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OleMiss - BISC 322 - Study Guide - Midterm

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Ecology Test #2 Study Guide

I. Population Ecology

a. What is a population?

i. Individuals of a certain species within a prescribed area. 1. Boundaries may be imposed by geographical limits

(ie. Viable habitat for living) or defined by someone

conducting a study on the population.

b. Demography

i. The study of age or stage based patterns of mortality and reproduction w/in a population

c. Growth of Populations

i. One must understand how a population grows/behaves through the demographic processes of birth, death,

immigration, and emigration to see how viable the

population is for the future.

ii. Changes in population can be quantified by the following equation:

1. Nt+1 = Nt (1+b-d+i-e)

a. Nt=population density (# of individuals of the

population)

b. Nt+1= population density one time frame in

the future

c. b=birth rate

d. d=death rate

e. i=immigration rate

f. e=emigration rate

i. (b&I increase the population; d&e

decrease the population)

iii. Effects of Births and Deaths on Population Growth

1. Average and Finite Population Growth Rate

a. (Note: system is not affected by resources,

predation, disease, and size; birth and death

rates are constant)

b. Equation: Nt+1=Nt (1+ba-da)

i. ba=average annual death rate

ii. da=average annual birth rate

iii. ra=average annual growth rate (ba-da) Don't forget about the age old question of What has the properties of nominal data but the order or rank of the data matter?

c. Equation: finite growth rate=annual

reproductive rate (geometric scale) or lambda,

λ

i. λ = Nt+1/Nt = 1 + ba - da, or

ii. λ = 1+ ra

d. Understand the Geometric Growth Curve

i. Also, The Instantaneous Per Capita Rate of Increase and the Exponential Growth Model

ii. ra = 1 (net gain of 100

individuals/starting number)

iii. gross average growth rate = 100 individuals per year = slope of solid line

iv. x equals the amount of time elapsed between consecutive measurements

of population

density:

v. The per capita instantaneous growth rate, ri, can be obtained by dividing dN/dt by N at a given instant We also discuss several other topics like What many bacteria a human body have?

If you want to learn more check out What are the examples of baroque?

vi.

r =

d N d t

N

The gross instantaneous growth (dN/dt) = the instantaneous

contribution of each individual to

population growth, ri, multiplied by

the number of individuals in the

population, N.

rN =dN

dt

iv. Lots of equations and modeling on this test.

Understand how they work and how they apply to If you want to learn more check out Bromination is a process of?

real-life situations and populations.

Model Name

Model

Breeding

Growth Rate

Constant (name)

Calculations of Growth Rate

Constants

Exponential

Nt+x=Nterx

Continuous

r (exponential or

instantaneous)

r = binstant – dinstant b = # or births/# of individuals

d=# of deaths/# of individuals

r=(dN/dt)/N

r = ln(λ)

r = ln(Nt+x) –

ln(Nt) / x

Geometric

Nt+p=Ntλp

Periodic

λ (geometric or

finite)

λ = er

λ = Nt+1/Nt or

(1+bannual dannual)

Don't forget about the age old question of How did the work of barry schwartz and allen neuringer support or advance the understanding of response stereotypes and response variability?

Don't forget about the age old question of When did computer networks begin allowing computers to talk to each other?

d. Effects of Age Structure on Population Growth

i. What is age/stage structure?

1. Proportion of individuals in a population in

different age classes.

a. Populations with significant age

structure is said to have unequal

proportions of individuals among age

classes. Such unequal proportions result

from age-related differences in birth and

death rates.

b.