Exam 1 Study Guide for chapters 1-2
Chapter 1: A view of life
This chapter covers the five themes of biology, critical things needed for life, biological organization, the process of information transfer, the process of evolution, and the steps you must take when using the scientific method.
∙ Biology is the study of life!
∙ All living organisms: (Main points the professor discussed in class)
o Are made of cells
o Can grow and develop
o Regulate their metabolic processes (maintain its homeostasis which allows it to function correctly)
o Respond to stimuli (changes)
o Reproduce (two types: asexual + sexual)
o Adapt to the environment (the ability to survive)
∙ These are the features/ characteristics of living organisms.
∙ Cells are formed through division
o They come from pre-existing cells We also discuss several other topics like What are some misconceptions in psychology?
∙ Types of organisms: unicellular, multicellular, pluricellular, and bacterial colonies. o MUST KNOW THE DIFFERENCES If you want to learn more check out Why is therapeutic relationship so important?
∙ Types of cells: Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic
o MUST KNOW THE DIFFERENCES!
∙ Biological growth: a growth in the cells whether it is in size, number, or both. ∙ Development involves the changes that organisms experience during their life. ∙ We must be able to regulate/ maintain homeostasis
o Keep a steady rate (very important)
▪ Ex: When we sweat, it allows our bodies to cool down
∙ Metabolism is all the chemical processes that are take place in an organism. o Necessary for maintaining life and completing everyday activities
∙ The chemical processes: chemical reactions, growing and healing that occur in our bodies, and the conversion of energy.
∙ Stimuli: changes in our environment that bring about movement.
∙ Reproduction: The two types are asexual & sexual
∙ Adaptation: the organism’s ability to adjust to new environments
∙ Levels of organization: The lowest level is atoms and the highest level is the biosphere o (must refer to chapter 1 to learn the levels) We also discuss several other topics like How does the high low method and formula assist business?
o These levels work together/ interact
o This allows information transfer which is when all the biological systems share and keep information.
▪ Information transfer is through chemical signaling or hormones. (allows
∙ Reductionism means that for us to completely understand something we must study every part of it.
∙ Energy is essential for life
o Our energy comes from the sun which is transferred to the plants which then makes food for us.
o Photosynthesis (very important term)
Cellular respiration is very important because it is what captures that energy through many chemical reactions
o Allows cells to work because energy is provided.
Producers, consumers, and decomposers are in an ecosystem.
∙ Types of organisms: Autotrophs, heterotrophs, and bacteria & fungi
o Must know the differences
Three domains: eukarya, bacteria, and archaea
∙ They have several kingdoms
o Bacteria & archaea are prokaryotic
o Eukarya is eukaryotic We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of glycolysis in the cell?
Evolution is a process where populations begin to change over time because of the changes that happen in the environment. (Involves natural selection)
∙ (Refer to the end of chapter 1 to learn about it)
Scientific method: what scientists use to examine a problem or explanation.
∙ Steps: If you want to learn more check out What is selection as a form of priming?
o Observe what is around you and write it down
o Create a hypothesis
o Design an experiment
o Test your predictions with the experiment
o Collect and examine data
o Draw a conclusion
o True or false: (refer to chapter 1 to find the answers)
▪ Which type of organism has one cell?
▪ Prokaryotic cells have a nucleus?
▪ Eukaryotic cells consist of more than one cell?
▪ Eukaryotic cells are in our bodies and they have a nucleus?
▪ Prokaryotic cells are simple?
▪ Prokaryotic cells have organelles?
▪ Which type of reproduction has no variation?
▪ Which type of reproduction is related to humans?
▪ Does adaptation help you survive in the environment? If you want to learn more check out What is endosymbiosis and how is it related to the evolution of eukaryotic cells?
▪ Energy is not needed for movement?
▪ Organisms are heterotrophs?
MAIN TERMS! (refer to chapter 1)
o Biological growth
o Levels of biological organization (probably just need to know the order)
o Cellular respiration
o Natural selection
Chapter 2: Atoms and Molecules: The Chemical Basis of Life
Introduction: Understanding what the most abundant elements are in living things, what determines the chemical properties of an atom, different types of chemical bonds, how the energy of an electron is transferred, properties of water, and the different types of pH levels.
Elements are substances that are not able to be broken down into more basic substances (ordinary chemical reactions will not be able to break them down)
o All elements have chemical symbols which are either the first letter of the element or the first and second letters.
▪ Example: C is for Carbon
An atom is the basic part of an element.
▪ Components of an atom are matter, electrons, protons, electrons, and a nucleus. (They are all subatomic particles)
o Matter: has mass and occupies space
o Electron: a negative electric charge in the atom (outside the nucleus)
o Proton: a positive charge in the atom
o Neutron: a neutral charge/ uncharged particle
Atomic number: is how an atom identified and defined.
∙ The atomic number is that number of protons in the nucleus of the atom
o A periodic table shows the elements arranged by atomic number.
Atomic mass: is how much matter one atom has compared to another.
∙ This is found by finding the sum of the number of protons and neutrons the atom has. Atomic mass unit (amu) : One proton or one neutron has the mass equal to the amu.
Orbital: is what the electron move around at a rapid pace.
∙ It is outside of the nucleus
Electron shell: electrons that are in orbitals that have the same energy level.
Valence electrons: determines the chemical properties of an atom
∙ The valence shell is full when it has a total of 8 electrons.
o To fill the shell atoms either lose, gain, or share/donate electrons.
Atoms are held together by chemical bonds.
∙ This also helps when trying to fulfill the valence shell
Types of chemical formulas: simplest, molecular, structural (look for in chapter 2) Covalent bonds are formed when atom a give electron(s) to another atom that then form molecules.
∙ Types: nonpolar & polar
∙ Covalent bonds are strong and stable
Ionic bonds: are created with the use of a positive cation and a negative anion. ∙ Only strong when water isn’t involved.
Hydrogen bonds are created when a partial positive charge gets attracted to a partial negative charge. ∙ They are weak bonds
Polarity is when a molecule has a positive and negative charged end.
∙ This is why other polar molecules can dissolve in water
o Ex: sugars
WATER IS POLAR
∙ It is also a solvent for ionic or polar solutes. This is because of the polarity of the molecules it has.
∙ Water has 4 properties: cohesion, adhesion, heat of vaporization, and specific heat. o Cohesion: Hydrogen bonds are formed with each other
o Adhesion: Hydrogen bonds with substances with either ionic or polar regions o Heat of vaporization: the vapor phase is reached when the hydrogen bonds are broken. o Specific heat: The breaking of the hydrogen bonds cause the temperature of the water to rise.
Acids: a type of ionic compound that breaks apart in water which allows it to form hydrogen ions.
∙ pH is different from the pH of a base
∙ Acids pH is less than 7
∙ Acids are proton donors
Bases: are proton acceptors
o Have a pH greater than 7
True or false: (refer to chapter 2 to find the answers)
o Water is non-polar?
o A nucleus has electrons inside of it ?
o Hydrogen bonds are strong?
o Acids donate protons to bases?
o A full valence shell is 9?
More terms: (need to know these as well)
o redux reaction