ANSC 221 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW Preparation for Exam 1 HISTORY and GENERAL: Who were the following people and what did they have to do with nutrition? Dr. William Beumont, Alexio St. Martin, Daniel, Lavoisier, Lind, Babcock, Funk. What is the first recorded nutritional expeWe also discuss several other topics like scarpelli soup
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riment? What did Beumont discover together with Alexio St. Martin? Who was responsible for the health of the Limeys (British Navy)? Why are they called Limeys? What was the significance of the single plant feeding experiment? Who named vitamins after vital amines? Who is credited with "Life is a chemical process", and is called the Father of Nutrition? What are the major differences and similarities in composition between animals and the plant materials that serve as their food? TERMS: Know and identify all of the following: sugar, monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, starch, cellulose, glycogen, glucose, ribose, fructose, galactose, maltose, cellobiose, hemicellulose, lignin, amylase, amylopectin, amylose, cellulase, xylose, mannose, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, essential fatty acid, glycerol, triglyceride (di, mono), phenylalanine, valine, tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, arginine, lysine, leucine, peptide bond, polypeptide, crude protein, true protein, NPN, NUTRIENT CLASSES: Which could best be called the MOST IMPORTANT NUTRIENT? Which nutrient class provides most of the energy in livestock diets? Which nutrient class has the most energy per gram?Which nutrient class provides energy only after requirements for it are met? Which nutrient classes do NOT provide any energy? Which nutrient class is analyzed as crude fuber and NFE? is soluble in ether? is analyzed by kjeldahl procedure? is analyzed by N X 6.25? How much energy do fats, carbohydrates and proteins have in relation to each other? WATER: How much water loss is fatal? What are 3 sources of water? What are 3 properties of water that aid animal life? What does an example of Purdue peaches and peaches from Michigan have to do with nutrition? (This is quite irrelevent now and can be safely ignored; it dealt with specific heat of water and influences on microclimate of large bodies of water) Explain the importance of High Dielectric Constant, High Latent Heat of Vaporization, and High Specific Heat to the animal, and give an example. What do each of these mean, and what does their consequence mean for animals? Which physical principle is working to help cool a dog when it pants? Which physical principle is working to help move nutrients to the cells? What are the major functions of water for animals? What are the consequences of too little water? Why is water such a good substance for maintaining constant body temperature? How does water help maintain constant body temperature? In what circumstance is metabolic water important in animals? CARBOHYDRATES: How are carbohydrates classified? List 2 pentoses, 4 hexoses, 4 dissacharides (and the monosaccharides they are made of), 3 polysaccharides.What is the difference between starch and cellulose? What is glycogen, and what is it most similar to? What are 2 forms of starch, and what is their difference? What happens to the extra starch if too much is consumed? What is lignin, and what effect does it have on other carbohydrates? What is blood sugar? milk sugar? table sugar? What are the major sources of carbohydrates in animal diets? What is the result of digestion of starch in the pig? in the cow? What is lignin? Why is it present? What is its nutritional significance? Which portion of proximate analysis is it present in? LIPIDS: What are the groups of lipids BESIDES the mono, di and triglycerides? Define triglycerides; define fats (what atoms and what moleculels are they made of, soluble in what?) What are the differences and similarities between carbohydrates and lipids? Why (and how) do fats contain more energy? (how much?) What are VFA's? Which acids are the VFA's? What is the nutritional role of VFA's? Name 3 VFA's, 2 long chain saturated fatty acids, 1 long chain monounsaturated fatty acid that is nonessential, 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, 3 essential fatty acids. What is the meaning of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid. What are some of the consequences of a fatty acid being unsaturated? What has to happen to fats in order for them to be digested? What are the major sources of fats as livestock feeds? (This is covered better in section 2, don't fret it too much).Why might you feed more fat in hot summer than in cold winter (2 reasons)? (You'll understand this better after the section on energy in part 2 also). PROTEINS: How are proteins defined? What elements are they composed of? What molecules? How is protein analyzed? What is Kjeldahl? What is crude protein? Why is it called 'crude protein'? How much N is in protein on average. What significance is the value 6.25? What does "essential amino acid" mean? What does First and Second (etc) Limiting Amino Acid mean? What are the first and second limiting amino acids in corn for pigs? for chickens? List, spelled correctly, the 10 essential amino acids for the pig and rat. What is a polypeptide? Which EAA contains sulfur? Which 2 EAA's are most economical to buy 'in a bag', ie synthetically? Which form of the amino acids (D, L) is the natural form (and usually the active form). Which amino acid is used equally well in both D and L forms? Which amino acid is tested at a baby's birth to be sure it is metabolized properly? VITAMINS: How are vitamins classified? List the fat soluble vitamins. What are the GENERAL functions of the fat soluble vitamins. What are the GENERAL functions of the water soluble vitamins. Which vitamin is needed by man but not by farm animals? Which vitamin deficiency results in:epithelial integrity problems, reproductive problems, night blindness, xeropthalmia, bone malformation, rickets, exudative diathesis, white muscle disease, stiff lamb disease, encephalomalacia, cellular membrane peroxidation problems, scurvy, pellagra, reduced litter size in pigs, black tongue, perosis, anemia, pericious anemia, mulberry heart disease, beri beri , neural tube disorders like spina bifida THIS LIST IN NOT ALL INCLUSIVE Which vitamin would be supplemented in cases of milk fever? Which vitamin interacts with selenium? Which vitamin contains cobalt? Which vitamin is (or is most related to): carotene, retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, cholecalciferol, ergosterol, 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol, d,alphatocopherol, menadione, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamine. Which vitamin acts like a hormone? Which vitamin is necessary to use Ca and P? What is the difference between Vitamin D2 and D3? Which vitamins are toxic? Which vitamin can you get from sunshine on the skin? Which is the main vitamin that is a biological antioxidant? Phyloquinone and menadione have which vitamin activity? What is dicoumerol? What is the function for vitamin K? D? A? E? C? etc. etc. Which vitamin is involved in flavoproteins transport of H. Curled toe paralysis. Amino acid decarboxylation and deamination. Pellegra.Goose stepping in pigs. Requires intrinsic factor for absorption. Biotin is involved in what? Folic acid is involved in what? Which vitamin most poorly fits the definition of a vitamin? Which is added to increase litter size in otherwise normal pigs? What vitamin prevents fetal abormalities of neural tube closure, such as spina bifida? MINERALS: List the macro minerals. Which mineral(s) is/are: necessary for normal bone, necessary for blood clotting, cations that control acidbase balance and osmotic balance, needed for structural purposes, needed as enzyme activators, present as a part of protein, provided in salt, involved in grass tetany, unnecessary to supplement to pigs as the element necessary to transport oxygen in the blood the principle extracellular cation, intracellular cation, primary anion necessary to prevent hyperirritibility, abnormal mineralization of soft tissue CALCIUM Where is calcium stored? What are calcium's functions in the body (4)? How is calcium regulated in the blood? What is nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism? What is rickets? What are the signs of calcium deficiency?What is milk fever, and how do you treat it? How do you prevent it? What are the main sources of calcium? Explain the importance of calcium:phosphorus ratio. PHOSPHORUS Where is phosphorus at in the body (compare to calcium)? How is phosphorus level in the blood controlled? What are the important signs of phosphorus deficiency? Why is phosphorus lack in the diet of greater practical importance than calcium lack? But why is calcium lack in the diet so stupid? What factors affect calcium and phosphorus absorption? How are calcium and phosphorus excreted from the body (differs in different animals)? What feeds are fairly rich in phosphorus? What is the problem with most feed phosphorus? What can be done to increase phosphorus availability? What are the main inorganic phosphorus (and calcium) supplements? What is phytic acid (phytin), phytase? OTHER MACRO MINERALS What is the main intracellular cation? What is the main extracellular cation? Which cation (above) must ALWAYS be added to diets and which is seldom added? When might you expect a chloride deficiency? When would you expect to add potassium to the diet? What form is sodium usually added to the diet?Why can you add inorganic sulfur to ruminant diets, but it would do no good to add it to swine or poultry diets? What mineral can prevent grass tetany? How would you supplement it? In what form? What other conditions contribute to grass tetany? (What is it?) What are the uses for magnesium in the diet? Do we usually add it supplementally? Why or why not. What are the deficiency symptoms of magnesium deficiency? TRACE MINERALS: Which mineral deficiency results in: anemia? (3) perosis goiter parakeratosis Vitamin E deficiency symptoms swayback in lambs, depigmentation of wool Which essential minerals are quite toxic? Which nonessential minerals are quite toxic? Which mineral is part of Vitamin B12? Which mineral is part of hemoglobin? Which mineral is part of thyroxine? Which mineral is fed at high levels to pigs for a growth promotant effect like that of antibiotics? Which mineral is necessary in order to use iron? Which mineral is necessary for proper carbohydrate metabolism? Which of the trace minerals are the most toxic? What are some nonessential minerals that are toxic? What are some of the minerals that have been proposed as essential, but proof is still lacking or uncertain, at least in Dr. Forsyth's opinion? Which mineral is in toxic levels in raw rock phosphate?Which mineral is useful in the prevention of tooth decay for people? What is the status of this mineral for livestock (in terms of essentiality, toxicity)? Which mineral is a contituent of xanthine oxidase? What are the deficiency symptoms? Which minerals have important interactions with copper (there are 2 different 'interaction situations' you should know, one with one other mineral and one with 2 other minerals). Which mineral is contained in thyroxin? Where is selenium deficiency a problem? Where is Se toxicity a problem? Why is Se regulated in amount you can add, whereas other nutrients are not? How was Se obtained in Eastern cornbelt diets before it was legal to add to the diet? What forms of Se can be used? What are the most useful forms of ALL of the mineral elements (specific for each mineral). Zinc deficiency looks like what other nutrient deficiency (a vitamin and another nutrient you should know). What essential mineral(s) is it unnecessary, or of no value, to add to nonruminant diets, even if they are low in the diet, and why? Why does Dr. Forsyth believe that too much iron supplementation might be a harmful thing? Under what conditions and in what circumstances do animals need iron supplementation? Why don't they need it, or very much of it, the rest of the time? What is different about iron absorption, excretion and metabolism than for most other minerals? FEED ADDITIVES What is a feed additive, what is an antimicrobial, what is an antibiotic? What is the single most important thing your instructor wants you to know about feed additives? What is DES? Why was it withdrawn from use? Why was it withdrawn WHEN it was withdrawn? What are antibiotics used for? What are the objections to their use? What practices can we employ that help to decrease the dependency on antibiotics? What are some of the major antibiotics and other growth promotants?What is a 'beta agonist'? What is BST, PST.? How are they different from steroids? What steroids are used in livestock and why? What is zearalenone? somatotropin? growth hormone? Why is the newspaper so often wrong when it talks about feeding growth hormone to pigs or cattle? What regulations are in force regarding feed additives? How can one find out what regulations are in force? How can an animal feeder get the needed information? Who, or what office, should one contact about legal issues regarding feeds, including anything at all concerning feed additives? Where is that office?