J201 test 1 study guide
J201 test 1 study guide J201
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Journalism and Mass Communications
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Journalism and Mass Communications
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Journalism and Mass Communications
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Journalism and Mass Communications
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Codd on Monday April 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to J201 at University of Oregon taught by Jennifer Schwartz in . Since its upload, it has received 646 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/20/15
Newspapers Define the six eras of print newspapers Know the chronological order or the six eras 1 Colonial Newspaper and Partisan Press a Critique government and disseminate the views of the different political parties 2 The Penny Press Becoming a Mass Medium i Affordable for all ii Ads and newspaper sales funded papers iii Targeted to working class 1 Interviewing entertainment human interest stories crime 2 The Sun sets the stage a Fabricated stories Human Interest b Low circulation due to uneducated population 3 Yellow Journalism a Pulitzer NY World illustrations and Hearst NY Journal Screaming headlines b Redesign the look of the newspaper c Sensational and low brow i Scandals crime disasters society crime 1 Use of photographs 1900 2 Yellow kid Cartoon 4 Objective Journalism a New York Times i Opposite of yellow journalism ii Neutral informative iii High Brow iv Status symbol b Broad stories to more specific c Scientific credible balance objectivity 5 Interpretive Journalism a People wanted to know about what was happening nationally and aboard b Value based c Grew in the 30 s 6 Literary Journalism a Fictional storytelling techniques to tell news i First person dialogue scenesetting ii In cold blood Truman Capote b Digital Age i USA Today ii What was the first newspaper published in the US Characteristics 1 Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic a Banned after one issue for its negative view of British rule b Benjamin Franklin s Pennsylvania Gazette Which trial helped set the foundation for the First Amendment Why 1 Zenger Trial argued truth is a defense against libel charges What is the wire service how did it develop how did it contribute to the idea of news 1 Essential for Civil War a Developed a new story structure b Most important to least important info What are the challenges that print newspapers face today 1 Most popular news sites aren t run by newspaper a Google Yahoo AOL 2 Online TV and Cable TV 3 BloggersNews aggregate What are the defining characteristics of partisan press papers 1 Critique government and disseminate the views of the different political parties Who is John Peter Zenger 1 Printer publisher journalist who assisted in the Zenger case against libel a Truth above all else What are the defining characteristics of the penny press 1 Affordable for all 2 Ads and newspaper sales funded papers 3 Targeted to working class What were some important innovations during the penny press period 1 Interviewing timeliness Entertainment Human Interest stories crime What are the defining characteristics of yellow journalism 1 Low Brow and sensational 2 Extensive use of illustrations and Screaming Headlines 3 Redesigned the look of newspapers Who are Hearst and Pulitzer 1 Hearst a New York Journal b Screaming headlines 2 Pulitzer a New York World b Extensive use of Illustrations c Sensationalized news events and con icts d Who was the audience for yellow journalism 1 Because public schooling was now implemented it was for the mass literate population Who was the original audience for Och s New York Times Why 1 it was intended for the af uent and educated readers because The World and The Journal held the bulk of middle class workers Who ended up reading the New York Times Why 1 He lowered the price to a penny and soon the middle class moved to the New York Times to show status and educated level What are the defining characteristics of objective journalism 1 Objective J ournalism distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns modern reporters strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue or event they cover What is the inverted pyramid style of news Inverted Pyramid The story form for packaging and presenting objective journalism most broad to more specific Why did interpretive journalism arise 1 Interpretive J ournalism aims to explain the ramification of key issues or events an place them in a broader historical context 2 Arise in the 1920 s because people wanted to know what was happening nationally and abroad and what it meant for them What are the defining characteristics of interpretive journalism 1 Explain national and global issues 2 Value based 3 Effects of Depression WWII Fascist regimes What are the defining characteristics of literary journalism 1 Fictional storytelling techniques 2 Description of setting first person dialogue How has the Internet changed the print newspaper industry 1 Internet makes news more accessible for free What are the challenges facing newspapers today Magazines How has Cosmopolitan evolved overtime 1 Childcare and decoriating a Didn t really catch on b Public school system leads to mass literacy 2 Evolved into literary magazine a Focus on women s rights movement i Brown became editor Fun fearless female What is muckraking 1 The action of searching out and publicizing scandalous information about famous people and in underhanded way Why did early magazines struggle in the US What type of content did the first magazines have Who was their audience 1 Not everyone was literate and could read the magazines a Ben Franklin was Ben Sanders RICHARD S ALMANAC b Primary function was persuasion c Served educated and wealthy Why did magazines become popular after 1880 1 mass literacy because of public school system What types of magazines were the four general interest giants 1 Saturday Evening Post 2 Reader s Digest 3 Time 4 Life How did the general interest giant magazines attract a large audience 1 They dealt with things that everyone could relate to a Family kids love entertainment Holidays sports pets etc Today magazines are defined by what characteristics 1 Niche audience photojournalism online What are some issues associated with photographs in the digital age 1 Visual untruth a Staged and digitally altered life b Normalized the unreal What were the differences between newspapers and magazines throughout the 1700s and 1800s 1 magazines contribute to consumer culture 2 shapes American identity 3 Ever Popular 4 Adapts to audiences social changes What are the stages of magazines in the US 1 Colonial a Ben Saunders Richard s Almanac 2 General Interest National Magazines postal act of 1879 lowers price Mass Immigration Western migration Universal Themes i Everyday images through innocence happiness simplicity 3 Muckrackers a Long form journalism i Called for social and political reform ii Corruption in buisnes government iii Mass immigration 4 PhotoJournalism a Ushered in visual age b Expanded surveillance function into the visual i Power of image to create social reform ii Enhanced images c Niche audiences Medig Economics What are the two major in uences of media industries profit and government regulation 1 Regulation 1st amendment and FCC 2 Profitabilitypopularity of products 3 Costcutting 999 How did the First Amendment regulate media industries 1 How did the FCC in uence media industries 1 In uence ownership patterns 2 In uence content a Required a minimal amount of nonentertainment programing 8 b Limited of ads per hour 95 min adshour during primetime c Fairness Doctrine 19471987 What did the FCC require the radio industry to do in 1943 What was the result in terms of ownership went from two national radio chains to three radio chains 1 Local radio broadcaster cannot reach more than 45 of the nation s home a NBC Blue becomes ABC share of 33 market share What were the FCC rules regulating media ownership in the 60s and 70s 1 Limit multiple ownership and crossownership in markets a If 7 TV stations in a market can only own 2 of them Cannot own a radio station and TV station in same market Cannot own a TV station and newspaper in same market Own up to 7 TV stations in the US Own up to 40 radio stations in the US 9906 In which decade did deregulation start in the media industry 1 1980 s What did the FCC deregulate in the 1980s Give examples 1 CONTENT RULES DEREGULATED a Ended minimal amounts of nonentertainment programing 8 b Ended limit on of ads per hour 95 adshour c Ended Fairness Doctrine 19471987 2 OWNERSHIP RULES DEREGULATED a Own up to 12 TV stations b Owner may reach 45 up from 35 of a given marketcity c Owner may reach 39 of US national market d License renewals no longer use a public interest consideration What happened when the FCC deregulated the amount of ads shown per hour on the radio and broadcast TV between the mid1980s and today 1 2015 18 min of adshr 2 Kids Programming and ads a 1989 14 min of adshour b 1991 reinstate regulation for kids 105 min of adshr c creation of 30 min toy shows What economic trend occurred in the 1980s in all media industries Was consolidation across media or within media 1 Rise of chains 2 Consolidation WITHIN media industries a Rise of newspaper chains b Book Publishers consolidate c Magazines consolidate What is a multimedia conglomerate What FCC deregulation led to their existence 1 Media Conglomerate Tow or more companies under a parent company or sub companies marketed as independent companies because of brand value 2 Telecommunications Act of 1996 a Eliminated radio ownership cap 40 stations b Eliminated crossownership rules i Led to conglomerates ii Led to consolidation among media industries Why are subcompanies such as Random House or the Wall Street Journal marketed as if they are independent companies by parent companies Why are multimedia conglomerates successful 1 Use of economics of slace a Buy raw material in bulk and cheap 2 Create barriers to entry a Lower competition 3 Use Synergy a All Subcompanies promote and make money off one product What is synergy 1 Synergy The promotion and scale of a product and all its versions throughout the various subsidiaries of a media conglomerate Today how many media companies control 90 of the US media market 1 6 companies from about 50 in 1983 Do the big six media companies want to push and plug into a mass culture or an indiVidual culture 1 Big 6 interested in the mass culture because of increased popularity J 201 Study guide EXAM 3 J201 Study guide for exam 3 Winter 2015 What caused recorded music to become a mass medium Emile Berliner made sound recording into a mass medium He developed a turntable machine The Gramophone in 1887 that played at disks or records made of shellac Was also able to massproduce his records by making a master recording from which copies could be duplicated Who are the early inventors of recorded music and what are their inventions In the 1850 s Euouard Leon Scott de Martinville was the first to start to start the development of recorded sound Thomas Edison in 1887 determined how to play back the music and created the phonograph In 1887 Emilie Berliner developed the gramaphone What four genres are the origins of popular music in the US The origins of popular music were jazz southern delta blues vaudeville southern hillbilly country What is rock and roll How did it in uence society Rock n Roll started in the 1950 s it was a mix of blues and country Rock re ected and shaped major societal forces such as the migration of blacks to the north and growth of the youth culture It stirred the pot with songs that included sex and offended many and worried the adults on what their children were listening to What is jazz and where did it develop Jazz began in 1910 in New Orelans Jazz is characterized as big bands What is cover music and who was the first AfricanAmerican artist to have a No 1 pop hit by covering a country song When a song is sung or performed that was not the original artist What is popular music Popular is also known as Pop music Pop music appeals to large segments of the population sizeable groups distinguished by age region region or ethic background can from vary from many genres of music What was wireless telegraphy first used for Why Who are the early inventors of radio The telegraph was developed in the 1840 s and was the first technology invented to move faster than human travel The inventor of this was Samuel Morse who created the Morse code which is a series of dots and dashes to communicate messages between DC and Maryland In 1894 Guglielmo Marconi created the wireless telegraph that was used to communicate to commercial shipping and the military GE built the first radio Who owns the airwaves and who regulates radio What were early radio regulations Wireless Ship Act 1910 Requiring that all major US seagoing ships to carry wireless equipment Radio act of 1912 Required all radio stations at land or sea to be operated by a liscned person The radio is regulated by the FCC Federal Communications Commission 1943 USA during WW1 stopped British Marconi from accessing radio connection in US in order to eliminate British In uences on American society and communication How did the government organize radio Who started NBC CBS and ABC RCA 50 General Electric 30 and Westinghouse 20 started NBC which would brake into NBCred and NBCblue Affiliates payed 96 cents a week to carry programming William Paley a cigar company owner bought Columbia phonograph Company and turned it into Columbia Broadcasting System CBS CBS payed its affiliates 50 cents an hour to carry its programs NBCblue was forced to be sold under Supreme Court rule NBCblue became ABC What was the golden age of radio The golden age of radio was between the late 1920 s to the 1940 s It was the start of informative and entertainment programs Some examples were weather forecasts farm reports news quiz shows etc It was all shaped by American culture How was radio a cultural mirror They were powerfully re ected shifts in American culture such as race and level of tolerance for stereotypes How was radio the voice of authority Not only does radio re ect cultural beliefs it also shapes them Many people depended on radio to go to for information An example was a story on the day before Halloween that sounded like a real announcement that there were aliens that were going to attack and people thought it was a real broadcast Why is format specialization popular today It centers music around the top forty or base their programming off of what their listeners want to hear This is called rotation Format radio allows the station manager to control hourbyhour music programming Bases audiences off of age income gender or race to figure out what they want to listen to Most popular categories are News and talk radio adult Contemporary Top 40Contemporary hit radio Country Urban Spanish Language Radio Who were the early inventors of movies Eastman develops roll film Le Prince invents first motionpicture camera with roll film Goodwin Kinetoscope 1893 Edison Lumiere brothers France 1895 projector allowed for more than one person to View When did movies become a mass medium When movies were able to tell a story they became a mass medium Melies france 1896 Film s first narrative movie ever The Vanishing Lady Porter US 1902 First narrative movie in US First closeup western chase scene What was the reputation of early movies Lousy Visuals trashy entertainment What is a nickelodeon who did they serve and why did they decline in popularity Nickelodeons were a type of movie theater whose name combines the admission price 5 cents with the Greek word for theater Were popular with immigrants and working class What is a movie palace First movie houses 19001915 Showed silent movies with live entertainment Transcended literacy and language barriers Unifying Hugely popular Movie houses decline in 1915 because they evolve into larger opulent theaters What was the Hollywood studio system and why was it powerful Why did it end Southern California Ideal for shooting year round Edison tries to control the industry by starting a cartel of motion picture distributers 6Big 5 Paramount MGM 20th Century Fox RKO Warner Bros Were vertically integrated Controlled Production Distribution Exhibition Little 3 Columbia Universal United Artists This oligopoly of the Big 5 controlled most of Hollywood and had the money for better directors writers and actors because they could control what and where films were being shown What was the 1948 Paramount Decision The Paramount Decision made it illegal for the Big 5 to own exhibition spaces outright and ends vertical integration How did the movie industry compete with TV Movies entered terrain tv dared not go Alcoholism drugs violence race relations sexuality Movies develop new technologies Technicolor biger screens stereophonic sound clearer film 3D Imax J201 winter 2015 nal exam study guide Who invented Who was the rst person to demonstrate TV Inventor Philo Fransworth got rst patent but battled Vladimir Zworykin over this Demonstrator Philo Farnsworth in Philadelphia then Vladimir in World Fair What was TV39s path to becoming a mass medium What had to happen before TV could be de ned as a mass medium 1940 s FCC regulates TV like Radio Broadcast signals belong to the public Gov t regulated for public WW2 disrupts TV lndustry 1950 s FCC distributes Channels evenly through out US l Becomes Mass Memum 1948 l 1 of households have TV 1953 l 50 of households have TV 1963 l 90 of households Which existing industry radio networks started TV networks Why was this the case NBC ABC and CBS Radio and stars moved to TV Radio stations structured broadcast TV like radio Companies controlled content and sponsored TV programs How was early TV structured and sponsored 15 minute programs companies controlled content What ended early 19405 and early19505 TV39s economic model NBC president made programs go from 15 minutes to 30 raising price of advertisement l discourage some companies from sponsoring Added quotSpectacularsSpecials tv programs that brought programs on during special occasions or had special topic Ex Bob Hopes Christmas Special Added Magazine style format Contained multiple segments like music news comedy and talk Ex Today Show Ellen quotTalk Shows How did sponsors of TV programs control content during this time Companies that sponsored TV programs would put name of company in background of show or would put their own advertisement on the air Which type of TV programs quiz shows ended corporate sponsorship Quiz Shows think hairspray What is public television What type of audience was it designed to serve Programming for those whose interests were ignored by addriven commercial television Public TV was for the public interest created by Congress Aimed towards the elderly children and the educated Ex Sesame Street Masterpiece Theatre PBS created Which mass medium attracts the largest mass audience Broadcast TV is the largest mass medium attracting 50 of households ABC CBS NBC had 312 channels What recent developments in the TV industry have given viewers more control of what when and where they watch TV Cable programming increases viewer control due to satellite technology 1975 HBO offered uncut no commercial movies and sporting events for a monthly fee CNN 247 newsroom Basic Cable 2012 over 900 channels included local channels De ne the network era De ne the Prime Time Access Rule nsyn mustcarry rules and the Telecommunications Act of 1996 Network Era From 19501970 s Dominated by ABC NBC CBS Prime Time Access Rule PTAR 1970 reduced networks control of Prime Time programming from four to three hours in an effort to encourage more local news and public affairs programs however most stations lled this new time block with quiz shows wheel of Fortune or infotainment Entertainment Tonight Finsyn 1970 FCC also created the Financial Interest and Syndication Rules FinSyn which banned Networks from running their own syndication companies and thus reduced their ability to reap pro ts from syndicating old TV series Was retracted in 1995 Must Carry Rules FCC required all cable operators to carry all local TV broadcasts on their systems Telecommunications Act of 1996 Congress approved several cable acts until rewriting the nations communications laws in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 which took away a number of ownership restrictions from radio and Television and also brought cable fully under federal oversight treating the industry like broadcasting What is ARPAnet What political event led to its development Who developed it US Defense Department s Advanced Research Projects Agency The original lnternet ARPAnet or just the Net Cold War with Soviet Union they beat us to space but the US defense Department research agency beat them to the Internet What three events had to occur for the Internet to become a mass medium When did the Internet become a mass medium Microprocessors Personal Computers 1971 FiberOptic Cable Rapid data Transmission 1985 NSF opens quotthe netquot 1992 Email onetoone communication Web page display OnetoMany communication Web ManytoMany communication What are the de ning characteristics of Web 10 Web 20 and Web 30 Web 10 0 Tim BernersLee develops World Wide Web enabling users to access texts through clickable links rather than through dif cult computer code known as hyperlink HTML is the written code that creates Web pages and links that can be read by all computers for easy communication 0 The release of Web BROWSER allowing for navigation between web pages 0 Email Commercialism Internet becomes mass medium 1995 Web 20 o 1999 to present ish Media Convergence Different types of content video text audio created by any type of source coming together 0 User Friendly 0 Social Networking Instant messaging Facebook blogs Wikis MMORPG s Web 30 o Are we here yet 0 Central to our daily experience Utter mobility phones laptops tablets Personalized Content Online companies use data acquired form users net use Ads and content target individual s preferences Who owns the Internet What is the Children39s Internet Protection Act of 2000 No one owns Internet Children s Internet Protection Act of 2000 2003 Requires schools and libraries that receive federal funding for internet access to use software that lters out any visual content deemed obscene pornographic or un t for minors unless disabled by the request of adult users What is net neutrality Refers to the principle that every website one owned by a multinational organization or owned by you has the right to the same Internet speed and access Always been a goal but has never been implemented into law What has Google become besides a search engine Portal for advertisers Who were the rst advertising agents Space Brokers people who purchased space in newspapers and then sold it to various merchants Volney Palmer opened rst ad agency in Philadelphia How did the Internet affect the ad landscape How do online ads work 0 Phones and tablets have created third screen for online advertisers Agencies track ad impressions how often ads are seen and click through s how often users land brie y on a site before clicking through to the next one 0 Cookies aid ad agencies 0 Quick Response codes square bar codes that are easily scanable mobile phone cameras and link to videos and web pages De ne the persuasive techniques used in ads Famousperson testimonial Product endorsed by celebrity o PlainFolks Pitch Straight forward slogan for ordinary folks Status Symbol Something of high valueimportance Bandwagon Appeal quotEveryone else does itquot quot4 out of 5 doctors recommendquot 0 Hidden Fear appeal Plays on insecurities o Irritation Creates brand recognition by being annoying A ack What is the relationship between commercial speech and the First Amendment Advertisements are considered commercial speech de ned as any print or broadcast expression for which a fee is charged to organizations and individuals buying time or space in Mass Media First Amendment doesn t specify if ads can say anything they want in Commercial Speech so it s confusing if ads are covered by 1st amendment How did the industrial revolution change consumption and advertising What led to the national ads Before IR people produced what they needed for themselves If they sold goods it was locally so no advertising was needed After Linked towns by railroads telegraph and new print media Merchants advertised their products in newspapersmagazines l rise in ad agencies National Ad important for sellers to differentiate between their product and competing goods How did the retail store model change with advertising Advertising brought on Branding Pre brands stores set prices had bulk bins Post brands consumers seek out speci c brands Brand Loyalty Now companies of brands set their prices Department stores now dominatel 20 of ads More volume less service lower prices market brands Smaller stores adopted Brand Model What contributed to the rise of the visual in advertising Advertisements Pushes Values Ex Home ownership in suburbs Stimulate economy and create new markets 0 quotGood Wives Images and symbols Better than Words 0 Agencies Hire Visual Designers 0 De ne values success love happiness etc What is Public Relations Total communication strategy conducted by a person a government or an organization attempting to reach an audience and persuade it to adopt a positive point of View quotHelps an organization and its public adapt mutually to each otherquot How does PR differ from advertising Advertising uses discrete simple and xed messages Ads focus on sales while PR develops or reshapes an image for a person organization product service or an issue to make it marketable popular important compelling or accessible among other desired outcomes PR Who were the rst pr practioners Press Agents 0 People who conveyed favorable messages to the public about their clients staged stunts reported in newspapers 0 PT Barnum used stunts to attract attention Who are the most famous early press agents 0 PT Barnum Ivy Lee told the truth emphasized facts favorable to client used press releases 0 William Cody used press agents to promote his show Buffalo Bills Wild Westquot Included Annie Oakley John Burke one of the rst to use array of media channels to generate pubHc y What were some common practices of early press agents 0 People who conveyed favorable messages to the public about their clients staged stunts reported in newspapers 0 Excelled at Publicity or buzz o Excited people s imaginations Barnum hired his midget cousin for his circusAmerican Museum outrageous What were some deceptive practices of early press agents What is deadheading Gave reporters free rail passes with the tacit understanding that they woulf write glowing reports about traveling by rail De ne lobbyists Larger Railroads used Lobbyist professionals who seek to in uence lawmakers votes to gain federal subsidies and establish policies like rate reductions that made it harder for smaller regional lines to compete Which two men helped shape public relations as we know it today How lvy Lee Honesty and Directness gt Deceptiveness o Opened rst PR rms with George Parker 0 Advised Penn Railroad John D Rockefeller everyone hated him but lvy turned his image around by opening up the story to public but only showing certain aspects of the situation l published family valued and positive pictures of Rockefeller Family to better image 0 Edward Bernays Applied psychology and sociology to PR Believed he and PR professionals could shape messages and ideas in ways that people could rally behind Public Opinion is swayed by news not ads 0 Came up with Pseudo staged Event 0 Clients American Tobacco Company General Electric General Motors 0 Helped develop propaganda in WW1 Wilson as a peacemaker 0 Third party authority doctors dentist etc De ne special event Aligns clientcompany with POSITIVE events issues values or causes 0 Special Events X create transference positive feelings about quotpositive xquot transferred to clientcompany De ne pseudo event Staged event used to attract free media attention 0 Nike UO football Psuedo Event unleashing New uniforms each week UO Donor l philanthropic image cares about school not just sports De ne government PR specialist 0 Create and maintain positive image for Government and government of cials Turn any decision into a positive one
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