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VIRGINIA TECH / geosciences / GEOS 2104 / What are the important characteristics of Earth's interior layers?

What are the important characteristics of Earth's interior layers?

What are the important characteristics of Earth's interior layers?

Description

School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: geosciences
Course: Elements of Geology
Professor: John hole
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Plate Tectonics
Description: Study of Layers of the Earth
Uploaded: 02/16/2017
11 Pages 282 Views 0 Unlocks
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Plate TectonicsWe also discuss several other topics like What was the world's breadbasket in the iron age?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the different factors of production?

What Evidence is used to understand the Earth’s deep interior?

(1) Seismic waves

(2) meteoritesWe also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of solution set?

(3) high P and T lab experimentsIf you want to learn more check out What are the human blood types?
If you want to learn more check out What values can you put in a stem and leaf plot?

What are the important characteristics of Earth’s interior layers (size, composition, strength, etc.)?We also discuss several other topics like How do hormones exert a biological effect on tissue?

13,000 km diameter

16 km - deepest hole we've dug

Inner core and outer core

> ½ radius of earth                inner = solid

< ⅙ of volume                        outer = liquid

dense, sunk to bottom early in earth’s history pressure increase as you go to center

Mantle

        > ⅚ of volume

        < ½ radius

        Magnesium and Iron silicate minerals solid

Oceanic crust and continental crust        一 20 - 70 km thick

      ⤷ 4 - 7 km thick

      ⤷ less light

        Silicate - rich

        Light minerals floating on top

Solid

Lithosphere

        Cold ⇒ stronger rocks                thicker than crust

                50 - 250 km thick                - defined by composition our strength

Asthenosphere

        Hot ⇒ weak                        50 - 250 km thick

        Almost entirely solid

Describe Global patterns of:

        Earthquakes: (where?)        active: http://www.iris.edu/seismon/

                Distinct pattern

                Pacific

        

        Volcanoes: (where?)                 active: http://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

                Pacific

        

        Mid-ocean ridges (what are they and where?)

                Mountain ranges in ocean

        Ocean trenches (what are they and where?)

                By shores along same lines

What is Plate Tectonics?

        Long strong, rigid plates that are moving around surface relative to one another

What is a plate? What part of the Earth?

        Crust plus strong part of mantle

        Lithosphere

        “Floating on asthenosphere”

        

Compare to continental drift:

        Continents move around to one another

  • Take in account plates which have continents and oceans in them

How fast do plates move?

1cm to 17cm per year

        

Moving apart - mid ocean ridges

Together - volcanoes and trench

Plate boundaries: what happens at each type?

Where in plate tectonics does extension occur?

        

  • Seafloor spreading moving apart, asthenosphere fills gap re-ocean floor = volcanoes occurring

Where in plate tectonics does compression occur?

  • Subduction slides under other

                        Continent won’t subduct

  • Collision continents collide

Where does boundary-parallel motion occur?

        Transform fault sliding past one another

        San Andreas fault

Relate pattern from 2 pages ago to plate tectonics

        Mid - ocean ridges:

                                Boundaries of plates

        Ocean trenches:

        Mountain ranges:

        

        Earthquakes:

        Volcanoes:

What drives plate tectonics? (why do the plates move?)

    Heat                heat is trying to escape the earth

        

What is the temperature inside Earth?

        Thousands of degrees celsius as you go down

What are the energy sources for this heat?

        Gravity collisions ⇒ heat

        Gravitational rotational energy

What is convection?         Heat ⇒ expand ⇒ rise

                        Cool ⇒ shrink ⇒ sink

Mantle convection        lithosphere forms from hot rising magma

Very slow process        lithosphere cools as it spreads

                        Cooled lithosphere sinks

Hot-cold water convection in an aquarium: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7xWWowXtuvA

lava lake tectonics: http://all-geo.org/highlyallochthonous/2010/05/lava-lake-tectonics/

Evidence for Plate Tectonics

(listed in approx. historic order)

1600-1900

shape of continents across oceans (e.g. Africa-S.America)

1910’s

similar geologic features across some oceans

mountains, rocks, fossils, paleo-climate (Atlantic)

continental drift proposed... but rejected         evidence less obvious in northern hemisphere

        Rocks that were old enough

1930’s

gravity at ocean trenches indicates active pulldown

subduction and convection proposed … but ignored

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