Exam 1 Review Questions
Intro to Nutrition
1. What is the definition of nutrition?
a. The science of food and how the nutrients and other substances they have relate to health and disease
b. Also human behavior related to food
2. What are the four leading causes of death that are diet-related? (heart diseases, cancers, strokes, diabetes mellitus)
c. Heart attack
3. Malnutrition definition
a. This is lack of proper nutrition
b. Influenced by:
iii. Micronutrient deficiency
iv. Food allergies
4. What are essential nutrients? We also discuss several other topics like What does probability mean?
a. Nutrients necessary for the body that the body can’t make itself i. Vitamins
ii. Dietary minerals
b. Approx. 40 essential nutrients
5. How food energy is measured? What is the energy yield from each macronutrient?
a. In nutrition, food energy is measured in kilocalories (we call them calories)
b. Carbohydrates = 4 cal/g
c. Fat (lipid) = 9 cal/g
d. Protein = 4 cal/g
e. Alcohol = 7 cal/g
6. Five characteristics of a nutritious diet.
a. Adequacy: the food should contain all the essential nutrients b. Balance: making sure to include foods from each essential nutrient group
c. Calorie control: Focus on the amount of energy that we take every day. Intake should equal the expenditure of energy If you want to learn more check out What are crystals in silicates
d. Moderation: Making sure to eat healthy foods, but also eating unhealthy foods in moderation
e. Variety: Eat a rainbow of different foods
7. What are the macronutrients, their role in the human body. a. Macronutrients: organic substances that provide energy and building materials for body structures (organic as in carbon)
i. They are bigger and we eat them in larger amounts because they supply energy and perform major roles in the bodies
ii. Proteins, Lipids, and Carbohydrates
8. What are the micronutrients, their role in the human body. a. Micronutrients: regulates metabolism, do not produce energy b. Vitamins (organic) and Minerals (inorganic)
9. What affects food choices?
a. Taste: #1
b. Price: #2
c. Others factors:
i. Convenience, advertising, availability, emotional comfort, habit, preference, positive or negative associations, region of country, social pressure, values, body weight and image,
Nutrition as a Science
1. How old is nutrition science as a discipline?
a. “The first vitamin was discovered in 1897, the protein structure was described in the mid 1940s.” Don't forget about the age old question of How do you convert cyclohexane to chair conformation?
2. Describe the studies on rats performed by Dr. Casimir Funk regarding beriberi disease and brown rice.
a. Casimir Funk read about an experiment where chickens were fed with white rice and they developed symptoms similar to Beriberi
b. These chicken were then fed brown rice because it was less expensive which cured them of the symptoms
c. Funk found this interesting and tested it out on rats
d. He had the same results which confirmed Dr. Eijkman’s observation e. The Rice Bran layer around the rice grain in brown rice contains vitamins B1
f. Funk named vitamins to mean vital amine, however the e in amine was dropped because not all vitamins are amines
3. What is a whole grain?
a. A whole grain contains the germ, endosperm, and bran
4. Describe the different steps of the Scientific Method.
a. Observe: Notice something in nature that needs an explanation b. Create Hypothesis
i. Basically an educated guess
ii. This will contain a predictor and outcome We also discuss several other topics like How is gender order a system of oppression?
iii. Be specific
iv. Be stated in advance
c. Design Experiment: see next question for types of experiment d. Data collection: Collect data that either goes along with or against hypothesis
e. Analysis and peer review: This has to be repeated and redesigned multiple times before it can be proven If you want to learn more check out What are the major influences on the rise of prisons until the british penitentiary act?
f. Publishing: Experiment is published for future researchers to critique 5. What are the four types of nutrition science research we discussed? Be ready to identify the type of study, when given the experimental design. a. Case study:
i. Done when someone has a rare disease
ii. Deals with single individuals
iii. Doesn’t show what causes it
iv. Good for finding observations
v. Not good for statistics because of too few subjects
b. Epidemiological study
i. Studies a population group
ii. Used to find a relationship between diet and disease
iii. Does not show the cause
iv. Better for statistics
c. Intervention study
i. Researchers try to treat the subjects
ii. Shows cause and effect
iii. When performed with humans is called a clinical trial
iv. Good for statistics when there is a large number of subjects d. Laboratory study
i. Studies under tightly controlled conditions
ii. Mostly to determine biological mechanisms of nutrients
iii. Normally used on rats, mice, pigs, and sometimes primates iv. Strongly determines cause and effect We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of the worker's problem in economics?
6. In study designs,
a. Why would a researcher use a control group?
i. A control group is simply a means of comparison or baseline b. What is the placebo? This is a similar drug without the active ingredient (sugar pills)
c. What is a blind experiment? Double-blind? A blind experiment is when the doctor knows who’s getting what but the patient doesn’t know. In a double blind experiment, neither the doctor or patient will know who’s getting what.
i. Why should an experiment be blinded? This reduces
d. Relatively speaking, should a sample size be small or large to get better data? Larger sample size = More reliable result
Nutrition Standards and Guidelines
1. Define the following terms:
a. Dietary Reference Intakes: Reference nutritional values for average, healthy people
i. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
1. Sets recommended intake values
2. Amount of nutrients healthy people need at a particular
life stage and gender group
3. Taken from EAR
a. To find out how much of a nutrient we need
scientists do a balance study which involves
measuring the intake and excretion of that
b. Each individual is given different amounts of the
c. Scientists look at the EAR value and make sure
the whole population is covered
ii. Adequate Intake (AI)
1. AI is used when we don’t have enough science to back
2. They look at how much people consume the nutrient on
3. Examples: Biotin, Vitamin K, Sodium, Chloride…
iii. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
1. This is the intake for 50% of healthy people
2. For policy makers
3. Shows the requirement of people at different life stages
and of different genders
iv. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
1. This is the value for people who take supplements
2. How much of this nutrient is too much
3. Taking too much could cause toxicities
v. Who do the DRI’s apply to?
1. Healthy people of different genders, ages, and life stages
2. How DRI values are established? Based on scientific study.
3. DRI values on macronutrients
a. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
i. How much you need of each nutrient to have enough energy
and prevent chronic diseases
1. 45-65% of calories come from carbs
2. 20-35% of calories come from fat
3. 10-35% of calories come from protein
b. Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
i. Average Dietary energy intake that will keep us healthy
4. Describe the composition of the diet in terms of macronutrients. What percent of calories should come from carbs, fat and protein? see previous question
5. What does % Daily Value tell us?
a. We use these to compare the nutrient content between different products
b. Based on “average person” who eats between 2,000 and 2,500 calories a day and a 2,000 calorie diet
c. Not recommended intake just to compare
d. Does not really change with new research
6. Which foods should Americans consume more of, according to MyPlate and the DGA 2015? Which foods should Americans reduce consumption, according to MyPlate and the DGA 2015?
i. Salt less than 2300 mg a day
ii. Saturated fat less than 10% of calories
iii. No trans fat
iv. Added sugars (less than 10% of calories/day)
v. Refined grains
ii. Whole grains
iii. Fat free dairy
iv. Fruits and veggies
Planning a Healthy Diet
7. Describe the concept of nutrient density, and be able to identify the most nutrient dense food among several choices.
a. Nutrient dense foods: Foods with more nutrients per calorie b. Non-starchy vegetables and fruits are the most nutrient dense foods 8. Describe the concept of discretionary calorie.
a. (Calories needed to maintain weight) - (Calories needed to supply nutrients)
9. USDA Food Guide (food groups).
d. Protein foods
e. Milk and milk products
10. USDA recommendation for daily physical activity.
a. 30 minutes of exercise per day or 150 minutes per week
11. How does MyPlate differ from MyPyramid?
a. Grains are a smaller portion on MyPlate
b. MyPlate does not include fats and oils
c. Serving sizes are no longer depicted on MyPlate
d. MyPlate emphasizes protein over meat because of other sources of protein
12. What are the food categories (‘food groups’) included in MyPlate? a. Fruits
1. Who regulates food labels and what is required to be on them? a. FDA
b. You should find serving size and nutrients, Daily Values, Calories per gram, descending order of ingredients by weight
2. Which foods are not required to provide a Nutrition Facts Panel on their label?
a. Small companies don’t need to
b. Plain coffee, tea, and spices don’t need them
c. If food is prepared and sold in the same place
d. Fresh fruits and veggies
e. Some fresh meats
3. What nutrition information is required on the food label? (3 things, broadly: nutrition facts panel, ingredients, allergens) see question 1
4. What does the order of ingredients on the Ingredients List tell you? also see question 1
5. Be ready to read a Nutrition Facts Panel, Ingredients List, and Allergen Statement and answer questions about the content of that food. 6. What are the top 8 food allergies in the U.S.?
7. How should we use %DV numbers on food labels? see Nutrition Standards and Guidelines question 5
8. What are the three types of nutrient content claims allowed on food packages? Define each type and give an example.
a. Nutrient claims (No Trans Fat, Cholesterol, or Saturated Fat) i. The nutritious value of the food
b. Structure-Function Claims (Supports Digestive Health)
i. The relationship between nutrients and the body’s use of it c. Health claims (Helps lower cholesterol)
i. The nutrition in relation to a disease
ii. Requires FDA approval
The Human Body / Digestive System
1. Define digestion, absorption and metabolism.
a. Digestion: how food is broken down into nutrients
b. Absorption: the uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph
c. Metabolism: how your body processes nutrients after absorption 2. Describe the entire process of digestion and absorption of food. Include each organ in the digestive system. What enzymes/digestive juices are produced by each organ and where they are released in the GI tract. Describe (briefly) the function of the enzymes and the end products. a. Alimentary Canal (digestive tract)
i. Everything from mouth to anus
b. Accessory organs
i. Organs that aid digestion: Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
1. These organs produced liquids that help breakdown
2. The liver produces bile (not an enzyme)
3. The gallbladder stores bile
4. The pancreas produces pancreatic juice that contains
5. The salivary glands produce saliva
c. The Mouth
i. Chews food to make it smaller and mix it with saliva
i. Food goes through the pharynx which is part of both the
digestive tract and airways
ii. Epiglottis blocks food from going into lungs
iii. The bolus (chewed food) goes through the upper esophageal sphincter into the esophagus
iv. It goes through the lower esophageal sphincter into the
v. Peristalsis: squeezing of the esophagus
e. The Stomach
i. Retains the food and mixes food with digestive juices
ii. The bolus becomes chyme
iii. The chyme releases through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine
iv. Strong stomach muscles help mix and churn the food
f. The Small Intestine
i. The major site of digestion and absorption
ii. In the small intestine the are the bile duct and the pancreatic duct which are from the gallbladder/liver and the pancreas
iii. Contains microvilli, hairlike projective that grab and trap nutrient
g. The Large intestine
i. Reabsorbs water and minerals
ii. Anything that is not digested is excreted
h. Rectum: holds waste until removal time
i. Anus: holds waste until removal time, then removes waste with 2 sphincters
j. What is a digestive enzyme? How can you recognize an enzyme by the name? Digestive enzymes break down nutrients in food. Most enzymes end in -ase (protease, lipase, carbohydrase). The root tells you what the enzyme will break down.
3. After nutrients are absorbed in the GI tract, where do they go? (two routes) a. Water soluble and small fat-soluble nutrients are absorbed in the bloodstream
b. Largest fats and fat soluble vitamins are carried by lymph 4. What is the purpose of the lymphatic system?
a. Lymphatic system: defends our body from invaders
i. Equipped in lymph nodes to fight
ii. Also transports lipids and some proteins throughout the body
1. What is the main function of carbohydrates in the human body? To provide energy for red blood cells, nerve cells, and the brain
2. What is the difference between a simple and a complex carbohydrate? Simple carbs only contain 1-2 molecules, while complex carbs contain chains of molecules
3. List the 3 monosaccharides and the 3 disaccharides of nutritional importance.
a. Monosaccharides: all contain 6 carbons and are most common in nature
i. Glucose: this is blood sugar
1. Part of table sugar (sucrose)
2. Made in photosynthesis and stored as a starch in plants
3. Stored as glycogen in animals
4. Along with fructose it is the most common
monosaccharide in nature
ii. Fructose: fruit sugar; the sweetest sugar (high-fructose corn syrup)
iii. Galactose: milk sugar; makes lactose with glucose; rarely seen in nature
b. Disaccharides: when monosaccharides are combined together with glucose
i. Maltose: combination of 2 glucose
1. Malt sugar
2. Breakdown of starch
3. Also in germinating seeds
ii. Lactose: combination of glucose and galactose
1. Milk sugar
iii. Sucrose: combination of fructose and glucose
1. Table sugar
2. Obtained from sugar beets or sugar cane
3. Occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables
4. What is the difference between starch, glycogen, and fiber?
i. Plant storage of glucose
ii. In plant seeds this is packed in granules
iii. Can be branched or unbranched
1. Viscous fibers that dissolve in water and make a jelly
2. Not digested by humans but are fermented by
microorganisms in the colon
3. This helps the bacteria in our digestive tract flourish
4. This will lower cholesterol and heart disease risk
a. Binds cholesterol in bile in the intestines and
take it out in feces
b. Short fatty acids created in fermentation of fiber
inhibits cholesterol synthesis
5. Controls blood glucose
a. Slows glucose absorption by diluting the sugar
b. Delay transit of nutrients through the digestive
6. Seen is citrus fruits, oats, barley, legumes, okra, and
1. Does not dissolve in water
2. Not viscous
3. Will remain unchanged in digestion
4. Makes the bulk of excreted material
5. Makes healthier muscles in the digestive tract
6. Seen in whole grains, seeds, brown rice, and vegetables
i. How animals store glucose
ii. Can be stored in the liver and the muscles
iii. In the liver, it maintains blood glucose levels
iv. In muscles, it provides energy for muscle contractions
v. Can have up to 30,000 glucose units
5. What is a whole grain?
a. A whole grain contains the germ, endosperm, and bran
6. Describe the process of digestion of carbohydrates.
a. Salivary amylase breaks down starch in the mouth
b. Pancreatic amylase completes digestion of starch in small intestine c. Brush border enzymes called disaccharidases (lactase, sucrase, and maltase) digest disaccharides in small intestine
d. After carbohydrate digestion, you should be left with glucose, fructose, and galactose which can then be absorbed into the
e. Also fibers will be excreted after digestion
7. After absorption, where do carbohydrates first travel in the body? a. They are absorbed into the liver and muscles for storage. b. Glucose can be stored as glycogen in liver for when blood glucose is low
c. Muscles take up glucose and store it as glycogen
8. What is lactose intolerance? What causes it? Is it an allergy? Why or why not?
a. Lack of lactase which digests lactose
i. Activity of lactase is highest after the child is born
ii. Most people have lactose intolerance because they lose the ability to synthesize lactase
iii. Genetics will affect your ability to produce lactase
b. Symptoms: bloating, diarrhea, gas, abdominal uncomfortability c. Not to be confused with an allergy
d. Dietary changes
i. Don’t have to completely eliminate milk
ii. Instead, consume small amounts of dairy throughout the day with a meal
iii. Can also drink lactaid milk
9. Briefly describe how blood glucose is regulated (stored in the body and later released on demand)?
a. After a meal, insulin will lower blood glucose level so that it can be stored
b. Between meals blood glucose drops
i. Pancreas release glucagon which causes the liver to hydrolyze glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream
c. You only have so much glycogen so you need to eat carbs or convert protein to glucose
d. When you don’t have enough carbs your body will turn proteins into glucose
e. Fat cannot be converted into glucose but will be use as energy source f. Production of ATP is less efficient
g. Acetyl coA will then produce ketone bodies which lower blood glucose levels
h. When we have more than we need of a nutrient we will have fatty acids, cholesterol, and ketone bodies
10. What are the health benefits and detriments of sugars and starches? a. Sugars and starches help provide energy for the body; however, in excess they can contribute to malnutrition and lead to diabetes
11. Describe how high fiber foods (whole grains, fruits and veggies) affect our chances of developing heart disease, diabetes, GI malfunction, and obesity. a. People with higher dietary fiber intakes have lower risk of cancer b. All plant food reduce risks of colon and rectal cancers
c. Fiber dilutes, binds, and removes cancer-causing agents from the colon
d. Short-chain fatty acids help nourish colon cells, inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver, activate cancer-destroying enzymes, and inhibit inflammation in the colon
e. Soluble fiber lower heart disease risk and cholesterol
f. Controls blood glucose
i. Slows glucose absorption by diluting the sugar
ii. Delay transit of nutrients through the digestive tract
12. What are the recommended intake levels of total carbohydrates, sugars, and fiber?
a. Recommended intake of carbs is 45%-60% of total daily calories b. 130 g for average person for carbs
c. Fiber and sugar for women 19-50 is 25g and 38 g/day for men 13. The difference between diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2.
a. Type 1:
i. Your pancreas does not produce insulin
ii. Have to inject insulin
iii. Younger onset
b. Type 2:
i. Your pancreas produces insulin but the cells become resistant to it
ii. Closely related to obesity
iii. Sometimes requires injection of insulin
iv. Older onset
14. The Glycemic Index.
a. Glycemic index indicates how fast and high a particular food raises blood index