Limited time offer 20% OFF StudySoup Subscription details

Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Week 4

Created by: Lindsey Notetaker Elite Notetaker

> > > > Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Week 4

Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Week 4

This preview shows pages 1 - 2 of a 4 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Chapter 4: Attention    I. History   A. Wundt believed that it could be studied even in the 1800s 
B. Behaviorists did not agree that it could be studied because it was too “mentalistic” 
C. Human Factors Psychologists studied it anyway because it was very relevant to them, especially in the 
context of war  D. Information Theory prompted more study of divided attention in the early 1950s  II. General Attention: the mental process of concentrating effort of a task  A. There is always more information available than we can attend to   1. It is a limited resource required for cognition  B. There are serious limits to how much we can attend to at once 
C. Some responses and tasks require little if any attention 
D. With practice, some tasks become less and less demanding of our attention 
E. Explicit processing: involve awareness that the task is being performed 
F. Implicit processing: no awareness of the task being performed 
III. Hemineglect: A disruption in the ability to attend to something on one field of vision (usually the left)  A. This applies to visual memory as well   
Input Attention: 
​Seem automatic, rapid processes involving sensory input. Often an involuntary response to a change in  the environment  I. Alertness or arousal  A. Vigilance (sustained attention): maintaining attention for infrequent events over long periods of time  1. Studies began with radar operators in WWII 
2. The performance declines over time 
a) The problem is not with detection but with response  3. Meditation can improve vigilance  II. Orienting “reflex” or response: Redirecting attention toward an unexpected stimulus  A. Calling it a reflex was a way for researchers to get around the criticism of behaviorists 
B. Attention capture: spontaneous redirection of attention to stimuli in the world based on physical 
characteristics  C. Voluntary Attentive response: Preparing to give more attention to the stimuli  1. What captures attention the most is something unexpected 
2. People tend to look at these longer 
D. Heart rate drops during one 
E. Habituation: Upon repeated exposure to something, the orienting response begins to go away 
1. This can be evidenced as learning 
2. Babies are often the subjects of habituation studies 
III. Spotlight attention and search: A mental attention focusing system that prepares you to encode visual stimulus 
information. The process is done voluntarily. 
A. Visual attention moving without the eyes themselves moving, allowing quicker processing of the  information in that space  B. Posner’s spatial cuing task:   1. Benefit: People had a quicker response time for detecting a stimulus when they were cued about  its location  2. Cost: People had a slower than baseline response time when they were cud to the wrong place  C. Visual Search:   1. Feature search: looking for a simple feature 
background image 2. Conjunction search: looking for a combination of features 
3. Pop out effect: the size of the display did not affect the RT for a feature search, but affects the RT 
of a conjunction search (making it seem to be more of a serial process)  4. Inhibition of Return: Recently checked locations are marked to not be returned to 
5. Describes a bottom up process, but there are usually top-down influences 
a) Ex: If you are looking for a sink, you will look at an outside wall first   
Controlled Attention: 
​When you decide to pay attention to something  I. Selective attention/Divided Attention  A. Inattention Blindness: not noticing something that you see because you are not giving attention to it 
B. Dichotic Listening (split ear): a common procedure from the 1950s of studying selective attention 
1. Headphones play different messages in each ear and the subject is asked to “shadow” one of the  messages  2. People tend to better recall the message that they were shadowing  a) The content of either are usually not remembered. Usually only some descriptive  characteristics of the auditory message are recalled.  C. Filter Theory of Attention (Early Selection Theory)  1. Blocking attention to one message to allow more resources to be allocated to another  a) The messages are differentiated by only the pitch or language  2. There must be some attention given to the stimuli being blocked it order to discriminate what to  block in the first place  3. Arguments against it:  a) Cocktail Party Effect (Neville Moray- 1959): If you are having a conversation at a party,  blocking out other noises, how can you hear your name called across the room?  (1) When a word is repeated many times in the unattended message, it is not  recalled, but if the subjects name is said only once in the unattended message, it 
is almost always perceived 
b) Ear-Switching Experiment (Treisman- 1960): Messages in the middle of dichotic  listening would switch ears without warning. The subjects would follow the original 
message for a few words before moving to the other message that was now in the ear they 
were asked to shadow  
D. Attenuation Theory (Late Selection Theory)  1. There are three levels of information processing. You must be processing at earlier levels to  process later levels.  a) Physical level (Ex: pitch of voice) “early selection” 
b) Verbal level (sounds of the words) 
c) Semantic (meaning) “late selection” 
2. Unattended message is attenuated, not blocked  a) The volume is turned down 
b) Recognizing your name would require at least verbal processing 
3. Both permanent and temporary priming are allowed   a) Priming: creating a lower threshold for activation 
b) Permanent Priming: a result of long term learning (AKA your name) 
E. Following Theories  1. There were always exceptions, so theories got continuously more complicated (1960s) 
2. Multiple Attentional Resources: different reservoirs of attention 
3. Automatic vs Controlled Processing (1970s) 
a) Reading is almost automatic after years of learning and practice (primed?) 

This is the end of the preview. Please to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Clemson University who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: Clemson University
Department: Education and Teacher Studies
Course: Cognitive Psychology
Professor: Robert Campbell
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Cognitive Psychology
Name: Chapter 4
Description: This is an integration of lecture and textbook notes. Any vague areas are a result of something being mentioned only in the lecture without elaboration.
Uploaded: 02/19/2017
4 Pages 10 Views 8 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Recommended Documents
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Week 4
Join with Email
Already have an account? Login here
×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Clemson - COOP 3330 - Class Notes - Week 4

Forgot password? Reset password here

Reset your password

I don't want to reset my password

Need help? Contact support

Need an Account? Is not associated with an account
Sign up
We're here to help

Having trouble accessing your account? Let us help you, contact support at +1(510) 944-1054 or support@studysoup.com

Got it, thanks!
Password Reset Request Sent An email has been sent to the email address associated to your account. Follow the link in the email to reset your password. If you're having trouble finding our email please check your spam folder
Got it, thanks!
Already have an Account? Is already in use
Log in
Incorrect Password The password used to log in with this account is incorrect
Try Again

Forgot password? Reset it here