1/24/17 Video Notes - Galileo didn’t invent telescope but first one to use it - ** quiz/test? -- Prior to Galileo there was only one planet, (wonderer in Greek); everyone thought these planets were just stars until they realized wit telescope - Stars produce own light, planets reflect light - Craters on the moon = nearest stDon't forget about the age old question of parthenogenosis
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art has craters meaning that earth has craters too o Earths craters are hidden by water and vegetation - Galileo spots moons orbiting Jupiter (realizing the lack of uniqueness of earth) - Saturn rings are not solid and made up of various sizes (grains of sand to as big as house) // Ice and rocks (Cassini) - Enceladus plumes are the source of the outer rings (made up of same material) o How do you study the origin? Look back in time at stars with a telescope - Star o Ball of gas made of H and He o Held together by gravity o Generates energy thru nuclear fusion Electromagnetic radiation like radio waves and visible light moving at 3 +10^8 m/sec o Each star has a birth and death (a “lifecycle”) - Electromagnetic Radiation o The reason humans don’t have x-ray vision o Sun is our main source (not the only) of light o Earth’s atmosphere is transparent to ROYGBIV o Sun emits greatest proportion of energy in ROYGBIV 43% of energy from sun is in visible parts of spectrum - Telescope o Optical Telescope (only used for visual) Curved mirror focuses light on light-sensitive detector like the human eye; the larger the mirror the lighter it will gather and the higher resolution o Radio Telescope (shows waves of lights, etc.) Radio waves from space strike a curved metal dish that focuses waves on da detector 1/26 - How far does light travel in: 3E8 Meters/Sec o 1 sec = 3 x 10^8 =3E8 = 300,000,000 o 2 sec = 6E8 = 600,000,000 o 3 sec =900,000,000 - What is the distance between the earth and the sun? o 480 seconds o 3E8 x 480 = 1.44 x 10^11 meters - nearest star (other than sun) = 4.3 light years away - Furthest star 13 billion light years away - Hershel’s mapped out milky way galaxy - ***92 natural occurring elements - Temperature o Atoms are NOT rigidly fixed in place but rather jiggle with respect to one another. These vibrations create thermal energy. Faster the atoms move the hotter the object. o Celsius (centigrade) scale: C 0 C = freezing; 100 C = boiling (at sea level) (POSTED ON CARMEN) o heavier elements than the 92 natural ones (heavier ones are man made) o element 1 and 2 came from the big bang (H and He) o Neutrons have no charge (atomic mass of 1) o Protons have a charge of 1 (atomic mass of 1) Atomic mass is sum of protons + neutrons Atomic charge? - Big bang was 13.7x10^9 years ago o Gamma radiations was first to come out of big bang (HOT) o As time went on (2017) universe is relative cold o Simplest element to form was hydrogen (atomic #1) 75% of universe in beginning o He (atomic #2) 25% of universe in beginning o Other 90 elements came from stars o Stars are balls of hot gas HH pushing together with gravity ∙ Calculated by Newton’s equation of invisible gravity ∙ Creates star (pulling together hydrogen atoms that formed after big bang and forms a star) o Stars = fusion reactions One Lego block + one Lego block = (double the sized) 2 Lego blocks together O + O = OO H+H=He (75% of H makes 25% of He / New element) o Light = electromagnetic spectrum Gamma x-ray ROYGBIV (visible) Photosynthesis (O2) is dependent on it o *** All other elements came from life and death cycle of stars (new elements combining and calling it something else when something larger is formed) o Size of star matters in what element is created - Stars and the periodic table o The mass of a star governs its element production Small mass stars (like Sun) ∙ Burn Slowly ∙ Live longer; 10 billion years ∙ Create lighter elements up to carbon (C) Larger mass stars (10-100x the mass of the sun) ∙ Burn Rapidly ∙ Are shorter lived (10s of millions of years)∙ Create heavier elements up to iron (Fe) o Kepler’s supernova One of 6 supernovae overserved in milky way Star explodes as a supernova ∙ 1 explodes every 30 years or so o Elements up to carbon come from life and death cycle of stars After iron, up to element 92, come from the supernova explosions - *** In January, we talked about what two planets? o Venus and mars - Comets are believed to be source of the fresh water we drink today - Planets vs. Stars o Don’t seem to twinkle o Never in the same place two nights in a row “wanders” o Looks like small discs thru binoculars - Nebular Hypothesis o Proposed by Laplace (French mathematician, 1749-1827) o Our solar system originated ~4.5 billion years ago o A large cloud of gas and dust (mainly H and He) collected (by chance) in region now occupied by solar system o Gravity pulled it all together (causes it to spin) and it started to spin causing material to flatten results in flat “pancake” with lump of materials in middle (the sun) - Evidence in support of this hypothesis o Planetary Orbits – All planets orbit sun in same plane o Distribution of mass in solar system – most mass is in the center of the solar system (i.e. sun) - Sun turns on (fusion) and begins to heat up the solar system - Warmer near the sun o Terrestrial Plants forms near sun (materials that remain solid at high temp) o Gas planets from further away (composition is like that of the original nebula) - The terrestrial planets = rocky (could land on) - The Jovian Planets = gas giants (not solid) - What makes earth unique? o Atmosphere – the gas envelope, n2 o2 (and water vapor) o Hydrosphere – the blue liquid water (and a water cycle) Cryosphere – the frozen world (global climate change) o Biosphere – green, life (C, H20) o Lithosphere – the solid Earth (Si, O)o Other things like magnetic field o Earth is in the habitable zone o Earth has liquid water and a water cycle. Therefore, is has life - Suns gravity (F= G m m / d2) - Vacuum contains nothing - The Kuiper belt is an diffuse band of icy objects o Comets originated here - THE BOUNDARY OF THE HELIPSOHERE IS 200 AU FROM THE SUN - Neptune is the inner edge o Orbit defines interplanetary space (vs. interstellar 2/2 - Nitrogen, Oxygen = Atmosphere - [Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K] – came from stars - How long does it take planet 9 to orbit? (10-20 thousand years) *** - The mass of planet 9 is 5.97 x 10^25 =mass of planet *** - Asteroids: Small bodies of rock or metal orbiting the sun. o Planetesimals that were never part of a larger planet o Most occur in a belt between Jupiter and mars o Range in size Up to 30 km across Millions > 1km in diameter Too small to be reshaped by gravity Asteroids CAN strike the earth - Comets: Icy objects that orbit the sun o Highly elliptical orbits around the sun o When approaching the sun, they develop a long coma (tail). The tail is comprised of evaporating gas and dust The tail always points away from the sun. o Short-period comets originate in the Kuiper Belt o Longer period comets may derive from the Oort Cloud o Dirty snowball made of H20, Co2, CH4, NH3 Organic Compounds (anything with carbon in it) Dust o Comets can strike earth, bring water - First comet we flew by: Comet Wild 2 *** - First half billion years of earth, bombarded with asteroids and comets o Suns radiation created solar winds that forced rest out of solar system - How was Pluto discovered? o Existed b/c of gravity calculations; discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh *** (exam question) – smaller than earth’s moon - Dwarf planets – very small, composed of ice,