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TEXAS STATE / Engineering / BIO 2414 / Who are the big names and their big ideas for the history of evolution

Who are the big names and their big ideas for the history of evolution

Who are the big names and their big ideas for the history of evolution


School: Texas State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Nicholas herrmann
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Anthro
Cost: 50
Name: Biological Anthropology Study Guide 1
Description: Exam guide for the first exam on 2/20 Goes over the review sections of the notes and also what Dr. V said was needed for us to know.
Uploaded: 02/16/2017
4 Pages 13 Views 4 Unlocks

Study Guide  

Who are the big names and their big ideas for the history of evolutionary thought?

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

7:19 PM

Know the 4 subfields of Anthropology 

∙ Archeology

∙ Linguistic Anthropology

∙ Biological Anthropology

∙ Cultural Anthropology

Know the definition of Biological Anthropology 

∙ The bridge connecting social science and biological science of both humans and their ancestors.  Know the definition of Science 

∙ The process for evaluating empirical data about the natural world  

Know the difference between a law and a theory 

∙ Law: How things are  

What is the definition of biological anthropology?

∙ Theory: Why things are that way

∙ Ex: Gravity- Law: Why things fall (Newton) Theory of Relativity: How things falls (Einstein) Know big names and their big ideas for history of evolutionary thought 

∙ Popper - Philosopher 

- Science and pseudoscience are not the same, separated by falsification

- Theory unable to be argued isn't scientific

Ex: Einstein- Science/ Freud- Pseudoscience

∙ Morton- Physician 

- Founder of American school of physical anthropology If you want to learn more check out What is the most important factor in the creation of minority group status?

- Incorporated racial bias into his cranial research on skull size vs brain capacity - 1981:Gould went back and discovered bias created deliberate number mishaps  Work of Gould and Morton supports Science as a self-correcting process 

What is the difference between a law and a theory?

Early Thoughts on Evolution 

Ptolemy – Geocentric theory (Earth= center of universe)

Ussher- Earth is very young (estimated at 6000 years using bible)

Plato- Fixity of species “The ideal type” Everything is how it was intended

Aristotle- Humans on top of Great Chain of Being

Thought process began to change in 16th Century 

∙ Copernicus- Heliocentric theory  

∙ Galileo- tested Copernicus’s theory with empirical data and began to overturn Pre Enlightenment ideas

∙ Linnaeus - naturalist 

- Founded modern taxonomy w/ Systema natura If you want to learn more check out What are the four dimensions of the american dream?

- Binomial Classification- Genus Specie (EX: Homo Sapiens)

- Believed in fixity of the species  

- Used common attributes to group organisms into nested clades

- First to group humans w/ other animals (Primates)

- Class -> Order-> Genus -> Species

∙ Buffon - Naturalist We also discuss several other topics like What can a molecule be broken down into?

- Not a fan of Linnaeus

- Believed role of naturalist should be explain nature, not just organize it

- Proposed a dynamic relationship between organisms and their enviornment  - Theory of Degeneration

- Original "Ancestral "species that migrate to different parts of the world w/ different climate &  food sources and degenerate species  

- Knew change was important 

- Apes and human had a common ancestor

- Argued that the Earth was at least 70,000 years old (in comparison to the first believed 6000  years)

∙ Steno- anatomist 

- Founded of geology and Stratigraphy

∙ Hooke - Naturalist 

- -Noted that some fossils have no living equivalents  

- Suggested that species many have been destroyed (EXTINCTION)

∙ Lamark - Naturalist 

- Evolutionist = species CAN change 

- First to propose a coherent mechanism of HOW evolution can occur

- Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics:

⮚ An organism Strives to respond to an environmental challenge If you want to learn more check out What are the 10 great public health achievements?

⮚ Use/disuse of a body parts leads to change in that body part

⮚ This change can be passed on to the offspring  

- Lamark's mechanism is wrong but he tried 

- But also said that the stability of the species is proportional to stability of the environment - Therefore, if the environment changes then species has to change to survive - (Ie. Adaptation occurs over time)

∙ Cuvier - Naturalist 

- Vocal critic of Lamarck and anti-evolutionist Don't forget about the age old question of What is the impact of both a revenue deferral and an expense deferral?

- Believed in fixity of species

1. Reformed animal classification system

- Explicitly rejected the Great Chain of Being and the idea that some animal groups are superior - Saw each species as a finely tuned for its environment

1. Demonstrated that fossils found in geological strata represent extinct species - provided further evidence that the earth was old  

- Found that different levels of the earth contained unique set of fossils  

- Proposed catastrophism 

⮚ Regional disasters destroyed species, new species migrated in from nearby areas ∙ Lyell - Geologist 

- -Same geological processes happening today, also happened in the past

- Given enough time small changes can have a large effect  

- Inescapable conclusion: Earth is very old (Like millions of years) 

∙ Malthus English Clergy

- Compared Euro pop growth with food production capacity

- If left untouched, pop will increase faster than the food supply can manage  ∙ Owen- Anti-Evolutionist We also discuss several other topics like What is the main difference between transaction focused and trust based selling?

- First to define homology  

- Homology-Same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function - Owen believed that there’s an underlying body structure for all organisms despite varying  shapes and sizes  

∙ Darwin – Naturalist 

- Realized evolution is a branching process

- Suggested natural selection as a mechanism for evolution

∙ Wallace - Naturalist 

- Independently came up with the mechanism of natural selection

- Published a joint paper on natural selection in 1858

- Darwin published Origin of Species in 1859

Know the definition of Evolution and Natural Selection

Change in allele frequencies over time  

∙ Natural Selections 3 points  

1. Trait has to be heritable  

2. There must be variation in the trait with the pop

3. There must be differential reproductive success based on that trait

Evolution acts at the level of the population 

Natural selection acts at the level of the individual. 

Know Mendel’s Contributions – Also look into related concept in Lab 1

- Worked out basics of genetics and inheritance while working w/ pea plants

Had 3 observations from genetic work

1. Individuals have to particles to control distinct traits  

2. Some alleles mask others (Dominant v Recessive)

- phenotype = physical

- genotype = genetic

- -homozygous = same alleles

- heterozygous = different alleles

2. Genes and alleles inherited independently from each other (Independent assortment) Know Basics of DNA Look into similarities in Lab 2  

- Discovered in 1953 by Crick and Watson, (and franklin but no credit to her)  

- Double helix structure, long string of 4 letters.

- 46 chromosomes (22 autosome pairs and on gamete pair)  

- 2 major functions  

1. Mitosis- process of cell reproduction = 2 identical daughter cells

2. Meiosis- production of gametes = haploid cells (Recombination in meiosis increases  genetic variation

Know Protein Synthesis 

1) Transcription- the set of instruction are copied to mRNA

2) RNA processing- The mRNA is modified

Many genes are made up of coding (exons) and noncoding (introns) parts 3) Translation- The mRNA is converted into a series of amino acids  

- Transfer RNA are little segments of a specific 3 nucleotide base and an attached  amino acid

- tRNA that are complementary to the mRNA sequence attach and form a chain of  amino acids (=a protein)

Know the complex interaction between genes and phenotypes

- Humans have more types of proteins than many other organisms

∙ Pleiotropy: one gene affects multiple phenotypic traits

∙ Polygenic: a trait influenced by multiple genes – most traits, particularly  continuous traits  

One if the ways this complexity is achieved is through alternative splicing

- The complex relationship between genes and phenotype can also be  influence by the environment an organism develops in

- Environment can influence genes and phenotypes is through the  epigenome

Know the forces of Evolution 

- Mutation

- Gene Flow

- Genetic Drift

- Natural Selection

∙ Mutation: Random process by which environmental factors or ‘errors’ in cell  duplication change genetic material  

∙ Gene Flow: Movement of alleles between (migration) and within (nonrandom mating)  populations. Nonrandom reduces variation in the population. Positive and Negative assortative mating.

∙ Genetic Drift: Random processes that cause allele frequencies to change (bottle neck and Founder  effect)

∙ Natural Selection: 

Types of Selection

- Directional Selection- For: one extreme trait Against: the other extreme. It shifts to one trait  direction

- Stabilizing Selection- For: Moderate traits Against: Both extremes Selection favors the middle - Disruptive Selection- For: Both extremes Against: the moderate traits (RARE)  Know Biological Species Concept 

Biological Species Concept

A group of interbreeding natural population which is reproductively isolated from other such  groups

Reproductive Isolation is when something is preventing interbreeding

- Parts don’t fit

- Different body sizes

- Different Courtship rituals  

- Different mate recognition signals  

- Genetic differences can cause offspring to be sterile

Biological species concept problems

1. How to apply to fossils records

2. Some very different groups can produce viable offspring (EX: Tigon)  

 3. How to apply to asexual species

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