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Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Chapter 3

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Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Chapter 3

School: Clemson University
Department: Education and Teacher Studies
Course: Cognitive Psychology
Professor: Robert Campbell
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Cognitive Psychology
Name: Chapter 3
Description: This is an integration of lecture and textbook notes. Any vague areas are a result of something being mentioned only in the lecture without elaboration.
Uploaded: 02/19/2017
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background image Chapter 3: Pattern Recognition   
Visual Sensation and Perception 
I. Vision: the reflection of light hits our eyes  A. We are not continuously taking in visual information  1. Saccades: jerks of the eye, we do not take in information during this 
2. Fixations: pauses in eye movement, we can only see during this 
B. Change blindness: our inability to notice change in visual stimuli 
C. Inattention Blindness: we can not see something in our visual field because our attention is elsewhere 
II. Sensation: the reception of stimuli from the environment and the encoding of it into the nervous system  A. Iconic memory: holds visual information for brief periods of time  1. The passage of time degrades the icon  III. Perception: the process of interpreting and understanding sensory information  A. Visual Persistence: the apparent persistence of a visual stimuli beyond its physical duration 
B. Interference: When one visual image moves quickly to another, causing one to forget the original 
1. Backwards masking  C. Beta movement: the perception of illusory movement (TV)  1. Phi Phenomenon  IV. Span of apprehension: the number of items that can be recalled after a short display  A. Whole report condition: subjects report any letters they can 
B. Partial Report condition: subjects report only one row of letters 
V. Trans-Saccadic Memory: Used across a series of eye movements in order to piece together information gathered 
during fixations 
A. Object files: iconic representations used to track what is going on in the world  VI. Retina  A. Fovea: where most of the cones are, and provides the most accurate vision 
B. Rods and cons: neurons stimulated by light, which then send messages 
C. Bipolar Cells: pass on the messages 
D. Ganglion Cells: These make up the optic nerve, sending the signals toward the occipital lobes 
VII. Compression: human vision has been greatly compressed (it loses information before you perceive it)   
Pattern Recognition 
I. Gestalt Grouping Principles  A. Figure Ground Principle: Part of a visual image is treated as the figure (something to focus on and  identify) while another part is treated like a background  B. Closure: the person closes up a gap in the image presented 
C. Proximity: individual figures that are close to one another seem to be grouped together 
D. Similarity: Objects that are similar in some way seem to be grouped together 
E. Good Continuity: people assume that when an edge is interrupted, it continues 
F. Common Fate: the assumption that if objects move together than they are grouped together 
II. Template Matching: When we see a symbol, we search through our templates in memory to find an exact  match  A. Template: mental picture or model that is stored in your memory and allows you to recognize symbols  1. Canonical view: the orientation at which we prefer to see things  B. No one has ever actually believed in it  1. Proliferation: There are too many variations of every symbol/letter/number to store and search  through each one (different colors, sizes, fonts, etc) 
background image 2. Similarity: If we match exact templates, how is it possible that we recognize symbols when they  are slightly or even extremely distorted? We must have a basis for recognizing similarities- our 
pattern recognition can not be limited to exact matches. 
a) EX: We recognize CAPTCHAs  C. This model better describes how a computer works than the human mind. Bank checks and barcodes use  this   III. Feature Matching/ Feature-Detection Models  A. Feature: small and relatively simple quality that belongs to many different patterns  
B. Pandemonium Model: (A bottom-up process) by Selfridge 
1. Data/Image Demons: Howl when a specific pattern is encoded, letting the computational demons  know to get to work  2. Computational Demons: The feature detectors, each ‘demon’ is looking for its specific feature  and howls if it is found  3. Cognitive Demon: Listen for a specific combination of data demons howling- the combination  that makes up their specific letter  4. Decision Demon: has the final say in recognizing and categorizing the pattern  C. Problems with Feature-based Models: There are evidences of top-down processing that feature based  models do not account for  1. Conceptually Driven Pattern Recognition  a) Sometimes we only read the words we expect to see based on the context 
b) Repetition Blindness: people tend not to notice when words are repeated close together 
2. Asymmetric Error Probability: we are more likely to see a nonword and perceive a word than see  a word and perceive a nonword  3. Word Superiority Effect  a) People recognize individual letters better when they are in words 
b) Reicher (1969) Procedure: 
(1) Subjects are shown some Stimuli Display (either a four letter word, singular  letters, or a four letter nonword) then asked if a specific letter was in the display  (2) People recognized letters most often when they had been within a word  IV. Connectionist model: bottom up processing influenced by top down processing, a result of the problems found 
with Feature-based models 
A. Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP): Processing occurs simultaneously across all levels 
B. Network: 
1. Input level: receive input from the environment  a) Ex: encode and respond to basic features  2. Hidden level: when a unit reaches a threshold of positive weights, it sends its activation  a) Ex: matches the features that belong together 
b) Positive Connection Weights: pass excitatory activation 
c) Negative Connection Weights: pass inhibitory activation 
3. Output level: Puts the pattern into meaning  a) Ex: What is this word?  C. Higher level processes such as familiarity with the language allows us to identify patterns quicker by  ruling out other options   
Object Recognition 
I. Recognition By Components (RBC) Theory: We recognize objects by breaking them into parts, then looking 
through our memory for that combination of parts in the matching orientation 
A. Geons/Primitives: Simple three dimensional forms that make up visual objects (said there are 36) 

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School: Clemson University
Department: Education and Teacher Studies
Course: Cognitive Psychology
Professor: Robert Campbell
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Cognitive Psychology
Name: Chapter 3
Description: This is an integration of lecture and textbook notes. Any vague areas are a result of something being mentioned only in the lecture without elaboration.
Uploaded: 02/19/2017
3 Pages 13 Views 10 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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