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VIRGINIA TECH / Geoscience / GEOS 2104 / What are the important characteristics of Earth's interior layers?

What are the important characteristics of Earth's interior layers?

What are the important characteristics of Earth's interior layers?

Description

School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Geoscience
Course: Geology
Professor: John hole
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Plate Tectonics
Description: Study of Layers of the Earth
Uploaded: 02/16/2017
11 Pages 154 Views 0 Unlocks
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cfm mid-ocean ridges (what are they & where?




edu/seismon/ volcanoes: (where?




what evidence is used to understand Earth’s deep interior?



Plate Tectonics what evidence is used to understand Earth’s deep interior?  what are the important characteristics of Earth’s interior  layers (size, composition, strength, etc.)?  inner core & outer core mantle oceanic crust & continental crust lithosphere asthenosphereHole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-1 Plate Tectonics describe global patterns of:  earthquakes: (where?) active: http://www.iris.edu/seismon/ volcanoes: (where?) active: http://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm mid-ocean ridges (what are they & where?) ocean trenches (what are they & where?) what is PLATE TECTONICS? what is a plate? what part of the Earth? compare to continental drift: how fast do plates move?Hole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-2 Plate Tectonics plate boundaries: what happens at each type? where in plate tectonics does extension occur?  seafloor spreading where in plate tectonics does compression occur?  subduction collision where does boundary-parallel motion occur?  transform faultHole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-3 Plate Tectonics relate patterns from 2 pages ago to plate tectonics mid-ocean ridges:  ocean trenches:  mountain ranges:  earthquakes:  volcanoes:  what drives plate tectonics? (why do the plates move?)  heat  what is the temperature inside Earth? what are the energy sources for this heat?  what is convection? mantle convection hot-cold water convection in an aquarium: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7xWWowXtuvA lava lake tectonics: http://all-geo.org/highlyallochthonous/2010/05/lava-lake-tectonics/Hole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-4 Plate Tectonics Evidence for Plate Tectonics (listed in approx. historic order) 1600-1900 shape of continents across oceans (e.g. Africa-S.America) 1910’s similar geologic features across some oceans mountains, rocks, fossils, paleo-climate (Atlantic) continental drift proposed... but rejected 1930’s gravity at ocean trenches indicates active pulldown  subduction and convection proposed … but ignored 1950’s seafloor topography mid-ocean ridges, deep ocean trenches large fractures offset the ridges very thin sediments in deep oceans oceanic crust much thinner than continental “Wadati-Benioff zone” earthquakes: shallow at ocean  trenches and get deeper inland under volcanoes paleomagnetic “polar wandering” rocks can record magnetic field when they form different continents’ N pole at different places in past seafloor spreading & expanding earth proposed... but rejected continued...Hole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-5 Plate Tectonics Evidence for Plate Tectonics (listed in approx. historic order) ...continued 1960’s paleomagnetic stripes on seafloor paleomagnetic N-S reversals, dated globally symmetric magnetic reversal pattern across ridges seafloor sampling and dating:  near-zero age at mid-ocean ridge; gets older with  distance from ridge seafloor spreading accepted, but expanding Earth  puzzling earthquake mechanisms (rock movement directions) compression at Benioff zones left/right lateral motions at ocean fracture zones earthquakes indicate cold material at Benioff zones transform faults & subduction accepted  global earthquakes clustered at plate boundaries mountain-building and continental geology better  explained by new ideas plate tectonics accepted  a scientific revolution plate tectonics: a new theory, new paradigmHole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-6 Plate Tectonics terms used in science… fact, data: objectively measurable hypothesis, model: a proposed explanation of data;  makes predictions that are testable;  should be powerful, simple theory: a hypothesis accepted after thorough testing law: a fundamental, universal, thoroughly tested theory paradigm: a way of thinking&understanding in science paradigms change through a revolutionary new  theory or law  e.g., relativity in physics evolution in biology plate tectonics in geologyHole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-7 Plate Tectonics what happens at a seafloor spreading center?  (and make a simple drawing) where on Earth does it occur? what happens at a subduction zone?  (and make a simple drawing) (difference between ocean-ocean & ocean-continent?) where on Earth does it occur?Hole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-8 Plate Tectonics what happens at a continent-continent collision zone?  (and make a simple drawing) where on Earth does it occur? what happens at a transform fault?  (and make a simple drawing) where on Earth does it occur?Hole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-9 Plate Tectonics what happens as plates move through geologic time? how is the age of the continent distributed in North  America? why? how & when did the Appalachians form? (see next page) what was Pangaea? (sometimes spelled Pangea) when & how did the Atlantic Ocean form?  when & how did the western North America mountains  (the North American Cordillera) form?Hole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-10 Plate Tectonics relate geologic provinces of Virginia to plate tectonics Chuck Bailey, William and Mary Chuck Bailey, William and MaryHole: GEOS 2104 Study Aid B-11 Plate Tectonics

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