PSY 101 Exam 4 Study Guide
PSY 101 Exam 4 Study Guide 101
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CHAPTER 13 Acute Stressor o A stressor of shortterm duration Aggression 0 Behavior that is intended to harm another living being who does not wish to be harmed Alarm phase 0 The first phase of the GAS in which a stressor is perceived and the fightor ight response is activated Approachapproach con ict 0 The internal con ict that occurs when competing alternative are equally positive Approachavoidance con ict 0 The internal con ict that occurs when a course of action has both positive and negative aspects Atherosclerosis o A medical condition characterized by plaque buildup in the arteries Avoidanceavoidance con ict 0 The internal con ict that occurs when competing alternatives are equally unpleasant B cell 0 A type of white blood cell that matures in the bone marrow Burnout 0 A workrelated state characterized by chronic stress accompanied by physical and mental exhaustion a sense of little accomplishment and cynicism about the job Chronic stressor o A stressor of longterm duration Coping 0 Taking some course of action regarding the stressor its effects or the person s reacting to it Emotionfocused coping o Coping focused on changing the person s emotional response to the stressor Enacted social support 0 The specific supportive behaviors provided by others Exhaustion phase 0 The final stage of the GAS in which the continued stress response itself becomes damaging to the body General adaptation syndrome GAS o The overall stress response that has three phases alarm resistance and exhaustion Glucocorticoids o A group of hormones that are released when the stress response is triggered Hardy personality 0 The combination of personality traits associated with health commitment to self and work a sense of control over what happens and a view of stressors as challenges Health psychology 0 The field concerned with the promotion of health and the prevention and treatment of illness as it relates to psychological factors Hostile attribution bias 0 The propensity to misread the intentions of others as negative Hostility o The personality trait associated with heart disease and characterized by mistrust an expectation of harm and provocation by others and a cynical attitude Internal con ict 0 The emotional predicament people experience when making difficult choices Natural Killer NK cell 0 A type of T cell that detects and destroys damaged or altered cells such as precancerous cells Nocebo effect o A variation of the placebo effect in which the person expects a negative outcome instead of a positive outcome Perceived social support 0 The subjective sense that support is available should it be needed Problemfocused coping o Coping focused on changing the environment itself or the way the person interacts with the environment Resistance phase 0 The second phase of the GAS in which the body mobilizes its resources to achieve equilibrium despite the continued presence of the stressor also called the adaptation phase Social support 0 The help and support gained through interacting with others Stress o The general term describing the psychological and physical response to a stimulus that alters the body s state of equilibrium Stressor o A stimulus that throws the body s equilibrium out of balance Stress response 0 The bodily changes that occur to help a person cope with a stressor also called the fightor ight response T cell 0 A type of white blood cell that matures in the thymus Thought suppression o The coping strategy that involves purposefully trying not to think about something emotionally arousing or distressing CHAPTER 14 Agoraphobia o A condition in which people fear or avoid places that might be difficult to leave should panic symptoms occur Anorexia nervosa 0 An eating disorder characterized by the refusal to maintain even a low normal weight and an intense fear of gaining weight Antisocial personality disorder ASPD o A personality disorder characterized by a longstanding pattern of disregard for other people to the point of violating their rights Anxiety disorders 0 A category of disorders whose hallmark is intense or pervasive anxiety or fear or extreme attempts to avoid these feelings Attributional style 0 A person s characteristic way of explaining life events Bipolar disorder 0 A mood disorder marked by one or more episodes of either mania or hypomania often alternation with periods of depression Bulimia nervosa 0 An eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by some attempt to prevent weight gain Compulsion o A repetitive behavior or metal act that an individual feels compelled to perform in response to an obsession Delusions o Entrenched false beliefs that are often bizarre Diathesisstress model 0 A way of understanding the development of a psychological disorder in which a predisposition to a given disorder diathesis and specific factors stress combine to trigger the onset of the disorder Dissociative amnesia 0 An inability to remember important personal information often experienced as memory gaps Dissociative disorders 0 A category of disorders involving a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness memory and or identity Dissociative fugue 0 An inability to remember some or all of the past combined with abrupt unexpected disappearances from home or work Dissociative identity disorder DID o A disorder in which a person has two or more distinct personalities that take control of the individual s behavior Dysthymia o A mood disorder similar to major depressive disorder but less intense and longer lasting Eating disorders 0 A category of disorders involving a severe disturbance in eating behavior Generalized anxiety disorder 0 An anxiety disorder whose hallmark is excessive anxiety and worry that is not consistently related to a specific object or situation Hallucinations o Sensory images so vivid that they seem real High expressed emotion 0 An emotional style in families that are critical hostile and over involved Hypomania o A mood state similar to mania but less severe with fewer and less intrusive symptoms Manic episode 0 A period of at least 1 week during which an abnormally elevated expansive or irritable mood persists Major depressive disorder MDD o A mood disorder characterized by at least 2 weeks of depressed mood or loss of interest in nearly all activities along with sleep or eating disturbances loss of energy and feelings of hopelessness Mood disorders 0 A category of disorders marked by persistent or episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life Negative symptom o A diminution or loss of normal functions such as a restriction in speech Obsession o A recurrent and persistent though impulse or image that feels intrusive and inappropriate and is difficult to suppress or ignore Obsessivecompulsive disorder OCD 0 An anxiety disorder marked by the presence of obsessions and sometimes compulsions Panic attack 0 An episode of intense fear or discomfort accompanied by physical and psychological symptoms such as palpitations breathing difficulties chest pain fear or impending doom or of doing something uncontrollable and a sense of unreality Panic disorder 0 An anxiety disorder whose hallmark is panic attacks or fear and avoidance of such attacks Personality disorders 0 A category of disorders in which relatively stable personality traits are in exible and maladaptive causing distress or difficulty with daily functioning Phobia o A fear and avoidance of an object or situation extreme enough to interfere with everyday life Positive symptom 0 An excess or distortion of normal functions such as a hallucination Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD 0 An anxiety disorder experienced by some people after a traumatic event and whose symptoms include persistent reexperiencing of the trauma avoidance of anything associated with the trauma and heightened arousal Psychological disorder 0 The presence of a constellation of cognitive emotional and behavioral symptoms that create significant distress impair work school family relationships or daily living or lead to significant risk of harm Psychosis 0 An obvious impairment in the ability to perceive and comprehend events accurately combined with a gross disorganization of behavior Schizophrenia o A psychotic disorder in which the patient s affect behavior and thoughts are profoundly altered Social causation o The chronic psychological and social stresses of living in an urban environment that may lead to an increase in the rate of schizophrenia especially among the poor Social phobia o A type of phobia involving fear of public humiliation or embarrassment and the ensuing avoidance of situations likely to arouse this fear Social selection 0 The tendency of the mentally disabled to drift to the lower economic classes also called social drift Specific phobia o A type of phobia involving persistent and excessive or unreasonable fear triggered by a specific object or situation along with attempts to avoid the feared stimulus CHAPTER 15 Antipsychotic medication 0 Medication that reduces psychotic symptoms Behavior modification 0 A category of therapeutic techniques for changing behavior based on operant conditioning principals Behavior therapy 0 A type of therapy based on wellresearched learning principals that focuses on changing observable measurable behaviors Benzodiazepine o A type of antianxiety medication that affects the target symptoms within 36 hours and does not need to be taken for more than a week to be effective Bibliotherapy o The use of selfhelp books and tapes for therapeutic purposes Clientcentered therapy 0 A type of insightoriented therapy that focuses on people s potential for growth and the importance of an empathetic therapist Cognitivebehavior therapy CBT o A type of therapy that aims to change problematic behaviors and irrational thoughts and provide new more adaptive behaviors and beliefs to replace old maladaptive ones Cognitive distortions o Irrational thoughts that arise from a systematic bias in the way a person thinks about reality Cognitive restructuring o The process of helping clients shift their thinking away from the focus on automatic dysfunctional thoughts to more realistic ones Cognitive therapy 0 A type of therapy that focuses on the client s thoughts rather than his or her feelings or behaviors Common factor 0 In psychotherapy a curative aspect that is common to all types of treatment Cybertherapy 0 Therapy over the internet Dream analysis 0 A technique used in psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy in which the therapist examines the content of dreams to gain access to the unconscious Electroconvulsive therapy ECT 0 Use of an electric current to induce a controlled brain seizure in people with certain psychological disorders such as psychotic depression or those for whom medication has not been effective or recommended Exposure 0 A therapeutic technique based on classical conditioning that rests on the principle of habituation Family therapy 0 A therapy modality in which a family or certain members of a family is treated Free association 0 A technique used in psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapies in which the patient says whatever comes to mind and the train of though reveals the patient s issues and ways of dealing with them Group therapy 0 A therapy modality in which a number of clients with compatible needs meet together with one or two therapists Incongruence 0 According to clientcentered therapy a mismatch between a person s real self and his or her ideal self Individual therapy 0 A therapy modality in which an individual client is treated by a single therapist Insightoriented therapy 0 A type of therapy that aims to remove distressing symptoms by leading people to understand their causes through deeply felt personal insights Interpersonal therapy IPT o A type of researched manualbased treatment that focuses on how issues that arise in the client s current relationships can affect mood Interpretation 0 A techniques in psychodynamic therapies in which the therapist deciphers the patient s words and behaviors assigning unconscious motivations to them Modality 0 A form of therapy Monoamine oxidase inhibitor MAOI o A type of antidepressant medication that requires strict adherence to a diet free of tyramine Outcome research 0 Research that asks whether after psychotherapy clients are feeling better functioning better living more independently and experiencing fewer symptoms Paradoxical intention o A systems therapy technique that encourages a behavior that seems contradictory to the desired goal Progressive muscle relaxation o A relaxation technique whereby the person relaxes muscles sequentially from one end of the body to the other Psychoanalysis 0 An intensive form of therapy originally developed by Freud based on the idea that people s psychological difficulties are caused by con icts among the id the ego and the superego Psychodynamic therapy 0 A less intensive form of psychoanalysis Psychoeducation o The process of educating clients about therapy and research findings pertaining to their disorders or problems Psychopharmacology o The use of medication to treat psychological disorders and problems Psychotherapy integration 0 The use of techniques from different theoretical orientations with an overarching theory of how the integrated techniques will be used to achieve the goals of treatment Reframing o A therapy technique in which the therapist offers a new way of conceptualizing or quotframingquot the problem Resistance o A reluctance or refusal to cooperate with the therapist which can range form unconscious forgetting to outright refusal to comply with a therapists requests Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI o A type of antidepressant medication that affects only selective serotonin receptors with relatively few side effects Selfhelp group 0 A group whose members focus on a specific disorder or event and do not usually have a clinically trained leader also called a support group Selfmonitoring techniques 0 Behavioral techniques that help the client identify the antecedents and consequences of a problematic behavior Serotonin nonrepinephrine reuptake inhibitor SNRI o A newer type of antidepressant that affects both serotonin and norepinephrine neurotransmitter systems Specific factor 0 In psychotherapy a curative aspect that is related to the specific type of therapy being employed Stimulus control 0 A behavior therapy technique that involves controlling the exposure to a stimulus that elicits a conditioned response so as to decrease or increase the frequency of the response St John s wort 0 An herbal remedy for mild to moderate depression Systematic desensitization o A behavior therapy technique that teaches people to be relaxed in the presence of a feared object or situation Systems therapy 0 A type of therapy that views a client s symptoms as occurring in a larger context or system the family and subculture and hold that a change in one part of the system affects the rest of the system Tardive dyskinesia 0 An irreversible movement disorder in which the person involuntarily smacks his or her lips displays facial grimaces and exhibits other symptoms caused by traditional antipsychotic medication Technical eclecticism o The use of specific techniques that may benefit a particular client without regard for an overarching theory Token economy 0 A treatment program that uses secondary reinforcers tokens to bring about behavior modification Transference o The process by which patients may relate to their therapists as they did to some important person in their lives Tricyclic antidepressant TCA o A type of antidepressant medication named for the three rings in the chemical structure Validation o A therapy technique in which the therapist conveys his or her understanding of the client s feelings and wishes CHAPTER 16 Altruism o The motivation to increase another person s welfare Attitude 0 An overall evaluation about some aspect of the world Attribution 0 An explanation for the cause of an event or behavior Attributional bias 0 A cognitive shortcut for determining attribution that generally occurs outside of conscious awareness Belief in a just world 0 An attributional bias that assumes that people get what they deserve Bystander effect 0 The decrease in offers of assistance that occurs as the number of bystanders increases Cognitive dissonance o The uncomfortable state that arises because of a discrepancy between an attitude and behavior or between two attitudes Companionate love 0 A type of love marked by very close friendship mutual caring liking respect and attraction Compliance 0 A change in behavior prompted by a direct request rather than by social norms Conformity o A change in beliefs or behavior in order to follow a group s norms Correspondence bias 0 The strong tendency to interpret other people s behavior as due to internal dispositional causes rather than external situational ones Deindividuation o The loss of sense of self that occurs when people in a group are anonymous Diffusion of responsibility 0 The diminished sense of responsibility to help that each person feels as the number of bystanders grows Doorintheface technique 0 A compliance technique in which someone makes a very large request and then when it is denied as expected makes a smaller request for what is actually desired External attribution 0 An explanation of someone s behavior that focuses on the situation also called situational attribution Footinthedoor technique 0 A technique that achieves compliance by beginning with an insignificant request which is then followed by a larger request Group o A social entity characterized by regular interaction among members some emotional connection a common frame of reference and a degree of interdependence Group polarization 0 The tendency of group members opinions to become more extreme in the same direction as their initial opinions after group discussion Groupthink o The tendency of people who try to solve problems together to accept one another s information and ideas without subjecting them to critical analysis Impression formation 0 The process of developing initial views of others Impression management 0 A person s efforts to control how others will view him or her Ingroup 0 An individual s own group Internal attribution 0 An explanation of someone s behavior that focuses on the person s preferences beliefs goals or other characteristics also called dispositional attribution Lowball technique 0 A compliance technique that consists of getting someone to make an agreement and then increasing the cost of that agreement Mere exposure effect 0 The change generally favorable in attitude that can result from simply becoming familiar with something Norm o A shared belief that is enforced through a group s use of penalties Obedience 0 Compliance with an order Outgroup o A group other than an individual s own Passionate love 0 An intense feeling that involves sexual attraction a desire for mutual love and physical closeness arousal and a fear that the relationship will end Persuasion o Attempts to change people s attitudes Prejudice 0 An attitude generally negative toward members of a group Prosocial behavior 0 Acting to benefit others Recategorization o A means of reducing prejudice by shifting the categories of quotusquot and them so that the two groups are no longer distinct entities Role 0 The behaviors that a member in a given position in a group is expected to perform Selfperception theory 0 The theory that people come to understand themselves by making inferences from their behavior and the events surrounding their behavior Selfserving bias 0 A person s inclination to attribute his or her own failures to external causes and own successes to internal causes but to attribute other people s failures to internal causes and their successes to external causes Social cognition o Subtopic of social psychology that focuses on how people process store and apply information about other people and social situations It focuses on the role that cognitive processes play in our social interactions The way we think about others plays a major role in how we think feel and interact with the world around us Social cognitive neuroscience o The subfield of psychology that attempts to understand social cognition not only by specifying the cognitive mechanisms that underlie it but also by discovering how those mechanisms are rooted in the brain Social exchange theory 0 The theory that proposes that individuals act to maximize the gains and minimize the losses in their relationships Social facilitation o The increase in performance that can occur simply as a result of being part of a group or in the presence of other people Social loafing o The tendency to work less hard when responsibility for an outcome is spread over a group s members Social psychology 0 The branch of psychology that deals with social interactions including their origins and their effects on the individual Status hierarchy o The positioning of roles that re ects who has power over whom within a group Stereotype o A belief or set of beliefs about people in a particular category Theory of causal attribution o The theory that people decide whether to attribute a given behavior to a person s enduring traits or to the situation based on whether the behavior shows consensus consistency and distinctiveness Triangular model of love 0 The theory that love has three dimensions passion including sexual desire intimacy closeness and commitment THIS EXAM WILL ONLY CONTAIN MATERIAL THAT WAS COVERED IN CLASS REVIEW CONTAINS ADDITIONAL VOCAB THAT WAS NOT COVERED IN CLASS Class Notes April 16th Chapter 13 Health Psychology Video httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvjkaRLYSojo Selye 0 Did a lot of research on mice studied vast range of stressors swim test tube test tapioca pudding 0 Stress and Strain o Focused on physical stress effects Stress Score 0 List of stressors with corresponding scoring system 0 Missing variability from person to person 0 Doesn t account for how often a stressor occurred or how much time had passed between stressors Doesn t account for daytoday stressors Doesn t account for how each person responds to each stressor this may depend on personality resources social support etc Threat Loss Challenge If a stressor comes out of the blue if it is unpredictable and or uncontrollable it will cause MUCH MORE stress than if the stressor was predicable or controllable in any way Chronic Stress 0 Poverty caregiving illness natural or manmade disaster Three Mile Island Coping Strategies 0 ProblemFocused o EmotionFocused o BOTH USE SOCIAL SUPPORT Loss of Social Support 0 Loss of friend family spouse very stressful predicts future stress 0 Women have larger social support systems so they are less likely than men to parish after the death of a close loved one or spouse 0 Major loss of social support stressor that makes it hard to cope with future stressors Heart Disease is a top killer o 3 Risk Factors OO I High blood pressure I High cholesterol I Cigarettes 9 doesn t matter how much you smoke unlike lung cancer Type A personality vs Type B personality 0 Type A at a higher risk of heart disease because these people are aggressive time urgent competitive HOSTILE April 21 Health Behavior Change Tanstheoretical pulling from multiple theories Steps of change 0 00000 Not thinking about it Considering it Thinking about it and planning for action Action Maintenance Relapse I Back to action I Back to beginning Intervention just providing the information will not always spur change in somebody that may need help Motivational Interviewing popular set of intervention Disease and Health are Psychosomatic o In uenced by the person s experiences and their reactions to those experiences Chapter 14 Abnormal Psych What is Abnormal o Deviants o Dysfunction o Distress April 23rd Coping amp Disorders Active Coping o Motivated performance Eastbound amp Down clip I If successful 9 more success I If not successful 9 more failure 0 Why didn t Kenny hit the target Biopsychosocial Model of challenge and threat 0 Flow of blood in challenge situation vs threat situation hose example Athletic Performance Coping Ability Some stress prepare you better for other stress buffer 0 What doesn t kill you makes you strongerquot When any EVENT happens available resources will determine how stressful that event will be 0 High resources 9 non event not stressful at all 0 Low resources 9 stressor Categories of stressors how common are certain stressors Comorbidity everything effects everything else Etiology the origin of things where things come from Diathesisstress model 0 Genetics 0 Vulnerability Anxiety disorders 0 Fight or ight o Freezing when there is no ight option Panic Attacks discrete period of intense fear and physical arousal which develops abruptly usually peaks within 10 minutes Panic Disorder recurrent and unexpected 9 leads to maladaptive behavior 0 Agoraphobia panic in a situation avoid situation life gets smaller and smaller 0 Comorbidity 9 leads to depression 0CD Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 0 Obsessive recurrent intrusive thoughts that cause anxiety 0 Compulsive behaviors that reduce anxiety driven by obsession o Disorder continuing developing April 28 Chapters 14 amp 15 0CD o Doubting 9 checking o Contamination 9 cleaning SKIP PTSD Depression 0 O O O O Episodic What is the sweet spot Different for everybody Learned helplessness Attributions placing a cause for everything blaming Some instability unstable attributions are healthy Read text on depression April 30th Abnormal Psych Positive symptoms things in excess to normality 0 Voices hallucinations extra belief systems Negative symptoms deficits 0 Trouble focusing emotional expression is attened Psychotic a period of a person s life that is dominated by positive symptoms Read abnormal psych schizophrenia symptoms etc Chapter 15 Psychological Therapies Distress Stress Coping Early treatments for patients 0 Trephining usually for demonic positive symptoms skull drilling exorcisms read about trephining Asylums became overcrowded and understaffed became worse and worse places for patients led to torturing etc I Lobotomy 9 subdued symptoms but took a lot away from the person I Asylums were eventually deinstitutionalized Biomedical Therapy 0 O Hypothesis problems result from physical brain dysfunction Treat with medication 9 Pharmacotherapy