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Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Chapter 2

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Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Chapter 2

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background image Chapter 2: Cognitive science and neuroscience    I. Dissociation- a disruption in one component of mental functioning but no impairment of another  A. Tulving (1989) : K.C. sustained memory loss from a motorcycle accident. No longer had access to  episodic memory.   B. Double dissociation: when two mental processes are mutually exclusive  1. Evidence for this requires at least two patients with opposite deficits  II. Neuron: a cell that is specialized for receiving and transmitting and neurotransmitters   A. Dendrites- receive information either directly from sensory receptors or from other neurons 
B. Cell body- stores information 
C. Action potential- electrical impulse fired by the neuron when the cell body reaches its information 
threshold  D. Axon- the terminal through which the action potential is sent 
E. Terminal fibers- where neurotransmitters are initially housed 
F. Synapse- the space between communicating neurons 
G. Emergent Properties: present when neurons work together, but do not occur with singular neurons 
III. Neurotransmitters: Electrochemical messages sent between neurons  A. Excitatory vs Inhibitory 
B. Acetylcholine: associated with memory 
1. Low levels have been correlated with alzheimer's and dementia  C. Glutamate: an excitatory neurotransmitter that strengthens the connections between neurons as a function  of learning  D. GABA: an inhibitory neurotransmitters that weakens the bonds between neurotransmitters  IV. Long Term Potentiation: the process through which the bonds between neurons is strengthened  A. Consolidation: Makes memories more permanent over time.  1. Sleep is known to aid this process  V. Old Brain  A. Thalamus: coordinates information between different parts of the brain as well as between the brain and  the body  B. Corpus Callosum: allows the two lobes of the brain to work together 
C. Hippocampus: important to memory 
D. Amygdala: processes emotion 
VI. Neocortex: the most recent structure to evolve in the brain and what makes human brains unique. Associated with 
higher level processing 
A. Frontal Lobe: Cognitive control 
B. Parietal Lobes: Spatial and sensory processing 
C. Occipital Lobe: Visual processing 
1. Dorsal pathway: determines where things are in space 
2. Ventral pathway: determines what things are 
D. Temporal Lobe: Auditory, linguistic, and memory processing 
E. Motor Cortex: responsible for voluntary movement 
F. Sensory Cortex: responsible for processing sensory info throughout the body 
G. Mirror Neurons: are used in some way to plan and execute movements 
VII. Hemispheres  A. Contralaterality: One side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body 
B. Hemispheric Specialization: The two sides of the brain are dominant in different processes 
1. Left: Language 
2. Right: nonverbal, spatial, and perceptual processing 

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School: Clemson University
Department: Education and Teacher Studies
Course: Cognitive Psychology
Professor: Robert Campbell
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Cognitive Psychology
Name: Chapter 2
Description: This is an integration of lecture and textbook notes. Any vague areas are a result of something being mentioned only in the lecture without elaboration.
Uploaded: 02/19/2017
2 Pages 8 Views 6 Unlocks
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