Study guide 2 for Music appreciation
Listening:see playlist on D2L
A-3. Monteverdi Orfeo (Aria, “Powerful Spirit”)
B. Purcell: “Thy Hand Belinda” (Recitative from Dido and Aeneas)
C. Vivaldi: Violin Concerto (Spring from The Four Seasons)
G. Mozart: First Movement, Allegro of Piano Concerto in A major K.488
I. Haydn: Second Movement, String Quartet, Op. 73, no. 3 (Emperor)
J-1. Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 – First Movement
K. Schubert: Erlkonig, Lied (1815)
N. Chopin: Mazurka No. 5 in B-flat Major, Op. 7-1 (1832)
P. Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique, programmatic symphony (1830)
R. Bizet: “L’amour est un oiseau rebelle” (habanera) from the opera Carmen (1875)
Significance of the Baroque Era for music- 1600-1750, age of enlightenment, humanism. Tonality became popular. Learning, arts, science, intellect was common. Invention of the opera and dramatic expression, and rise of instrumental music.
Monteverdi- Used arioso which is a mix between aria and recitative. Wrote the first important Opera(Orfeo).
Purcell-wrote one of the first operas in english, Don't forget about the age old question of Chlorination is a process of?
Vivaldi- (1678-1741) Italian composer and virtuoso violinist. Made an orphanage famous for ist orchestra. Taught lessons, conducted and composed more than 450 concertos. Started programmatic music
Bach-(1685-1750) Church organist, court composer,and conductor. Renowned organ virtuoso, Most famous for contacts and Fugues, wrote 500 cantatas. Fathered several composers( J.C. Bach, C.P.E. Bach)
Handel- Wrote Oratorios.
Basso continuo - created to support vocalist. Establish a strong supportive bass, purposeful chord structure. Requires two instruments: Organ plays the chord progression, and cello or bassoon plays the bass line. If you want to learn more check out What is the best known computer network?
Invention of Opera:
Recitative- communicates the plot; advances the story,the style of singing is, heightened speech; characters “talking”. Set to the rhythm of speech patterns. Syllabic, rapidly repeating notes, long notes at end. Accompanied by the basso continuo
Aria- Expresses emotion, passionate, tuneful singing, the rhythm is set to a clear meter. Melismatic, virtuosic singing. Accompanied by basso continuo and orchestra. Monteverdi’s Orfeo (1607)- The first important opera, Myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, uses recitative and aria.
Instrumental and Concert Music: We also discuss several other topics like How did the work of barry schwartz and allen neuringer support or advance the understanding of response stereotypes and response variability?
The Baroque orchestra- Smaller or large, one player per part or several(14-80 players). Renaissance instruments disappear, violin dominates sound. Gradually added pairs of winds(flutes, bassoons, trumpets). Harpsichord(organ) used for basso continuo. Genres:
Baroque concerto- Friendly “contest” between soloist and orchestra.Soloist are the concertino(‘little concert”) and the orchestra is Tutti (“everybody”). Two types: Solo concerto, which is one soloist or concerto grosso, which is two or more soloist.
Ritornello- When a concerto starts with a tutti then switches to concertino, then back to tutti and this continues. Tutti starts and finishes composition.
programmatic music - Sonnet of poetry accompanies each concerto.
Vivaldi’s “The Spring”(Four Seasons) - Programmatic music, first of the four concertos. Violin Concerto in E major.
Late Baroque: refinement and perfection of existing forms. Multiple independent melodic lines. Dramatic.
Fugue (J.S. Bach)– terminology:
Subject- Primary music idea.
Exposition- opening section, each voice presents the subject. If you want to learn more check out Gregory gets very emotional while watching sad romance movies and normally cries during them. which archetype is he displaying?
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Episode- free section, subject is not heard in its entirety.
Opera-style works: Cantata (J.S.Bach), Oratorio (Handel)
Significance of the Classical Era for music- (1750-1820) Age of enlightenment continues, Musical form advancements, symphony and string quartet, and a return to simple elegance after baroque era.
Mozart-(1756-1791) born in Austria, most famous child prodigy in history, Toured throughout northern Europe and italy, Peak of success in vienna 1785-1787, Compositions display diversity, perfect control and expression.
Haydn- (1733-1809) father of the symphony and string quartet. Trained as a choir boy, in Austria most of his life, composed 104 symphonies, introduced theme and variations.
Beethoven-(1770-1827) Virtuoso pianist, and composer in Vienna, saw himself as equal to his patrons, which is dramatically different from other composers, deaf, influenced by Haydn and Mozart, His father tried to make him a child prodigy. Played piano like a superhuman, was known for legato, singing style. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of ethnicity in sociology?
String Quartet- A piece of music written to be played by a musical ensemble of four string players, 2 violins, 1 viola, and 1 cello.
The Symphony- A music composition the consists of four movements with the first being in sonata form.
Social changes in music- public concerts, middle class could go to operas, comic opera. The piano developed into the modern.
Classical style- antecedent phrases were the question and consequent phrases were the answer, simple harmonies, 50 to 60 common in orchestra, strings are the core, full woodwind ensemble, french horn and trumpets, mood changes, greater emphasis on homophony.
exposition- MAin melodic ideas, or themes introduced.
development- Theme is explorad and dramatized.
Recapitulation- brings back and resolves the original themes and places them in the tonic key. Mozart’s Piano Concerto in A Major
(Don Giovanni)-mix of opera seria and opera buffa, called Opera semi-seria. Composed 1787, about the myth of Don Juan.
Mozart Operas - traditional Opera Seria, Opera Buffa, Singspiel, Opera semi-seria. String Quartet:
Haydn’s String Quartet No. 3 (Emperor)- current national anthem for Germany. Form: theme and variations- Single theme repeated in various ways.
Ludwig Van Beethoven:
Bridge from Classical to Romantic Beethoven as pianist-expression intensified. piano sonatas- more virtuosic, improvisation, crashing chords,
Symphony #5 in C minor- took 4 years to compose, was premiered in 1808 december 22, four movements convey sense of physiological progression, triumphant victory over fate. Based on a single motive (s-s-s LONG). Movement 1- sonata, 2- Theme and variations, 3- Scherzo, and 4- Sonata.
Sonata form expanded:
Introduction- The beginning of the piece.
Coda- concluding passage.
Significance of the Romantic Era for music- Intense expression of the inexpressible, Music is now considered art and not just entertainment, composers are considered a demigod, extreme forms such as large symphonic, or small simple art song.
compared to classical Composers:
Schubert- composed more than 600 lieder, bohemian lifestyle, performed in the parlors of his friends.
Schumann (Clara and Robert)- one of the great piano virtuosos of the 19th century, toured Europe as a prodigy since 11 years old, composer, married Robert Schumann and surpassed him in fame, made him really jealous, he also struggled with mental illness, Chopin- born in Poland, studied at warsaw conservatory, made his career in paris along the elite, made money teaching and publishing, performed for small gatherings, Mainly composed for piano, many compositions based on polish folk dances, relationship with George Sand. Liszt- (Lisztomania) compositions demand great virtuosity, flamboyant artistic personality, played more than 1000 concerts, establishes the modern piano recital, played from memory. Berlioz- First composer to earn a living as a music critic, wrote the definitive treatise on Orchestration, New instrument meant new color, compositions require more instruments, Inspired by literature, especially Shakespeare, obsessive personality.
Brahms- Music Messiah,lifelong bachelor with modest lifestyle, considered one of the three B’s(Bach, Beethoven, Brahms), he said he would never compose a symphony, but does. Bizet- (1838-1875)wrote one of the most popular operas of all time, realistic opera composer. Wagner-(1813-1883) controversial visionary of enormous influence, German, wrote musical dramas, Norse mythology.
Role of Music as Art- express the inexpressibly, intensity of expression transcends experience or understanding.
extremes of form (smaller and larger)- Large symphonic, Choral, operatic and small , intimate, solo or art song.
Art Song and its forms:art song(lied) is a small strong bond between music and poetry, meant for a solo voice and piano accompaniment
Through-composed (Erlkonig)- each stanza set to new music, series of changing moods. Strophic- Same music for each stanza of the song, single poetic mood.
Modified Strophic (Clara Schumann)- alters the music at some point, can be minimal or significant.
Chopin’s Mazurkas- fast, triple meter, melody draws on native folk tunes, accent on second beat, drones imitate bagpipe accompaniment.
Liszt’s Etudes- used to study, it is a short work for piano meant for teaching Nationalism in music (use of folk music)- common in home Country
Programmatic vs. Absolute Music- absolute is “pure” music without external reference. Programmatic depicts events, and emotions external to the music.
Idee fixe (fixed idea) of Berlioz (Symphonie Fantastique)-first program symphony, five movements, the fixed Idea represents “The Beloved”
Brahms’ symphonies (Absolute Music)- followed format of classical symphony, movement became progressively longer.
Opera in the 19th century:
Realistic Opera (verismo) – Bizet’s Carmen Wagner’s music dramas- social realism, depicts gritty, violent view of life. Movements in France and Italy.
use of leitmotif- leading motive, a brief distinctive unit of music that represents a character, object, or idea, usually played by the orchestra, multiple can appear simultaneously. the collapse of conventional tonality
Significance of the 20th Century Era for music-The collapse of tonality; previous rules no longer followed
Modernism: rejection of what came before, shock of the new
The “-isms” of the 20th Century:
Atonality (and Serialism) – no tonal center (Schoenberg)
Primitivism – prehistoric, non-Western sources (Stravinsky)
Traditionalism – tonal, audience-friendly (Copland)
Avant-garde – musique concrete (tape music); chance music (John Cage) Minimalism – simplicity and repetition (Steve Reich)