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MU - MBI 131 - Study Guide - Midterm

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MU - MBI 131 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image MBI 131 Study Guide Topics to Review: 
1) Introduction to Community Health 
a) Community health and factors that influence it.  a. Community health: the health status of a defined group of people and  the actions and conditions that promote, protect, and preserve their 
health
b. Community: a group of individuals identified by at least one common  characteristic c. Factors: i. Physical factors (urban or rural) ii. Community Organization (clinics, organization) iii. Social and cultural factors (food, background) iv. Individual behaviors (decisions, vaccinations) b) b) Public health and agencies that affect it.  a. Public health: actions that society takes collectively to ensure that the  conditions in which people can be healthy can occur b. Public health system: the organizational mechanism of those activists  undertaken w/in the formal structure of government and the associated
efforts and private voluntary organizations
i) Governmental, non-governmental 
a. Large number of governmental agencies involved in US health
b. Lead public health agency: CDC
i. A division of US Dept. of Health and Human Services ii. Began with the mission to control malaria and today is virtually  involved in every aspect of human health c. Each state has a health department
d. Countries and cities have health departments
ii) Quasi-governmental: American Red Cross, some level of government 
(funding) but still has personal autonomy 
iii) Non-governmental
a. Nonprofits, philanthropic
b. Complete control
c) Governmental goals for health, National prevention strategy  a. Healthy People 2020:  i. part of Obamacare ii. A society in which all people live long healthy lives b. Better to prevent than cure 2) Overview of Epidemiology  a. study of how, when, and where diseases occur in population; focus is 
prevention and/or control of disease
c. disease is any deviation from a state of health i. illness ii. injury
background image iii. Disability iv. death- the ultimate disease c. Characteristics of Epidemiology  i. Disease occurrence is not random; it depends on aspects of  1. Time (when)
2. Place (where)
3. Person (who)
b) Disease  i) Infectious, communicable, contagious  infectious: disruption of a tissue or organ caused by microbes or 
microbial products
o Microbes: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa
o Also can include diseases caused by larger (non-microbial) 
parasitic organisms such as worms and insects Non-infectious: disruption of a tissue or organ caused by agents 
other than microbes
Communicable: disease causing agent spreads from one host to 
another
o Not the same as infectious
o Most infectious diseases are communicable, but some are not
Contagious: disease-causing agent spreads easily from one host to 
another
Non-communicable: disease causing agent cannot spread from one 
host to another
ii) Acute vs. Chronic  Acute: develop quickly and last a short time (3 months or less) o Patient is cured by medical intervention, recovers due to  immune system function, or dies o Most infectious diseases are acute
o Certain acute diseases may result in disability
Chronic: develops slowly and are long lasting o 3 months or longer, some are life long
o Medical intervention often manages the disease, extending life 
by limiting the disease’s effects on the body o Certain chronic diseases result in disability
o Most chronic diseases are not fully curable and eventually result 
in death o Non-infectious d) Focus of study for epidemiology  a. Identification of the cause of diseases and/or risk factors involved
background image i. Risk factors: characteristics or issues that increase the chances  of developing a disease b. Providing data necessary for public health and policy regulations
c. Most significant objective is prevention (or control) of illness, injury, 
death, disability d. d) Objectives of epidemiology that relate to public health  i) Surveillance, Prevention  a. Disease surveillance: measurement of the extent of disease  found in a population (usually by counting cases or deaths) b. Evaluation of effectiveness of existing and new treatments,  preventative measures and health care delivery ii) Incidence, Prevalence  Incidence (rate)  o Incidence measures new cases that are appearing,  providing an estimate of the risk of disease development o Number of new cases of a disease that occur during a  specified period of time in a population at risk for 
developing the disease
o # of NEW cases of a disease within a pop in a given time  period               X  unit size # of persons in that pop at risk of developing the disease 
in same time period
Prevalence (rate) o Prevalence is useful in planning public health and medical  services since all cases are included o Prevalence is generally the more useful measure for  chronic (long-lasting) diseases it reflects the total disease 
burden in the population (old and new cases)
o Total number of existing cases present at a particular time in a given population o # existing cases of the disease in a pop at a given time X  unit size Total (avg) pop at that given time Where does the data come from for incidence & prevalence? o Census Population counts Demographic information o Disease surveillance Case finding Records Surveys Disease reporting
background image Clinics, hospitals iii) Sporadic, endemic, epidemic, pandemic  Surveillance provides the data A disease that occurs occasionally in a population/community is 
a sporadic disease
A disease that occurs at some constant or expected level in a 
population/community is endemic disease
A disease that occurs in excess of the usual or expected level in 
a population/community is epidemic disease
A worldwide epidemic disease is a pandemic disease e) Health status indicators  i) Life expectancy, Health-Adjusted life expectancy (HALE)  ii) Years of potential life lost (YPLL) iii) Disability adjusted life years (DALY)  e) Birth, Mortality, and Morbidity rates  a. Mortality:  i. There are many mortality rates ii. Rate used depends on what the investigator want to evaluate iii. Examples 1. Annual mortality rate (Crude mortality rate) measures  deaths from all causes in the entire population being 
evaluated in a given year
a. Total # deaths (all causes) in 1 yr  X   unit size # people in pop at midyear 2. Cause-specific mortality rate measures deaths from a  given cause in the entire population being evaluated in a 
given year
a. Total # deaths from a given cause  X  unit size         # people in pop at midyear 3. Infant mortality rate measures death of babies from birth  to 1 year old in the context of the live births that year a. Total # deaths of babies aged birth – 365 days old  in 1  yr X unit size
Total # live births in same year
4. Maternal mortality ratio (rate) measures death of women  from pregnancy and birth related causes in the context of 
the live births that year
a. Total # deaths from pregnancy/birth related causes  in 1 yr    X unit size
Total # live births in same year
b. Birth rates

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School: Miami University
Department: Microbiology
Course: Community Health Perspectives
Professor: Alan Strautman
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Epidemiology, community, health, disease, Prevention, and Infections
Name: Study Guide 1
Description: This study guide covers the material that will be on the first exam.
Uploaded: 02/19/2017
18 Pages 62 Views 49 Unlocks
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