BIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Bacteria, fungi (yeasts and molds), protozoa, viruses, and algae are all examples of the different types of... microbes A ______________ microorganism is disease-producing. pathogenicDon't forget about the age old question of total omniscience
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The first name of an organism is always capitalized and italicized. This name represents the ___________ of the organism. genus The second name of an organism is not capitalized but italicized. This name represents the ___________ of the organism. species Prokaryotes include bacteria and __________________. archaea Because their DNA is not enclosed in a special membrane, _______________ are considered prokaryotes. bacteria Bacteria cell walls are composed of a protein and carbohydrate complex called... peptidoglycan Plant and algae cell walls are composed of... cellulose Most viruses can only be seen with an... (hint: which microscope?) electron microscope Which microbe is inert outside of living hosts? viruses Animal parasitic eukaryotes, such as flatworms and roundworms are called... helminths Who devised the system of classification which organizes organisms into three domains? Carl Woese The cell walls of the species in this domain are not composed of peptidoglycan, but pseudopeptidoglycan. archaea Slime molds, protozoa, and algae are all examples of...protists Unicellular yeasts, multicellular molds, and mushrooms are examples of... fungi Plants, animals, protists, and fungi are all examples of... eukaryaBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Name the theory that describes that all living things are composed of cells.cell theory Who first discovered cells, or "little boxes", from a slice of cork in 1665? (hint: this person coined the term "cell") Robert Hooke Who was first to observe microorganisms, most likely protozoa/bacteria? (hint: this person called them "animalcules") van Leeuwenhoek Name the theory that some forms of life can arise from nonliving matter. spontaneous generation Who used decaying meat to debunk the theory of spontaneous generation when it came to "bigger" organisms, such as maggots, in 1668? (before spontaneous generation of microbes was debunked) Francesco Redi Who claimed microorganisms could arise spontaneously even if fluids were boiled? (hint: chicken broth experiment) John Needham Who accurately argued against Needham, but was criticized for boiling flasks after they were sealed? Lazzaro Spallanzani A theory crated by Rudolf Virchow in 1858; living cells arise only from preexisting cells. biogenesis In 1861, who finally proved microbes existing in the air contaminate sterile solutions, and not that microbes arise spontaneously from the air? Louis Pasteur Who showed that microbes could be destroyed by heat? (hint: this discovery is the beginning of aseptic technique) Louis Pasteur Who discovered that yeasts, turn sugars into alcohol in the absence of air (fermentation)? Louis Pasteur This process involves heating a substance just enough to kill the bacteria that cause spoilage: pasteurization The idea that microbes may be the reason for certain diseases: germ theory of diseaseBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Who demonstrated that phenol (disinfectants) should be used during surgical procedures? Joseph Lister The following are four criteria of: ___________________ 1. pathogen is present in all cases of disease 2. isolated in pure culture 3. if cultured and put into healthy host, causes the disease 4. host pathogen is re-isolated and identified as same causative agent koch's postulates How do yeasts reproduce? sexually or asexually How do Fungi reproduce? asexually ________________ are cultures of avirulent microbes used for preventative inoculation vaccines Who discovered penicillin when cultures were accidentally contaminated with the mold, Penicillium chrysogenum? Alexander Fleming __________________ is the study of fungi. mycology Which theory challenged the case for spontaneous generation? biogenesis The study of how microbes inherit traits; essential for gene therapy: microbial genetics The study of the relationship between microorganisms and their environment (including life cycle): microbial ecology The study of the nutrients that microbes require for metabolism and growth and the waste products that microorganisms generate: microbial physiology Any procedure or methodology that uses biological systems or living organisms to develop or modify either products or processes for specific use. This term is commonly associated with genetic engineering, which is one of many applications. biotechnology Who developed salvarsan, the first synthetic chemotherapeutic agent? (hint: salvation from syphilis) Paul EhrlichBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Who developed the vaccine against smallpox? Edward Jenner Who proved that microorganisms can cause disease? Robert Koch _______________, _______________, and _______________, proved that DNA is the hereditary material. Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty _______________ and _______________ showed that genes code for enzymes. Beadle and Tatum Algae cell walls are NOT made of _______________. chitin Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod discovered _______________. messenger RNA What microorganisms decompose organic material and recycle elements in a way that is essential for the existence of life on earth? bacteria Some microbes do not require _______________. air Which type of cell has a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan? Prokaryote Which type of cell has a chemically simple cell wall? Eukaryote Brightfield, darkfield, phase-contrast, DIC, and fluorescence, are all types of ___________ ___________________. light microscopy Which type of light microscopy is used to visualize stained specimens? brightfield Which type of light microscopy is used to visualize specimens that do not stain easily/ are too small? darkfield To view some intracellular detail (internal structures) of live unstained-organisms, the light microscope of choice would be the: phase-contrast Which microscope uses visible light to provide 3D images that can present intracellular structure of unstained live cells in color? differential interference contrast Which microscope uses ultraviolet that cause fluorescent compounds in a specimen (such as fluorescent-antibodies) emit light? fluorescenceBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Which type of microscope utilizes a single photon to illuminate a plane of specimen at a time? confocal Which type of microscope is best for observing cell activity in real time? two-photon Which microscope interprets the action of a sound wave sent through a specimen; used to study living cells attached to another surface scanning acoustic ___________________ and ___________________ are the two types of electron microscopes. transmission and scanning This type of microscope can present intracellular detail of a cell that is 1 um long. electron microscope Which of the following types of microscope fires electrons through the specimen and can exhibit viruses and the internal structure of thinly sectioned cells? transmission electron Which of the following types of microscope reflects electrons from the specimen and can exhibit the exterior surface of viruses and cells?scanning electron Scanning tunneling and atomic force are two types of _____________________ microscope techniques. scanned-probe Which microscope uses a metal probe to provide very detailed views of the molecules inside cells? scanning tunneling Which microscope uses a metal-diamond probe to provide 3D images of specimens near in atomic detail? atomic force A chemical that intensifies a stain is known as a: mordant Preparing colorless bacteria against a colored background is known as: (hint: this stain is very helpful for observing cell exterior; shape and size.) negative staining A __________________ stain is a stain that can react differently with different kinds of bacteria. This includes gram and acid-fast. differential The primary classification of bacteria after the gram stain is either: gram-positive or gram-negativeBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Bacteria that retain the primary stain, purple, are classified as: gram-positive Bacteria that are stripped of violet color and absorb the counterstain, pink, are classified as: gram-negative ____________________________ have thicker peptidoglycan cell walls. gram positive ____________________________ have lipopolysaccharide in their cell walls. gram negative CV-I (crystal violet and iodine complex) is too big to exit the stable peptidoglycan cell walls of: gram-positive Antibiotics often cannot penetrate the: lipopolysaccharide layer Which of the following stains is most useful for identifying Mycobacterium and bacterium with waxy cell walls? acid-fast Carbolfuchsin causes acid-fast microbes to retain the color... pink Negative, endospore, and flagella stains are all examples of _________________ stains. special Which stain uses heat to drive the primary stain into the endoscope? endospore stain Which stain would be ideal to demonstrate the presence of capsules? (hint: capsules would appear unstained so a colored background would allow them to be visible.) negative stain Assume that you stain Bacillus with green and then counterstain with safranin. The green structures are the: endospores Live cells at a depth of 1mm and reduced with phytotoxicity can be viewed through a: two-photon microscope Which stain is ideal for observing cell arrangement? simple stainBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide If this step were skipped, gram-negative bacteria would falsely appear gram-positive because the lipopolysaccharide layer would stay intact. alcohol-wash A method of staining microorganisms which uses only one dye such as methylene blue, carbolfuchsin, crystal violet, or safranin. simple stain ____________________ cells appear purple ONLY after crystal violet and iodine have been added; they do not remain purple. gram-negative The metric unit goes: kilo, meter, deci, centi, mili, _________, _________, _________ micro, nano, pico 1/1 billionth of a meter nanometer 1/1 millionth of a meter micrometer What microscope would you use to see a stained bacterial smear? compound light ______________________ typically have a single circular arranged chromosome not enclosed in a membrane. The DNA is not associated with histones. prokaryotes ______________________ is a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size. binary fission Most bacteria are _________________, they maintain a single shape. monomorphic Some bacteria are _________________, they can have multiple shapes. polymorphic What is the polysaccharide-polypeptide gelatin that is secreted by prokaryotes and surrounds cell walls? It can also be found as a solid structure around bacteria or viruses, in which case it is referred to as a capsule. (prokaryotic) glycocalyx A glycocalyx that helps cells in a biofilm attach to their target environment and to each other is called... extracellular polymeric substance Flagella that are found around the entire surface of the cell are known as: peritrichous A cell that is polar and has numerous flagella on one pole has _____________________ flagella. lopotrichousBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Which cell has only a one ring structure to anchor the flagella to the cell wall? gram positive Which cell has a two ring structure basal body to anchor the flagella to the cell wall? gram negative ____________ refers to the oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus. taxis This flagellular protein is useful for distinguishing among serovars, or variations within a species, of gram-negative bacteria: H antigen Twisting or flexing of spirochete bacteria is attributed to its: (hint: other than endoflagella) axial filaments Special flagella of spirochetes that spiral around cell instead of protruding into the environment; "corkscrew" through its medium are known as:endoflagella Fimbriae and pili are made of the protein __________. pilin These structures have a tendency to adhere to surfaces and to each other: fimbriae __________________ are filamentous protein structures that are longer than fimbriae. They assist in surface attachment and mobility, but some can also facilitate genetic exchange b/w cells (conjunction).pili In which type of motility does a pilus extend by the addition of subunits of piling, make contact with a surface or another cell, and then retract (power stroke) as the piling subunits are disassembled? (hint: this results in short jerky movements.) twitching motility Proteins in the Gram-negative cell walls that allow the transport of small molecules are called: porins ______________________ is the currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids. fluid mosaic model The property of a plasma membrane that allows some substances to cross more easily than others is... selective permeabilityBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide In a bacterium, the plasma membrane that folds into the cytoplasm is known as a... mesosome Net movement of dissolved particles from higher concentration to a region of lower concentration: simple diffusion Simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion are both ___________________ processes. passive Passive diffusion that is aided by transport proteins, but that does not require cellular energy: facilitated diffusion Membrane transporters in prokaryotes are commonly __________________. nonspecific Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is known as... osmosis When the two solutions on either side of the membrane are of equal concentrations the solutions are referred to as... isotonic A solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than another is called: hypotonic A solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than another is called:hypertonic The bursting of a cell due to excess swelling in a hypotonic solution is called: osmotic lysis The movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration uses energy provided by ATP. This is called ________________. active transport Which active transport mechanisms involves a membrane protein that chemically alters a substance or activates it for immediate use within the cell? (hint: occurs only in prokaryotes) group translocation The ________________ is a non-membrane-enclosed region in a prokaryotic cell where the DNA bacterial chromosome is concentrated. nucleiodBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide ___________________ are small rings of DNA found naturally in some bacterial cells in addition to the main bacterial chromosome. They are not necessary for survival but can be beneficial to the bacteria in certain environments. plasmids Prokaryotic cells have ______ Ribosomes that are composed of a 30s small subunit and a 50s large subunit. 70s A prokaryotic cytoplasm may have ____________________, or reserve deposits that store certain nutrients for backup when the environment is deficient. inclusions Large inclusions known as volition, which reserve phosphates that can be used for ATP synthesis. These inclusions are known as: metachromatic granules Inclusions that typically consist of glycogen and starch are called: polysaccharide granules These inclusions store fat and are detected w/ sudan dyes: lipid inclusions Some bacteria oxidize sulfur for energy. Thus, they reserve extra sulfur in inclusions called: sulfur granules Inclusions that photosynthetic bacteria use to store CO2 are called: carboxysomes ______________________ are hallow cavities found in many aquatic prokaryotes which maintain the buoyancy needed to remain at the proper water depth. gas vacuoles ______________________ are inclusions of iron oxide act as magnets that help them move downward until they reach a suitable attachment site. magnetosomes Endospore formation is called... sporulation/sporogenesis In harsh environments, certain gram-positive bacteria can form ________________________, which can protect the DNA and remain dormant for thousands of years. endospore An endospore returns to its vegetative state via: germination In eukaryotes, the cell membrane is enclosed by a _________________, to strengthen the cell surface, help attach cells together, and allow for cell-cell recognition. eukaryotic glycocalyxBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Unlike eukaryotic flagella, ______________ are numerous and short; but both help the eukaryotic cell. cilia A ______________________ flagellum rotates. prokaryotic A ______________________ flagellum moves in a wavelike manner. eukaryotic ________________________ plasma membrane contain carbohydrates and sterols (lipids). eukaryotic These eukaryotic membrane lipids seem to help keep the membrane from lysing under high osmotic pressure: sterols These eukaryotic membrane substances serve as attachment sites for bacteria and aid cell-cell recognition: carbohydrates In this type of endocytosis, cellular projections engulf particles and bring them to the cell: phagocytosis In this type of endocytosis, the plasma membrane folds inward, brining the substance and the surrounding extracellular fluid into the cell: pinocytosis In this type of endocytosis, substances bind to membrane receptors, and the membrane then folds inward: receptor-meditated ______________________ is the movement of eukaryotic cytoplasm aids in moving around organelles and nutrients within the cell.cytoplasmic streaming The eukaryotic ribosome are 80s. They consist of a _______ large subunit and a 40s small subunit. 60s Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain ________ ribosomes. (hint: this theorized that these two structures evolved from prokaryotes.) 70s rRNA is synthesized in the ______________________. necloulus A ________________________ is composed of about 165 base pairs and 9 histones. nucleosomeBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide A cell organelle containing enzymes that catalyze the production and breakdown of hydrogen peroxide: peroxisome ______________________ is a structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that functions as a microtubule-organizing center and is important during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles. centrosome The theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes began living inside of larger cells and evolved into the organelles of modern-day eukaryotes is known as the... endosymbiotic theory The ______________________ protects from osmotic lysis. cell wall The ______________________ is created when the cell is resting endospore The ______________________ is responsible for attachment to other surfaces. fimbriae ______________________ help with cell motility flagella The ______________________ helps with both attachment and protection from phagocytes glycocalyx The ______________________ helps with cell wall formation and selective permeability. plasma membrane ______________________ are responsible for protein synthesis. ribosomes Penicillin cannot enter the ______________________. Which is why it does not have an affect on gram-negative cells. lipopolysaccharide layer Which cell wall is toxic to humans? gram-negative Essential molecules ____________________ into gram+ cells, but require proteins (porins) to enter gram- cells. diffuse What eukaryotic organelle performs the function of digestive enzyme storage? lysosomeBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide What eukaryotic organelle performs the function of oxidation of fatty acids? peroxisome What eukaryotic organelle performs the function of microtubule formation? pericentriolar material What eukaryotic organelle performs the function of protein synthesis? rough ER What eukaryotic organelle performs the function of secretion? golgi complex Do ribosomes store proteins? no The specific antigen that distinguishes salmonella is attributed to... O polysaccharide ATP, NAD, FAD, and coenzyme A are all examples of... coenzymes Which is an oxidizing agent: NAD+ or NADH?NAD+ which is a reducing agent: NAD+ or NADH? NADH What is the ONLY electron acceptor in fermentation? NAD What is the chemical formula for pyruvate? CH3COCOO fermentation occurs in yeasts or bacteria? both ethanol/alcoholic fermentation is an ___________ process. anaerobic complete the chemical formula for photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 _________________ phosphorylation synthesizes ATP at the expense of the proton motive force oxidative complete the chemical formula for alcoholic fermentation: C6H12O6 → 2 C2H6O + 2 CO2 complete the chemical formula for lactic fermentation: C6H12O6 → 2 C3H6O3 ______________________ is the buildup and breakdown of nutrients within a cell. These reactions provide energy and create substances that sustain life. metabolismBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide In a _______________ reaction, macromolecules are broken down and energy is thus released. (hint: catastrophe) catabolic In a _______________ reaction, macromolecules are built with simpler molecules and energy is used in the process. anabolic What theory states that dates that a chemical reaction happens when particles collide at the correct angle and with enough energy? It relates particle collisions to reaction rate. collision theory The minimum energy a collision between particles requires for a chemical reaction to take place. activation energy A measure of how rapidly a reaction takes place. reaction rate The number of substrate molecules converted to product per enzyme in one second is called the _______________. turnover number A cofactor is called a __________________ if it is an organic molecule. coenzyme Apoenzyme + cofactor = ______________________ (or whole enzyme) holoenzyme An enzyme is in _________________ if the active site is always occupied. saturation Noncompetitive inhibition is also called: allosteric inhibition End-product inhibition is a type of ________________ inhibition. allosteric The addition of a phosphate group to a compound is called...phosphorylation ATP is generated when P is transferred from a compound to ADP, this is known as: substrate-level phosphorylation The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis is known as: photophosphorylationBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide In anaerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is most commonly an ___________________________. inorganic molecule After decarboxylation, the 2-carbon molecule (acetyl) attaches to a ____________________ to form acetyl coenzyme A, or acetyl CoA. coenzyme A _____________________ do NOT produce lactic acid during fermentation, but instead produce ethanol and CO2. (hint: saccharomyces) yeasts The initial incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism (a plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic prokaryote). carbon fixation In this type of photophosphorylation, the electrons released from chlorophyll in PSI eventually are returned to chlorophyll. cyclic photophosphorylation In this type of photophosphorylation, the electrons released from chlorophyl in PSII and PSI are incorporated into NADPH. The electrons lost are replaced by hydrogen atoms from H2O. noncyclic photophosphorylation Which type of photophosphorylation actually produces the ATP, NADPH, and O2? noncyclic photophosphorylation All organisms require an energy source. If the energy source is light, the organism is a... Phototroph All organisms require an energy source. If the energy source is chemical, the organism is a... Chemotroph All chemotrophs require a carbon source. If the organism acquires carbon from organic compounds it is a.... chemoheterotroph All chemotrophs require a carbon source. If the organism acquires carbon from CO2 it is a.... chemoautotroph All phototrophs require a carbon source. If the organism acquires carbon from organic compounds it is a.... photoheterotrophBIOLOGY 305: Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide All phototrophs require a carbon source. If the organism acquires carbon from CO2 it is a.... photoautotroph Bacteria that oxidize hydrogen, sulfur, iron, nitrogen, or carbon monoxide are examples of... chemoautotrophs Green non-sulfur bacteria and purple non-sulfur bacteria are examples of... photoheterotrophs The final electron acceptor in all animals, most fungi, some protozoa, and some bacteria is: oxygen Some chemoheterotrophs do not use O2 as the final electron acceptor. Some fermentative chemoautotrophs like streptococcus use: organic compounds Some chemoheterotrophs do not use O2 as the final electron acceptor. Some use chemoautotrophs like clostridium use _____________________________ in the ETC instead. inorganic compounds Some photoautotrophs use H2O to reduce CO2 via: oxygenic photosynthesis Some photoautotrophs do not use H2O to reduce CO2. These are... anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria An organism that lives on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into and absorbing the products of digestion is called a... saprophyte ___________________ are unique nucleic acid molecules in microbes that function as catalysts in protein synthesis and splicing. ribozymes Which compound can reduce dental caries? xylitol True/False: Amino acids are not required for nucleotide biosynthesis. false Which bacterium can make pyruvic acid from lactic acid? propionibacterium