Study Guide for Final Exam!!
Study Guide for Final Exam!! KIN 362
Popular in Motor Development
Popular in Kinesiology
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie Newman on Monday April 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Tyler Williams in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views. For similar materials see Motor Development in Kinesiology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for Study Guide for Final Exam!!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/20/15
Development of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Cardiovascular System 0 The heart and circulatory system transport blood throughout body Transports nutrients to tissue heart acts as a pump 0 Oxygen o Glucose FFA Amino Acids o Vitamins and minerals 0 Many others Respiratory System 0 Oxygen intake 0 Oxygen gt ATP 0 C02 release 0 Helps to manage blood pH Cardiorespiratory Endurance and Children 0 Many myths include the following 0 System development restricts vigorous activity 0 Children automatically get enough exercise 0 Worldwide trend is toward reduced tness 0 High percentage of children in western societies have risk factors for heart disease 0 Low cardio respiratory tness might be at higher risk for mortality than other factors study done Physiological Responses to Exercise 0 Acute l shortterm responses in the body that is associated with a single bout of exercise 0 Example heart rate response to jogging heart rate increases from rest to exercise Chronicl longterm adjustments in the body due to exercise training 0 Example lower resting heart rate in aerobically trained individuals Physiological Responses to ShortTerm Exercise 0 During brief intense activity oxygen reserves and energy sources are depleted Such activity is termed anaerobic Without oxygen 0 Anaerobic poweris the rate at which the body can meet demand for shortterm intense activity 0 Anaerobic capacityis the maximum oxygen de cit the body can tolerate The 02 de cit is being supplied by anaerobic metabolism glycolysis Gives the body time for the demand of 02 to be met by the aerobic energy system Energy Systems see graph on powerpoint for more information ATPPC Lactic acid anaerobic glycolysis Aerobic glycolysis Developmental Changes in Anaerobic Performance 0 Factors associated with anaerobic performance 0 Body size 0 Ability to metabolize fuel sources in the muscles 0 Quick mobilization of oxygen delivery systems 0 These change as an individual grows Developmental Changes in Anaerobic Performance Children 0 Children have less anaerobic power output than adults 0 Muscle mass is smaller 0 Absolute quantities of energy reserves are smaller 0 Less capacity to story glycogen in muscle and liver 0 Energy reserve increase muscle mass increases Tolerance of byproducts of metabolic process improves ie lactic acid 0 Ability to buffer out lactic acid 0 Lactic acidosis low blood pH 0 Mean and peak anaerobic power improve 0 Power worktime 0 Work force X distance 0 Gender differences in anaerobic performance 0 Differences in muscle mass 0 Improved neuromuscular coordination contributes to improved performance of anaerobic activities 0 More mature children have better anaerobic performance Crosssectional study 0 French Canadian youths 0 Total work output 0 10 second cycle sprint o What happens around age 15 Boys experienced puberty increased muscle mass 0 When controlled for body mass Developmental Changes in Anaerobic Performance Adulthood Once adult body size is attained anaerobic performance is stable 0 Improvement re ects training alone 0 In older adulthood a loss of muscle mass can result in declining anaerobic performance sarcopenia Assessing Anaerobic Performance 0 Wingate 210 min 0 30 second quotall outquot spring on the cycle ergometer 0 Computer based or hand calculations 0 Peakpower maximal power achieved in 5 seconds 0 Anaerobic capacity average power over the 30 second test Physiological Responses to Prolonged Exercise 0 During prolonged activity the following responses occur 0 Oxidative breakdown of food stores Macronutrients proteins carbohydrates fats Thus giving us ATP 0 Depletion of local energy reserves 0 Krebs Cycle TCA and Electron Transport Chain Aerobic poweris the rate at which longterm oxygen demand is met Aerobic capacity is the total energy available for prolonged activity 0 Body increases heart and respiratory rates cardiac output and oxygen consumption to deliver oxygen to muscles 0 Cardiac output heart rate beats per minute X stroke volume blood ejected per beat Ml of blood pumped out per minute 0 Cardiac output can increase through increased heart rate or increased stroke volume 0 Max heart rate 0 Prolonged sweat loss 0 Oxygen consumption V02 oxygen uptake 0 Amount of oxygen taken up and utilized by the body per minute 0 Expressed in absolute terms and in liters per minute 0 Relative terms in mL per kilogram of body weight per minute Affected by intensity of activity 0 Fick equation 0 V02 CO x A V 02 difference Cardiac output times arterial oxygen concentration minus venous oxygen concentration How much oxygen was extracted by the tissue to be used for metabolism If exercise is higher AV 02 difference is larger higher intensity Maximal Oxygen Consumption It is de ned as the largest amount of oxygen the body can consume and use during aerobic work o It is strongly related to lean body mass 0 Males usually have larger V02 0 Maximal oxygen consumption increases linearly o In boys from age 4 to late adolescence o In girls from age 4 to age 12 to 13 years Maximal oxygen consumptions per kilogram of bodyweight is then stable in boys and declines slightly in girls Changes in Aerobic Performance During Childhood Children have smaller stroke volume and thus smaller cardiac output 0 Smaller heart leads to less ventricular lling 0 Children compensate in part with higher heart rates 0 Children have lower concentration of hemoglobin 0 Protein that carries oxygen in the blood 0 Can extract more oxygen than adults 0 Children have an efficient system but cannot exercise for as long as adults can 0 Heart size increases Hemoglobin concentration increases Oxygenextraction ability decreases to adult levels 0 Ability to sustain exercise is related to body size and maturity level 0 By late adolescence and into adulthood trained men have an advantage over trained women 0 Why is this Aerobic Performance in Adulthood Average maximal oxygen uptake per kilogram of body weight falls about 1 per year after the 205 0 Athletic and active adults maintain higher maximal oxygen uptake than do sedentary adu s Cardiovascular Structure and Function 0 Changes in structure and function in adulthood 0 Loss of cardiac muscle Loss of elasticity in cardiac muscle Thickening of the left ventricle Fibrotic changes in valves Loss of elasticity in major blood vessels Maximum achievable heart rate with exercise declines Max Heart Rate 220 age Stroke volume in some older adults declines 0 Cardiac output declines Assessing Aerobic Performance 0 Gold Standard 0 Graded Exercise Test V02 max test 0 Need laboratory equipment metabolic cart Submaximal or Field Based Tests 0 Step test predicted from recovery heart rate 0 12 minute walkrun distance covered into equation 0 YMCA submax cycle test use two heart rates to nd work rate and plug into equann 00000 0 Respiratory Structure and Function 0 Changes with aging o Elasticity of lung tissue declines o Vital capacity decreases especially in smokers Maximum amount of air the lungs can hold 0 Oxygencarbon dioxide exchange loses efficiency Development of Strength Strength 0 Strength is the ability to exert force against some type of resistance 0 Strength enhances performance of sport and dance skills as well as daily living activities Assessment of Strength 0 Force is exerted against resistance 0 lsotonic speed varies or isokinetic speed is xedstable strength if limbs move 0 Isometric no change in joint angle if exerted against immovable resistance 0 Must specify 0 Muscle group 0 Movement 0 Speed of movement 0 Joint angle lsotonic Testing 0 Onerepetition max test 0 Onerepetition max prediction Predicts 1RM from submax repetitions Example squat 375 pounds times 6 reps 375 X 1242 465 pounds Isometric Testing 0 Common isometric tests use dynamometer or cable tensiometer Are pushups and situps a good measurement of muscular strength 0 No It measures muscular endurance instead Muscular Endurance ability to perform successive exertions against a resistance Muscle Mass and Strength 0 Do you think there is a relationship between amount of muscle mass and strength 0 Yes force a muscle can exert depends in part on its crosssectional area meaning amount of muscle bers or size of muscle bers that you have 0 Neurological factors are also involved 0 Strength does notalways change in parallel with muscle size Developmental Changes in Strength 0 Strength increases as children grow 0 Boys and girls are similar in strength levels until age 13 years old 0 Peak strength increases follow peak muscle increases 0 Among samesize children of different ages more mature children are stronger o Endocrine function probably in uences strength ie hormones o Neural factors are likely to exert in uence Including improved motor unit activation with maturation Strength in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Males add more muscle mass in adolescence Males are generally stronger especially in the arms and shoulders Size does not account for all gender differences 0 Cultural norms can affect motivation Guys typically participate in strength based activities more often 0 Cultural norms can affect habitual activity levels 0 After growth ceases increases in muscle mass are associated with resistance training Strength in Middle and Older Adulthood Strength generally declines gradually after the 30 s sarcopenia Muscle mass declines in the average older adult 0 Loss of strength may be greater than loss of muscle mass 0 Changes in ber types type II to type I o Decline in neural performance 0 Vascular changes decreases in blood ow to muscles 0 Resistance training helps to stop or minimize the loss of agerelated strength losses Strength Training 0 Principles 0 Progressive Overload l training adaptations do not occur unless above the habitual level Stimulus needs to gradually increase ie increase weights reps etc 0 Speci city l training must be speci c to the adaptations desired Speci c exercises for speci c results 0 Reversibility l the loss of training adaptations when not training Loss of results when stop training quotuse it or lose itquot 0 Strength Training Variables 0 Volume Sets X Reps X Weight 0 Intensity How hard are you working of 1 rep max RM Rating of Perceived Exertion RPE scale of 1 to 10 with resistance training 0 Frequency Number of times muscle or movement is trained in a given time period 0 How many days a week are you performing a speci c muscle group 0 Week or training cycle Increase in frequency means increase in volume Flexibility o Flexibility the ability to move joints through a full range of motion 0 It can bene t daily living activities and sport performance 0 Limited exibility can be a factor in injury Flexibility is speci c to each joint joint speci c 0 Lack of mobility in one joint may affect stability of other joints Assessment of Flexibility Because exibility is joint speci c it must be measured for each joint assessed 0 A goniometeris often used Axis is palced overjoint center Instrument arm is aligned with limb at extremes of movement range 0 Even though it measures multiple joints the sitandreach test is a common measure Developmental Changes in Flexibility 0 Infants and toddlers are very exible o In what positive have you seen babies illustrate this kneeling down 0 Studies show that declines in exibility start in childhood 0 Flexible people can maintain or improve levels 0 Girls as a group are more exible than boys 0 Why Flexibility exercises are socially acceptable for girls Girls participate in activities stressing exibility Whereas boys focus more on strength activities 0 In adolescence exibility is variable some people lose a signi cant degree Flexibility in Adulthood Adults generally lose exibility especially in littleused joints and after age 50 0 Adults who maintain training for exibility maintain their levels 0 Injuries and disease 0 Arthritis 0 Bone spurs o Tendonitis or Bursitis o Femoracetabular Impingement FAI ball of femur does not perfectly t in socket of hip Flexibility Training 0 Training can maintain range of motion in those with full range 0 Training can improve range of motion in those with limited range 7ypes of exibility training 0 Static Stretching holding 0 Dynamic Stretching full range of motion in a repetitive continuous notion o Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation PNF contract and relax method 0 Foam Rolling myofacial release increase blood ow Development of Body Composition Body Composition 0 Body mass can be divided into two types of tissue 0 Lean Body Mass LBM l muscle bone and organs 0 Fat mass l adipose tissue 0 The relative percentages of fatfree and fat tissues make up body composition Importance of Body Composition 0 Body composition determines appearance o It affects selfesteem o It is related to working capacity 0 Excess weight adds to workload 0 Excess fat limits range of motion 0 Obesity places one at risk of many chronic illnesses It s a correlationrelationship not cause and effect Body Composition and the Model of Constraints 0 Body composition is an individual structural constraint 0 How might excess fat tissue be a ratelimiting constraint for performance of fundamental motor skills 0 What about for activities of daily living Body Composition and Exercise in Children and Youths Genetic and environmental factors have an effect 0 Two environmental factors can be manipulated 0 Diet 0 Exercise 0 Various studies done 0 Preschoolers in physical education had less subcutaneous fat fat under the skin 0 Study followed 100 boys in 4 activitylevel groups longitudinally for 4 years from age Active boys maintained level of fat weight Whereas inactive boys increased in fat weight 0 Study followed 41 of the boys for another 3 years The pattern continued 0 Study followed 16 of the boys for another 6 years By age 21 fat weight was variable and re ected lifestyle 0 Study simultaneously followed boy and girl swimmers from age 12 to age 16 By age 15 boys were taller heavier and leaner Both boys and girls showed increased lean body mass at the expense of fat weight Body Composition and Exercise in Teenage Boys Divided 100 boys into 4 groups by activity level 0 Most active group involved in basketball or track at least 6 hours per week 0 Least active group participated only in unorganized and unsystematic activity 0 At 4 year follow up 0 Most active group the proportion of fat decreased 0 Least active group increased signi cantly in absolute fat Body Composition and Exercise in Teenage Girls 0 Study followed 32 gymnasts and 45 nontraining girls for 5 years 0 Girls who did not train gained fat weight 0 Those who did train 0 Showed no overall trend to add fat weight 0 Gained subcutaneous fat during inactivity 0 Lost fat and gained muscle during training 0 Increased caloric intake during training Motor Skill and Fitness 0 Recent review of studied indicated that poor motor pro ciency is associated with high body composition low cardiorespiratory tness lower strength and endurance lower anaerobic capacity and power and less physical activity Body Composition and Exercise in Adulthood The average middleaged adult loses lean body mass and gains fat 0 Regular exercise are known to maintain muscle and fat levels 0 Research studies generally nd bene cial effects of exercise among groups but individual results are variable Energy Imbalance Why are we prone to gain excess body fat 0 Lack of physical activity Over estimating calorie expenditure 0 Overconsumption of energy intake Under estimating calorie intake Calorie Intake Exceeds Calorie Expenditure 3 to 4 overestimation of energy expenditure Consumed 23 times more than they burned Calorie Intake 0 What is your favorite meal of the year 0 Average thanksgiving meal 4500 kcals o Calorie count council 0 Probably closer to 20004500 kcals Obesity Obesity rates are increasing around the world and at all ages About 14th of US children and adolescents are obese Chances are that obese children remain obese into adulthood 0 Poor selfregulation habits learned in childhood Metabolic and thyroid disorders account for less than 1 of cases Rapid increase implicates environmental rather than genetic factors 0 1970 l average daily calorie intake 2168 o 2008 l average daily calorie intake 2673 o 505 calorie increase 0 Match this with being signi cantly more sedentary Physical Activity Decreases 0 Technology 0 Screen time 0 Work 0 Other obligations Calorie Intake Increases 0 Fast food and dining out convenience Portion sizes Food preferences Social eating High calorie beverages 0000 Exercise as a Strategy to Reduce Obesity Exercise can offset the decrease in basal metabolic rate that accompanies caloric restriction Exercise promotes development of muscle tissue which requires more calories for maintenance Exercise expends calories Exercise is effective in controlling obesity over the life span Nutrition as a Strategy to Reduce Obesity Monitor portions Use food logs or food tracker Use smaller plates Slow down your eating
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'