Sociological Perspectives (SYG 1000) w/ Dr. Gina CarreñoLukasik Study Guide 1 Your first exam will consist of multiple choice questions that can address any of the concepts below. chapter 1: the sociologiDon't forget about the age old question of ∙ Climate of Acceptance What causes society to accept said thing mass medium to exist and flourish?
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cal perspective: ∙ sociological imagination (know definition and examples of how to use this way of thinking) o the ability to see the relation between the events in your personal life and events in society o Ex: why someone does not have a job in the US ∙ sociology (definition from text) o the systematic study of the relationship between individuals and society ∙ structuration (definition and examples) o Twoway process by which we shape our social world and by which we are shaped by society o Ex: society affects you, you can affect society ∙ levels of analysis (know definitions and examples) ^ macro o large social structures without referring to the interaction of individuals involved ^ micro o Interactions between individuals ∙ European origins of sociology (know the main contributions of each person, understand definitions of the concepts they introduced / studied) ^ Auguste Comte (social statics, social dynamics) o Founder of sociology o Social statics = stability and order o Social dynamics = social change ^ Harriet Martineau (feminist theory, opposed slavery and oppression of women) o Feminist theory o Rights of women and abolish slavery o Social activist ^ Herbert Spencer (Social Darwinism) o Social Darwinism o Survival of the fittest o It’s your faulto Biology deficient o Culturally deficient ^ Karl Marx (critique of capitalism, class conflict, struggle between the bourgeoisie and proletariat) o Conflict theory o Power struggle between: Bourgeoisie = own the means of production – “haves” Proletariat = sell their labor for wages – “have nots” ^ Emile Durkheim (functionalism, studied suicide, mechanical versus organic solidarity) o MO – mechanical and organic o Functionalism o Suicide o Preindustrial: mechanical solidarity – people are interdependent because they share similar valves o VS o Industrial: organic solidarity – people are interdependent because they rely on each other economically ^ Max Weber (verstehen – empathy – to walk in someone else’s shoes) ∙ American contributions to sociology ^ Jane Addams (she worked with poor, immigrants, and elderly in Chicago) ^ W.E.B. DuBois – he studied how blacks were affected by society – while Spencer’s ideas of Social Darwinism reigned during this time, that meant that when (on average) blacks weren’t doing as well as whites (for example, financially and educationally), Spencer and his followers blamed blacks for being supposedly biologically and/or culturally inferior to whites – DuBois came along and approached the issue much more sociologically, pointing, for example, to how slavery had negatively impacted (understatement) blacks’ opportunities and life chances ∙ know the main sociological theoretical perspectives (functionalism, conflict theory, feminist theory, symbolic interactionism, and feminists’ use of symbolic interactionism) – know and understand the main people, ideas and concepts / definitions behind each perspective – be able to apply these perspectives o Functionalism Macro Durkheim Different parts of society are interrelated just like the human body, so a change in one part of society will lead to changes in other parts too Positive/optimistic Manifest = intended and recognized Latent = less recognized o Conflict theory Macro Marx Power and inequality Critical o Feminist theory Macro Martineau Gender inequality is built into social institutions Critical o Symbolic Interactionalism Micro Interactions between individuals are based on mutually understood symbols Impression management/dramaturgy Goffman = we change the way we act based on who we’re around (dramaturgy) Feminist theory Micro Interactions between individuals are affected by gender ∙ from text, not in lecture: ^ Durkheim’s distinction between mechanical solidarity versus organic solidarity (in lecture, but text elaborates) o Mechanical solidarity – social cohesion based on shared experience and a common entity with limited individuality o Organic solidarity – a new form of social cohesion, characteristics of modern industrial societies, that is based on interdependence ^ definition of structure o Structure – recurring patterns of behavior in social life chapter 2: social research ∙ the twofold purpose of doing sociological research o challenge our commonly held beliefs o solve social problems ∙ objectivity (know definition) o we do not let our personal beliefs affect our work∙ three ways sociologists try to increase objectivity – here note the concept of verifiability o carefully design our research o state our theoretical perspective o verifiability – scientists repeat studies that have already been done ∙ from text, not in lecture: o steps in research process choose and explore a general topic identify a specific research question design the research study and specify the data to be collected consider ethical dimensions of your research and, if necessary, get approval from your schools, institutional review boards or IRB. Collect, analyze and interpret the data Report the results ∙ know definitions and be able to apply the following research concepts: ^ causation o events occur in no random predictable ways, and one event leads to another ^ hypothesis o educated guess ^ independent and dependent variable o independent is the cause. Dependent is the effect o Independent variable causes the dependent variable o Dependent variable depends on the independent variable ∙ criteria for establishing causal relationships: o two variables must be correlated – know the definition of correlation, and the difference between / examples of positive and negative correlation correlation: a relationship in which change in one variable is connected to change in another variable Positive correlation – independent variable change in the SAME direction Negative correlation – independent variable and dependent variable change in OPPOSITE directions o avoid spurious correlation – know the definition and examples When the causal relationship you see between two variables is actually being produced by another variable Example: ice cream consumption increase murder rate goes up This is a positive correlation because the variables are changing in the same directiono note time order (independent variable must come before the dependent variable) o multiple causation – know the definition and examples an event occurs as a result of several factors acting combination ∙ know the following different types of sociological research: ^ for experiments, know the researcher tightly controls the environment ^ for surveys, know this is quantitative, most common form of sociological research, uses large samples – know difference between / examples of open ended questions (you write the answer out) versus fixedchoice questions (multiple choice) ^ for fieldwork know definition and know participant observation o research that takes place in the natural setting o interviews o Participant observation – researcher becomes a member of the group they are studying, either with or without informing the group that they are a researcher ^ for life histories, know this is biography ^ for historical research, know this studies events that took place in the past ^ for comparative research, know this method compares information, looks for similarities and differences ^ for content analysis, know this analyzes media such as magazines, television programs, etc. ∙ advantages and disadvantages of each type of sociological research (refer to text and think on your own) ∙ ethics in sociological research – text and – from lecture: what is the goal of ethics? – to not harm participants. what are some ways that sociologists try to follow good ethics in research? – protect the privacy of research subjects, research approval, informed consent, debrief participants = show results. from lecture: Milgram’s Obedience –what are the ethical problems with this research? – obedience ∙ from text, not in lecture: ^ definition of public sociology o The effort to bring the findings of both basic and applied sociological research to a broader nonacademic audience ^ definition of qualitative data o Any kind of evidence that is not numerical in nature, including evidence gathered from interviews, direct observation, and written or visual documents ^ difference between positivist social science versus interpretive social science versus critical social scienceo Positivist: an approach that assumes that the social world, likely natural world, is characterized by laws that can be identified through research and used to predict and control human affairs o Interpretive: an approach that focuses on understanding the meaning that people ascribe to their social world o Critical: research carried out explicitly to create knowledge that can be used to bring about social change chapter 3: culture ∙ definition of culture o Material objects as well as patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that passed through generations in society ∙ difference between material and nonmaterial culture, and examples of each o Material – tangible, senses o Nonmaterial – norms, values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors ∙ definition of sociobiology and some limitations of this perspective ∙ the three dimensions of culture: normative, cognitive, and material o Normative – a culture’s standards for appropriate behavior Norms: rules that define appropriate and inappropriate behavior a. Folkways – customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that lack mortal overtones (everyday common courtesies). b. Mores – huge moral significance – taboo c. Laws – formally defined and enforced Sanctions – ways that we enforce norms – positive (reward) or negative (punish). a. Formal – official designated people b. Informal – anyone Values – cultural principles that we claim to accept ∙ for normative dimension, know definitions and examples of norms (folkways, mores, laws), sanctions (formal and informal, positive and negative), and values ∙ for cognitive dimension, know definitions and examples of beliefs ∙ definition and examples of ideal versus real culture o Ideal – guidelines we say we accept o Real – actual behavior practice ∙ for cultural diversity, know definitions and examples of subculture and countercultureo Subculture – group that’s part of the dominant culture but differs from it in some respect o Counterculture – subculture that is deliberately opposed to some aspect of the dominant culture ∙ ethnocentrism versus cultural relativism – know definitions and be able to apply o Ethnocentrism when you judge others based on your own cultural standards o Cultural relativism – norms, beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors are not themselves right or wrong, but rather they should be judged in their own cultural context ∙ from text, not in lecture: ^ SapirWhorf hypothesis o The idea that because of their different cultural content and structure, languages affect how their speakers think and behave ^ multiculturalism o The recognition, valuing, and protection of the distinct cultures that make up a society * video: Body Modification chapter 6: socialization ∙ know definition of socialization and when socialization occurs o how we learn to be human – socialization starts at birth and continues throughout our life ∙ know definition of personality and that it is formed through socialization ∙ evidence for importance of socialization (from lecture, research on monkeys and cases of feral children – Isabelle and Genie) ∙ definition of selfconcept and Cooley’s lookingglass self – who are significant others? o Selfconcept: Image of yourself as an entity separate from other people o Lookingglass self: kids learn to judge themselves in terms of how they imagine others will react to them o Significant others are people in our life whose opinion of us matter to us the most ∙ Mead’s distinction between I and Me, definition and examples of roletaking, and how we learn roletaking (imitation stage, play stage, and game stage) o I – spontaneous, creative o Me – socializedo Roletaking: you take on the view of another individual and then you respond to yourself from that imagined viewpoint Imitation stage: younger than three years old, children copy the behavior of a significant other without comprehending it Play stage: between ages 3 and 67 years old, children take on the role of an individual one at a time Game stage: begins at 7 or 8 years old, children take on the roles of several individuals all at the same time ∙ definition of generalized other o conception of youir society’s norms, values, and attitudes conscience ∙ definitions and examples of total institutions, desocialization, resocialization, anticipatory socialization – be able to apply concepts to video from class o Total institutions – places in which residents are separated from the rest of society – cannot come and go freely o Desocialization – abandon your old way of life – give up old norms, values, attitudes and behaviors o Resocialization – adopt a new way of life – adopt new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors o Anticipatory socialization – you are preparing yourself to learn new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors ∙ definition and examples (lecture and text) of agents of socialization – think about how children as well as adults are influenced by family, school, peers, and the media o Agents of socialization – things that significantly influence you. Ex: family, peers, etc. ∙ definition and examples of status – ascribed versus achieved, status set, master status o Ascribed – assigned at birth. Ex race, sex, religion, social class o Achieved – you earn during your lifetime. Ex education, occupation ∙ definition and examples of role – role conflict versus role strain o Role – rights and obligations attached to statuses o Role Conflict – stressed out because the roles of one status clash against the roles of another status o Role Strain – stressed out because of the roles of a single clash status ∙ in text, not in lecture: ^ definition of brain plasticity o the ability of the brain to restructure and reorganize itself, especially as a result of social experiences and learning