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GSU / Biology / BIOL 2107 / What is the meaning of glycolysis in the cell?

What is the meaning of glycolysis in the cell?

What is the meaning of glycolysis in the cell?

Description

School: Georgia State University
Department: Biology
Course: Principles of Biology I
Professor: Samantha parks
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Cellular Respiration, Photosynthesis, glycolysis, calvin cycle, Biology, organelles, and cells
Cost: 50
Name: Biology Exam 2 Guide
Description: This guide covers cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and the organelles in cells.
Uploaded: 02/19/2017
4 Pages 113 Views 1 Unlocks
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Cellular RespirationDon't forget about the age old question of Who found the two kinds of priming related to attention?

• Electrons carried via NADHIf you want to learn more check out What kind of organism is too small to be seen with the naked eye?

        • Glycolysis

                Phase 1: Energy Investment

                        • Input → 2 ATP. 1 glucose moleculeIf you want to learn more check out How is a market order executed?

                Phase 2: Cleavage

                        • Glucose splits into 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecules (G3P)

                Phase 3: PayoffDon't forget about the age old question of When does world war 2 ended?

                        • G3P oxidizedDon't forget about the age old question of What is the main law of supply?

                        • Output: 2 pyruvate,(), 2 ATP ← 4 overall, 2 netWe also discuss several other topics like What are the players in the financial markets?

                ⇓

        ATP Substrate - level Phosphorylation

• Pyruvate Transported into mitochondrial matrix and oxidized to form acetyl CoA

• Citric Acid Cycle

(In Mitochondrial matrix)

        • Input: Acetyl-CoA

• Acetyl CoA transferred from 6-carbon citric acid

• citric acid is oxidized

• Products:

        ⇓

ATP Substrate - level Phosphorylation

• ETC (in mitochondria)

        • enters complex I; enters complex II

        • both are oxidized to

• electrons go to complex III and IV

• protons are pumped out of I, III, and IV from matrix to inner membrane

• protons return to matrix through ATP synthase

        ATP Oxidative Phosphorylation

• Pyruvate

  • No → fermentation → ethanol or lactate → to regenerate
  • present → cellular respiration

• Substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP)

  • Makes ATP by transferring phosphates from molecules with higher energy level
  • Occurs in cytosol

• Oxidative phosphorylation

  • Electron is put into ETC to make ATP
  • Occurs in mitochondria
  • Makes more ATP than SLP

Eukaryotic Cells

Mitochondria

        

                                                • number of mitochondria in cell correlates

with cellular level of metabolic activity

Cellular respiration in Mitochondria

Plant Cell

Chloroplast

                                oxidation

Photosynthesis →

                        

                        reduction

Photophosphorylation / light reaction (in thylakoid)

• z - scheme (noncyclic phosphorylation)

  1. Photosystem II (p680 nm)

• Sunlight absorbed

 broken down to and excited electrons

  1. ETC

• Excited electrons “fall” from PSII to PSI

• Create ATP by oxidative phosphorylation

             ↓

        To fuel calvin cycle

  1. Photosystem I (p700 nm)

• electrons at ground state are excited by sunlight

• electrons fall to ground state

carrier reduced to

                                 ↓                

                        For calvin cycle

Calvin Cycle / Carbon Fixation / dark reaction

(in stroma)

  1. Carboxylation

• addition of to RuBP; catalyzed by enzyme rubisco → output:(2)3-PGA molecules

  1. Reduction

        • NADPH transfers 2 electrons / 1 proton; inorganic phosphate (Pi) released

→ NADP+ triose phosphate

  1. Regeneration        

•  3-carbon compounds are reorganized and combined to produce RUBP

                                                                            ↑        

                                                                        output

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