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OleMiss - BISC 322 - Study Guide - Midterm

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Ecology Test #2 Study Guide

I. Population Ecology

a. What is a population?

i. Individuals of a certain species within a prescribed area. 1. Boundaries may be imposed by geographical limits

(ie. Viable habitat for living) or defined by someone

conducting a study on the population.

b. Demography

i. The study of age or stage based patterns of mortality and reproduction w/in a population

c. Growth of Populations

i. One must understand how a population grows/behaves through the demographic processes of birth, death,

immigration, and emigration to see how viable the Don't forget about the age old question of What are the labels or names used to identify an element?

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population is for the future.

ii. Changes in population can be quantified by the following equation:

1. Nt+1 = Nt (1+b-d+i-e)

a. Nt=population density (# of individuals of the

population)

b. Nt+1= population density one time frame in

the future

c. b=birth rate

d. d=death rate

e. i=immigration rate

f. e=emigration rate

i. (b&I increase the population; d&e We also discuss several other topics like Chlorination is a process of?

decrease the population)

iii. Effects of Births and Deaths on Population Growth

1. Average and Finite Population Growth Rate

a. (Note: system is not affected by resources,

predation, disease, and size; birth and death

rates are constant)

b. Equation: Nt+1=Nt (1+ba-da)

i. ba=average annual death rate

ii. da=average annual birth rate

iii. ra=average annual growth rate (ba-da)

c. Equation: finite growth rate=annual

reproductive rate (geometric scale) or lambda,

λ

i. λ = Nt+1/Nt = 1 + ba - da, or

ii. λ = 1+ ra

d. Understand the Geometric Growth Curve

i. Also, The Instantaneous Per Capita Rate of Increase and the Exponential Growth Model If you want to learn more check out When did computer networks begin allowing computers to talk to each other?

ii. ra = 1 (net gain of 100

individuals/starting number)

iii. gross average growth rate = 100 individuals per year = slope of solid line

iv. x equals the amount of time elapsed between consecutive measurements

of population

density:

v. The per capita instantaneous growth rate, ri, can be obtained by dividing dN/dt by N at a given instant

vi.

r =

d N d t

N

The gross instantaneous growth (dN/dt) = the instantaneous

contribution of each individual to

population growth, ri, multiplied by

the number of individuals in the

population, N.

rN =dN

dt

iv. Lots of equations and modeling on this test.

Understand how they work and how they apply to

real-life situations and populations.

Model Name

Model

Breeding

Growth Rate

Constant (name)

Calculations of Growth Rate

Constants

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Exponential

Nt+x=Nterx

Continuous

r (exponential or

instantaneous)

r = binstant – dinstant b = # or births/# of individuals

d=# of deaths/# of individuals

r=(dN/dt)/N

r = ln(λ)

r = ln(Nt+x) –

ln(Nt) / x

Geometric

Nt+p=Ntλp

Periodic

λ (geometric or

finite)

λ = er

λ = Nt+1/Nt or

(1+bannual dannual)

d. Effects of Age Structure on Population Growth

i. What is age/stage structure?

1. Proportion of individuals in a population in

different age classes.

a. Populations with significant age

structure is said to have unequal

proportions of individuals among age

classes. Such unequal proportions result

from age-related differences in birth and

death rates.

b.