics become distinguishing themselves from Mediterranean, etc. implications: people who are not white, are denied their full humanity 1945; end of WWII; begins to end bc they realized what biological racism had done then, The Bell Curve was written by white scholars (white people are inherited more intelligent than the rest of minorities, which explains poverty rates, etc.) cultural racism (dominant) both of these are surrounded by the intent to discriminate middle of the 20th century, and with us today; has not declinedthey do not share or respect our beliefs and values; cultural differences begin to create a sense of racism; what culture has better values; whites saw other cultures as inferior implications: segregation; white culture must be protected from others through separate schools, families, neighborhoods, etc. biological and cultural racism combined in the 1930s1960s to justify: mass deportation of mexican americans mass internment of Japanese americans tuskegee syphilis experiments legal segregation in south these people don’t deserve the same rights and protection as white people colorblind universalism (new racial ideology) systematically reproduces racially unequal outcomes regardless if anyone intends to do so we have competitive markets today, and nonwhites are not doing as well because of some “cultural limitations” the role of race and racism is denied, while prejudice, discrimination, and structural inequalities continue to benefit whites ex: “I’m not racist, but” race has symbolic meaning, and has a real material existence in the world colorblind racism is not racist in the same way as biological and cultural bc those ideologies were explicitly racist; “whites are better bc of..” there’s no claim of superiority in the colorblind colorblind functions to justify the ongoing reproduction of systemic racial inequality and injustice today by turning attention away from the issue of race or denying the institutional idea of race 2/9 “Progressive” Communities and Racism the future of whiteness according to golash, by 2060, over 57% of US population will be “non white”who will be white? being considered white is a resource in America that people can draw on historically contested and changing ex: irish, Italians, etc. who’s white, who’s this who’s that, is a political issue who says who’s what race?? the government Whose white selfdefinition: categorizing yourself to a particular race social definition: imposed on you by others through the media; cultural beliefs and ideas like racial ideologies or stereotypes is latino are ethnicity or race ITS BOTH racialized ethnicity this is what latinos are experiencing in the US today