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OSU / Earth Science / EARTHSC 1100 / Was galileo the one who invented the telescope?

Was galileo the one who invented the telescope?

Was galileo the one who invented the telescope?


School: Ohio State University
Department: Earth Science
Course: Planet Earth: How It Works
Professor: Cristina millan
Term: Winter 2015
Cost: Free
Name: Earth Science Notes
Description: Class Lecture Notes
Uploaded: 02/21/2017
8 Pages 173 Views 0 Unlocks

- *** In January, we talked about what two planets?

- What is the distance between the earth and the sun?

o How do you study the origin?

1/24/17 Video Notes - Galileo didn’t invent telescope but first one to use it - ** quiz/test? -- Prior to Galileo there was only one planet, (wonderer in  Greek); everyone thought these planets were just stars until they  realized wit telescope  - Stars produce own light, planets reflect light - Craters on the moon = nearest stDon't forget about the age old question of Why is variation beneficial?
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art has craters meaning that earth  has craters too  o Earths craters are hidden by water and vegetation  - Galileo spots moons orbiting Jupiter (realizing the lack of uniqueness of earth)  - Saturn rings are not solid and made up of various sizes (grains of sand  to as big as house) // Ice and rocks (Cassini)  - Enceladus plumes are the source of the outer rings (made up of same  material)  o How do you study the origin?   Look back in time at stars with a telescope  - Star o Ball of gas made of H and He o Held together by gravity o Generates energy thru nuclear fusion   Electromagnetic radiation like radio waves and visible light  moving at 3 +10^8 m/sec o Each star has a birth and death (a “lifecycle”)  - Electromagnetic Radiation o The reason humans don’t have x-ray vision o Sun is our main source (not the only) of light o Earth’s atmosphere is transparent to ROYGBIV o Sun emits greatest proportion of energy in ROYGBIV  43% of energy from sun is in visible parts of spectrum  - Telescope o Optical Telescope (only used for visual)  Curved mirror focuses light on light-sensitive detector like  the human eye; the larger the mirror the lighter it will  gather and the higher resolution  o Radio Telescope (shows waves of lights, etc.)   Radio waves from space strike a curved metal dish that  focuses waves on da detector 1/26 - How far does light travel in: 3E8 Meters/Sec  o 1 sec = 3 x 10^8 =3E8 = 300,000,000 o 2 sec = 6E8 = 600,000,000 o 3 sec =900,000,000 - What is the distance between the earth and the sun?  o 480 seconds  o 3E8 x 480 = 1.44 x 10^11 meters  - nearest star (other than sun) = 4.3 light years away - Furthest star 13 billion light years away  - Hershel’s mapped out milky way galaxy   - ***92 natural occurring elements - Temperature  o Atoms are NOT rigidly fixed in place but rather jiggle with respect to one another. These vibrations create thermal energy. Faster  the atoms move the hotter the object.  o Celsius (centigrade) scale: C  0 C = freezing; 100 C = boiling (at sea level)   (POSTED ON CARMEN)  o heavier elements than the 92 natural ones  (heavier ones are man made)  o element 1 and 2 came from the big bang (H and He) o Neutrons have no charge (atomic mass of 1) o Protons have a charge of 1 (atomic mass of 1)   Atomic mass is sum of protons + neutrons  Atomic charge?  - Big bang was 13.7x10^9 years ago  o Gamma radiations was first to come out of big bang (HOT)  o As time went on (2017) universe is relative cold  o Simplest element to form was hydrogen (atomic #1) 75% of  universe in beginning o He (atomic #2) 25% of universe in beginning  o Other 90 elements came from stars o Stars are balls of hot gas  HH pushing together with gravity  ∙ Calculated by Newton’s equation of invisible gravity ∙ Creates star (pulling together hydrogen atoms that  formed after big bang and forms a star)  o Stars = fusion reactions   One Lego block + one Lego block = (double the sized) 2  Lego blocks together   O + O = OO  H+H=He (75% of H makes 25% of He / New element)  o Light = electromagnetic spectrum   Gamma x-ray   ROYGBIV (visible)   Photosynthesis (O2) is dependent on it  o *** All other elements came from life and death cycle of stars  (new elements combining and calling it something else when  something larger is formed)  o Size of star matters in what element is created - Stars and the periodic table o The mass of a star governs its element production  Small mass stars (like Sun)  ∙ Burn Slowly ∙ Live longer; 10 billion years ∙ Create lighter elements up to carbon (C)   Larger mass stars (10-100x the mass of the sun) ∙ Burn Rapidly ∙ Are shorter lived (10s of millions of years)∙ Create heavier elements up to iron (Fe) o Kepler’s supernova   One of 6 supernovae overserved in milky way   Star explodes as a supernova  ∙ 1 explodes every 30 years or so  o Elements up to carbon come from life and death cycle of stars  After iron, up to element 92, come from the supernova  explosions  - *** In January, we talked about what two planets?  o Venus and mars  - Comets are believed to be source of the fresh water we drink today - Planets vs. Stars o Don’t seem to twinkle o Never in the same place two nights in a row “wanders”  o Looks like small discs thru binoculars - Nebular Hypothesis  o Proposed by Laplace (French mathematician, 1749-1827) o Our solar system originated ~4.5 billion years ago  o A large cloud of gas and dust (mainly H and He) collected (by  chance) in region now occupied by solar system o Gravity pulled it all together (causes it to spin) and it started to  spin causing material to flatten results in flat “pancake” with  lump of materials in middle (the sun)  - Evidence in support of this hypothesis  o Planetary Orbits – All planets orbit sun in same plane o Distribution of mass in solar system – most mass is in the  center of the solar system (i.e. sun)  - Sun turns on (fusion) and begins to heat up the solar system  - Warmer near the sun  o Terrestrial Plants forms near sun (materials that remain solid  at high temp) o Gas planets from further away (composition is like that of the  original nebula)  - The terrestrial planets = rocky (could land on)  - The Jovian Planets = gas giants (not solid)   - What makes earth unique?  o Atmosphere – the gas envelope, n2 o2 (and water vapor)  o Hydrosphere – the blue liquid water (and a water cycle)   Cryosphere – the frozen world (global climate change)  o Biosphere – green, life (C, H20) o Lithosphere – the solid Earth (Si, O)o Other things like magnetic field  o Earth is in the habitable zone o Earth has liquid water and a water cycle. Therefore, is has life - Suns gravity (F= G m m / d2) - Vacuum contains nothing  - The Kuiper belt is an diffuse band of icy objects o Comets originated here  - THE BOUNDARY OF THE HELIPSOHERE IS 200 AU FROM THE SUN - Neptune is the inner edge o Orbit defines interplanetary space (vs. interstellar  2/2 - Nitrogen, Oxygen = Atmosphere  - [Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K] – came from stars  - How long does it take planet 9 to orbit? (10-20  thousand years) *** - The mass of planet 9 is 5.97 x 10^25 =mass of  planet *** - Asteroids: Small bodies of rock or metal orbiting the sun. o Planetesimals that were never part of a larger  planet o Most occur in a belt between Jupiter and mars o Range in size  Up to 30 km across Millions > 1km in diameter  Too small to be reshaped by gravity  Asteroids CAN strike the earth  - Comets: Icy objects that orbit the sun o Highly elliptical orbits around the sun o When approaching the sun, they develop a long  coma (tail).  The tail is comprised of evaporating gas and  dust  The tail always points away from the sun. o Short-period comets originate in the Kuiper Belt o Longer period comets may derive from the Oort  Cloud o Dirty snowball made of  H20, Co2, CH4, NH3  Organic Compounds (anything with carbon in  it)   Dust o Comets can strike earth, bring water - First comet we flew by: Comet Wild 2 *** - First half billion years of earth, bombarded with asteroids and comets  o Suns radiation created solar winds that forced rest  out of solar system  - How was Pluto discovered?  o Existed b/c of gravity calculations; discovered in  1930 by Clyde Tombaugh *** (exam question) –  smaller than earth’s moon - Dwarf planets – very small, composed of ice,

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