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OLEMISS / Biology / Bisc 322 / What is a population?

What is a population?

What is a population?


School: University of Mississippi
Department: Biology
Course: Ecology
Professor: Dr. brewer
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Ecology, Biology, conservation, biomes, modeling, ecosystem, populations, and equations
Cost: 50
Name: Ecology Exam #2 Study Guide Pt. 1
Description: Part 1 of the study guide for the upcoming exam.
Uploaded: 02/19/2017
3 Pages 133 Views 2 Unlocks

Ecology Test #2 Study Guide

What is a population?

I. Population Ecology

a. What is a population?

i. Individuals of a certain species within a prescribed area. 1. Boundaries may be imposed by geographical limits  

(ie. Viable habitat for living) or defined by someone  

conducting a study on the population.

b. Demography

i. The study of age or stage based patterns of mortality and  reproduction w/in a population

c. Growth of Populations

i. One must understand how a population grows/behaves  through the demographic processes of birth, death,  

immigration, and emigration to see how viable the  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the labels or names used to identify an element?
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population is for the future.

ii. Changes in population can be quantified by the following  equation:

1. Nt+1 = Nt (1+b-d+i-e)

What is the study of age or stage-based patterns of mortality and reproduction w/in a population?

a. Nt=population density (# of individuals of the  


b. Nt+1= population density one time frame in  

the future

c. b=birth rate

d. d=death rate

e. i=immigration rate

f. e=emigration rate

i. (b&I increase the population; d&e  We also discuss several other topics like Chlorination is a process of?

decrease the population)

iii. Effects of Births and Deaths on Population Growth

1. Average and Finite Population Growth Rate

a. (Note: system is not affected by resources,  

predation, disease, and size; birth and death  

rates are constant)

b. Equation: Nt+1=Nt (1+ba-da)

What is the geometric growth curve?

i. ba=average annual death rate

ii. da=average annual birth rate

iii. ra=average annual growth rate (ba-da)

c. Equation: finite growth rate=annual  

reproductive rate (geometric scale) or lambda,  


i. λ = Nt+1/Nt = 1 + ba - da, or

ii. λ = 1+ ra

d. Understand the Geometric Growth Curve

i. Also, The Instantaneous Per Capita Rate  of Increase and the Exponential Growth  Model  If you want to learn more check out When did computer networks begin allowing computers to talk to each other?

ii. ra = 1 (net gain of 100  

individuals/starting number)

iii. gross average growth rate = 100  individuals per year = slope of solid line

iv. x equals the amount of time  elapsed between consecutive  measurements

of population


v. The per capita instantaneous  growth rate, ri, can be obtained by  dividing dN/dt by N at a given  instant


r =

d N d t


The gross instantaneous growth  (dN/dt) = the instantaneous  

contribution of each individual to  

population growth, ri, multiplied by

the number of individuals in the  

population, N.  

rN =dN


iv. Lots of equations and modeling on this test.  

Understand how they work and how they apply to  

real-life situations and populations.

Model Name



Growth Rate 

Constant (name)

Calculations of  Growth Rate 


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r (exponential or 


r = binstant – dinstant b = # or births/#  of individuals 

d=# of deaths/#  of individuals


r = ln(λ)

r = ln(Nt+x) – 

ln(Nt) / x




λ (geometric or 


λ = er 

λ = Nt+1/Nt or 

(1+bannual ­ dannual)

d. Effects of Age Structure on Population Growth

i. What is age/stage structure?

1. Proportion of individuals in a population in  

different age classes.

a. Populations with significant age  

structure is said to have unequal  

proportions of individuals among age  

classes. Such unequal proportions result

from age-related differences in birth and

death rates.


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