NUTRITION – PROF. BLAKELY
STUDY GUIDE – EXAM 1
Chapter 1: Chemical, Biological, and Physiological Aspects of Nutrition
∙ What is peristalsis?
o Vigorous propulsive movements
∙ What is the function of gastric acid?
o Digests and breaks down the food in the stomach / protects against infection
∙ What are the causes of diarrhea (such as movement of material through the colon, nutrient deficiencies and lack of immunizations to fight infections)? o Movement of material through the colon
o Nutrient deficiencies
o Lack of immunizations to fight infections
∙ What are the functions of the salivary glands, mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and pharynx? o Mouth
breaks up food particles
Assists in producing spoken language
o Pharynx If you want to learn more check out fst notes
o Salivary glands
saliva moistens and lubricates food
Amylase digests polysaccharides
breaks down and builds up many biological molecules
Stores vitamins and iron
Destroys old blood cells
Bile aids in digestion
Stores and concentrates bile
Stores and churns food
Pepsin digest protein
HCl activates enzymes, breaks up food, kills germs
Mucus protects stomach wall
o Small intestine
Mucus protects gut wall If you want to learn more check out math 129
Absorbs nutrients, most water
Peptidase digests proteins
Sucrases digest sugars
Amylase digests polysaccharides
o Large intestine
Reabsorbs some water and ions
Forms and stores feces
Hormones regulate blood glucose levels
Bicarbonates neutralizes stomach acid
Trypsin and chymotrypsin digest proteins
Amylase digests polysaccharides
Lipase digests lipids
Opening for elimination of feces
Stores and expels feces
∙ What are the causes of constipation? We also discuss several other topics like g202 iu
o Antacid medicines containing calcium or aluminum
o Changes in your usual diet or activities
o Colon cancer
o Eating a lot of dairy products
o Eating disorders
o Irritable bowel syndrome
o Neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis
o Not being active
∙ What is mastication/dysphagia?
o Mastication chewing
o Dysphagia difficulty swallowing
∙ What are the digestive organs of the gastrointestinal tract that releases digestive enzymes?
o Mouth, esophagus, small intestine, stomach, pancreas, liver ∙ What is the gastric mucosal barrier?
o 1. Lines stomach
o 2. Epithelia cells
o 3. Mucus
o 4. Bicarbonate ions
∙ What is Saliva?
o Water, mucous, and enzymes
∙ What are the enzymes for digestion?
o Biological catalysts, breaks down food
o Inflammatory Bowel Disease
∙ Ulcerative colitis longlasting inflammation and ulcers in the digestive tract
∙ Crohn’s disease inflammation of the lining of the
digestive tract from the mouth to the anus
o Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Underlying cause has not been determined
∙ Define the transport systemspassive/active
∙ Membranebound transport proteins
Carriermeditated active transport Don't forget about the age old question of which major force in psychology emphasized unconscious thought processes?
∙ Requires ATP and transport proteins
Vesicular active transport
∙ A membrane protein that regulates the movement of
specific molecules across a vesicular (a small fluid sac in
the body) membrane
o Endocytosis the taking in of matter by a living
cell by invagination of its membrane to form a
o Exocytosis a process by which the contents of a
cell vacuole are released to the exterior through
fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell
∙ What are the tissue layers of the GI tract and why are they important? o Mucosa
Mainly epithelial cells
Rich supply of blood vessels
Network of nerves
Two layers of smooth muscle
∙ Longitudinal layer (outer) and circular layer (inner)
Mixing of food mass with digestive secretions
Secretes fluid that lubricates digestive organs
∙ Define transit time
o Time between the consumption of food and the elimination of food 2372 hours. Factors affecting transit time.
∙ What is the importance of the gastroesophageal and pyloric sphincters? o Gastroesophageal delivers food to stomach
Transit time – less than 10 seconds
o Pyloric acts as a valve to controls the flow of partially digested food from the stomach to the small intestine
∙ What is the importance of the kidney and the circulation of nutrients? o Cellular waste products
∙ Initially removes substances from the blood
o Causes of impaired kidney function
o Formation of urine
o ( 1. Cellular waste products
o 2. Nephrons convert ammonia to urea
o 3. Filtration
o 4. Reabsorption )
∙ Define the cephalic/Gastric/Intestinal Phase
o Cephalic before food enters the mouth
o Gastric arrival of food in stomach
∙ Define bioavailability
o How well your body absorbs nutrients
∙ What is the importance of the villi in absorption?
o Increases surface area for absorption
∙ What is the lymphatic system?
o Circulates fatsoluble nutrients
Eventually delivers them to cardiovascular system
o Route initially bypasses
o Helps rid body of waste, toxins, and other unwanted materials
Chapter 2: Key Nutrition Concepts and Terms
∙ What is nutrientdense, emptycalorie, energydense?
o Energydense provide relatively high levels of calories per unit weight of food
Ex: fried foods, cheeseburgers, potato chips
o Nutrientdense contain relatively high amounts of nutrients compared to their calorie value
Ex: broccoli, collards, bread, cantaloupe, lean meats
o Emptycalorie provide an excess of energy or calories in relation to nutrients
Soft drinks, candy, sugar, alcohol, animal fats
∙ Define food security/insecurity/terrorism
o Food security access at all times to a sufficient supply of safe, nutritious food
o Food insecurity limited or uncertain availability of safe, nutritious food – or the ability to acquire them in socially acceptable ways o Food terrorism act or threat of deliberate contamination of food for human consumption with all agents
∙ Know the essential nutrients: Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat, and Water o Carbohydrates substances in food that consist of a single sugar molecule, or of multiple sugar molecules in various forms. They provide the body with energy
o Protein substances in food that are composed of amino acids. o Fat substances in food that are soluble in fat, not water
o Water essential for life
∙ What are calories?
o Unit of measure of the amount of energy supplied by food ∙ What is the amount of adequate water intake daily?
o 1115 cups from food and fluids
∙ Define antioxidants
o Chemical substances that prevent or repair cell damage caused by oxidizing agents such as environmental pollutants, smoke, ozone, and oxygen
Includes pigments such as lycopene, anthocyanins, and beta carotene
∙ Define phytochemicals
o Chemical substances in plants that perform important functions in the human body
o Give plants color and flavor
o Enable plants to grow and protect themselves against insects and disease
o Some are antioxidants
∙ What are nonessential/essential nutrients?
o Essential substances required by the body that the body cannot produce (or produce in sufficient amounts) and must be obtained in the diet
dietary deficiency of an essential nutrient causes a specific
Ex: scurvy is a vitamin C deficiency
o Nonessential substances required for normal growth and health that the body can manufacture in sufficient amounts from other sources in the diet
Doesn’t require a dietary source
∙ What is the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)?
o Recommended intake levels and safe upper intake levels that meet the needs of 97% of healthy people and promote health and reduce risk of chronic disease
∙ What is malnutrition?
o Poor nutrition
∙ Calculate the calories of food items and/or beverages
∙ Calculate the conversion of lbs. to kg or kg to lbs. (conversion factor is 2.2) o 1kg = 2.2 lbs
∙ Conversion grams to ounces
o 1oz = 28g
Chapter 3: The Inside Story of Nutrition and Health
∙ What are the conditions that causes death?
o Chronic diseases
∙ Heart disease
∙ High cholesterol
∙ What are the leading causes of death?
o Heart diseases
o Chronic obstructive lung disease
o Pneumonia and influenza
o Kidney disease
∙ What is Oxidative stress?
o Condition that occurs when cells are exposed to more oxidizing molecules (such as free radicals) than to antioxidant molecules that neutralize them
o Over time oxidative stress causes damage to lipids, DNA, cells, and tissues
o Increases the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and other diseases
∙ What is ChooseMyPlate?
o MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – a place setting for a meal. ∙ Define inflammation/chronic Inflammation?
o Inflammation first response of the body’s immune system to infectious agents, toxins, or irritants
Biologically active substances promote oxidation and other reactions to counteract the infection, toxin, or irritant
o Chronic inflammation lowgrade inflammation lasting weeks to years
Damages lipids, cells, and tissues
∙ What are chronic illnesses?
o Slowdeveloping, longlasting diseases that are not contagious ∙ What are the diseases linked to nutrition?
o Heart disease
o Diabetes type 2
o Cirrhosis of the liver
o Irondeficiency anemia
o Tooth decay and gum disease
o Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress
∙ What are free radicals?
o Oxidizing agents
Chemical substances (often oxygenbased) that are missing electrons, which makes them reactive and prone to oxidizing
nearby molecules by stealing electrons from them
Can damage lipids, proteins, DNA, cells, and tissues by altering their chemical structures and functions
∙ What is the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)? o A survey research program conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States, and to track changes over time.
∙ What is the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey?
o To measure the food and nutrient content of the diet and the money value of food used by U.S. households and the food and nutrient intakes at home and away from home of individuals
∙ What is the Total Diet Study?
o An ongoing FDA program that monitors levels of about 800 contaminants and nutrients in the average U.S. diet
Chapter 5: Nutrition, Attitudes and Behavior
∙ What are the factors influencing food selection?
o Food preferences
Food taste, smell, color, texture, and temperature
o Nutrition knowledge and beliefs
Nutritional value of foods
Attitudes and values
o Practical considerations
Level of hunger
∙ Define food preferences
o Choosing foods that, based on our learning experiences, give us pleasure
o We reject foods that bring us discomfort, guilt, or unpleasant memories
∙ How does one make successful changes in food choices?
o Learn more about foods and health
o Make a specific plan
o Start with small, easy changes
o Be prepared for relapses
∙ Understand malnutrition and mental performance
o Malnutrition and mental preferences
In early childhood; has severe effects
Some children never fully recover
∙ What is an Unconcerned consumer?
o A consumer that is not concerned about a connection between diet and health
∙ What is a Committed consumer?
o A consumer that believes that good diet plays a role in prevention of illness
∙ What Vacillating consumer?
o A consumer that describes themselves as being concerned about diet and health, but who does not consistently base food choices on said concern
∙ How does Lead Toxicity effect children?
o Lowlevel exposure causes longterm behavioral effects, impaired reading skills, aggression
o Increases absenteeism and dropout rates
∙ What is ProteinCalorie Malnutrition and how does it affect children? o Proteincalorie malnutrition in early life:
Leads to growth retardation, low intelligence, poor memory, short attention span
o Proteincalorie malnutrition in later childhood:
Behavioral effects can be corrected with nutritional