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Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Chapter 1

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Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Chapter 1

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background image Chapter 1: Introduction to Cognitive Psychology     
Basics Of Cognitive Psychology 
I. Knowing and understanding  A. This is an ongoing process; what is possible in the future?  II. All areas of psychology relate to and fit under cognition  III. Cognitive SCIENCE (the scientific study of the mind) is more interdisciplinary   A. Philosophy 
B. Linguistics 
C. Neuroscience 
D. Evolutionary biology 
E. Artificial intelligence 
F. Robotics 
IV. Modern Cognitive Psychology began in the 50s  A. Questions on its topics such as memory began with Aristotle around 330BC  1. At this time they asked questions but had no concept of an experiment  B. 1600s- the notion of the experiment begins to show up  
C. Psychology as its own science, separate from philosophy, began in the 1850s 
V. Wundt: he began to coin the word psychology  A. He focused on perception and immediate conscious experience, which was very limited research  compared to what is studied today  B. He thought that introspection was a key component of an experiment  1. Analytic introspection: more descriptive 
2. He thought that memory processes, language, reasoning, and problem solving could not be 
studied in the lab because they are not a part of an individual's conscious experience  C. Used trained subjects: he told them too much about his experiment and his hypothesis, so much of his  results were likely biased  1. He thought he would get better data when subjects do multiple trials. However, this only made  the results more biased  2. We don't tell people about our study before we start (single-blind study) and then make up for it  afterward (debriefing)  VI. Edward Titchener  A. Structuralism- studied the sensations, images, and feelings that make up the structure of the mind  VII. Würzburg School  A. Phenomenological introspection- people using their own words to describe their consciousness  1. “Verbal protocols” that are then transcribed ad rewritten to fit the data set  B. Studied “mental sets”  1. Mayer and Orth’s word association experiment (1901)  C. Also used trained subjects  1. When subjects started repeating back to them their own terminology, they began to see the extent  of bias that this created  VIII. Behaviorism  A. Many thought that Psychology was too sloppy and unprofessional 
B. Started with John Dewey’s functionalism, which was unconcerned with methodology as long as  research 
had practical application  C. Watson later coined the term behaviorism 
background image 1. He believed that introspection was unreliable and unscientific and that only observable behavior  is reliable  2. Borrowed from Pavlov’s ideas  D. Radical/Metaphysical Behaviorists  1. Believe that there is only behavior and its environmental stimuli.   a) What happens in between can only be looked at on a physiological level  2. Watson and Skinner  E. Moderate/Methodological Behaviorists  1. Acknowledge that there are other things happening in the consciousness between stimuli and  behavior, but argue that it can not be studied scientifically  2. Clarke Leonard Hull- He was one of the most recognized behaviorists but his predictions were  too specific and therefore never correct, so people got tired of the meticulous process he took by 
numerous modifications and trials 
F. Effects of Behaviorism as the dominant psychological perspective (1920s-1950s)  1. Memory studies focused on verbal learning in order to maintain an observable stimulus and  response  2. Perception studies focused on discriminatory responses to stimuli  IX. Top down processing is conceptually drive   
Cognitive Revolution (1950-1960)  
Behaviorism began to be rejected as it moved out of the big picture and began to be applied to clinical psychology. There 
are five sources of modern cognitive psychology 
X. Computer science  A. The first modern digital computers were built during WW2  1. ENIAC build at U of Illinois   B. Universal Turning Machine  1. There are unsolvable problems 
2. Heuristics: solution not guaranteed 
3. Algorithms: solution guaranteed in a finite number of steps 
C. Alan Newell and Herbert Simon (won the nobel prize for work in economics, decision making in  companies) programmed the General Problem Solver  XI. Linguistics  A. Not empirical (not based on data collection) 
B. Skinner: Published 
Verbal Behavior  1. Applies operant conditioning with language learning (reinforcement from adults when a  childhood is learning to speak)  C. Chomsky: Developed a new approach to Linguistics- sentence structure  1. He was the first to apply mathematics to sentence structure 
2. Reviewed Skinner’s 
Verbal Behavior  in a journal called  Language,  saying that language learning  can not simply be a result of reinforcement  a) We can tell if a sentence is structurally correct or not even if we have never heard or said  it before  b) There are too many possible sentences for each one to be said and reinforced 
c) Skinner or any of his supporters did not reply for 11 years 
XII. Human Factors  A. Began with the training of men involved in war 
B. Information Theory (Channel Capacity): faded out  

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School: Clemson University
Department: Education and Teacher Studies
Course: Cognitive Psychology
Professor: Robert Campbell
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Cognitive Psychology
Name: Chapter 1
Description: This is an integration of lecture and textbook notes. Any vague areas are a result of something being mentioned only in the lecture without elaboration.
Uploaded: 02/19/2017
3 Pages 7 Views 5 Unlocks
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