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UMSL / Psychology / Psych 3820 / umsl psychological testing

umsl psychological testing

umsl psychological testing

Description

School: University of Missouri - St. Louis
Department: Psychology
Course: Cross-Cultural Psychology
Professor: Matthew taylor
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Pyschology, Cross, and Culture
Cost: 50
Name: Cross Culture Psychology
Description: Study guide for midterm
Uploaded: 02/21/2017
8 Pages 84 Views 0 Unlocks
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• How are culture and development related?




Who does it and what does it look like?




• What are the various ways that culture is transmitted?



Cross-Cultural Psychology (PSY3820) Exam Study Guide • Be able to define culture; and discuss the various ways in which it is viewed and  examined (e.g., historical). o Culture can be described as activities or behaviors, refer to the heritage or  tradition of a group, describe rules and norms, and describe language or prIf you want to learn more check out schizocoely
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oblem  solving.   o Over 100 years scholars have attempted to define culture such as, "all capabilities  and habits learned as members of a society; or as a social heredity; or patterns of  and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, artifacts and group  achievements.  • Understand and describe some basic methodological issues associated with cross cultural research. o Some methodological issues associated with cross cultural research includes  language barriers, differences in meanings by culture. Some theories and  concepts, as well as instruments are not applicable to all cultures, intelligence and  translations. • What are the various ways that culture is transmitted?  Who does it and what does it  look like?  And what are the goals of this transmission as it relates to an individual’s  functioning in a cultural environment. o Enculturation, socialization, acculturation. o Culture can be transmitted through interactions between universal biological  needs and functions, universal social problems created to address those needs, and the context in which people live. o Goals are to teach desirable behaviors and prepare individuals for society. • Know the acculturation model we went through. • How are culture and development related?  What was Bronfenbrenner’s ecological  systems theory and what does it look like?  What is development niche theory and  what does it look like? o Culture and development are related because of what? o Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory explains how child development as it  relates to their environment contributes to their cultural makeup; explains  relationship between the individuals and their environment, dimensions of  acculturation  o The developmental niche theory explains what?• Related culture to notions of self, self­concept, self­esteem etc.  How does culture  impact personality—recall that it is a two­way street at times. o Even though culture tends to be stable, and personality can vary between people,  culture can impact personality because culture is the framework in which people  live, so it can affect the individual differences that exist among individuals in  groups. Culture affects a person’s traits, attributes, qualities, and characteristics in these frameworks. • What are the characteristics of individualistic and collectivistic cultures? o Individualistic societies look after themselves, children taught to stand on their  own two feet, high level of independence, all about self looking out for self    o Collectivistic societies look out for others which they see as protecting  themselves, children are taught to be there for others, group harmony, identity is  more of a function of one’s group membership; interdependence Supplemental Exam Notes:  Developmental Niche Settings/contexts -Physical Size and organization of living space Objects, books What’s available? What’s practical? Nutrition  Impact of sociocultural variables -war-Social Family structure (nuclear, extended) Children as caretakers  Studying the Self How is the self viewed? - (Inter) dependency issue  Do all cultures have a "self?" -Buddhism-"self is an imaginary false belief.....that can  be traced to all evil in the world" -Focus on "self" clouds perception and experience of  reality Loss of self heightens empathy, awareness, and  experience of reality Impact of self-disclosure -some cultures do not value "telling your business" Self-esteem How we feel about ourselves It is an evaluation of self-concept -how we define ourselves  Some feel self-concept and self-esteem are inseparable  Source differs via culture -Western (independent)  *Individual is responsible for success or failure  *focus on positive aspects of self as protection  against low self esteem -Non-Western (interdependent)   *Individual success and enhancement less valued  (linked to)>> (group)  *Personality/individual attributes and  accomplishments not an immediate source of self-esteem  (collective esteem)....can have both.  Ability to form/maintain interpersonal relationships  has an effect on self-esteem as well as group success for  interdependent cultures Control over life Locus of control (Rotter) -explanations for causes and events in life -internal  *from within  *own behavior dictates that of others  *Western, Americans  Link to independence  Separateness Uniqueness Impact of material resources Make person less dependent on external  factors Implications for personality  Stubborn  Difficult to persuade  Feelings of control (overestimated, illusion) -external locus of control  *outside factors influence Other people Luck Uncontrollable factors -Nonwestern--interdependent  *Chinese, Japanese  *African Americans  Link to interdependence  Spirituality, supernatural Lottery -Self-efficacy (Bandura)  *feeling that I can impact my life  *ability to make and complete plans  *Types  General Situation-specific -self perception *indiv. And collect. Influence Collectivists culture we see lower self competence  and higher self liking External locus of control impacts self  competence (collectivism too) Interdependence and sensitivity to others  requires self-liking Individualists Higher self competence; lower self liking Independence and priority of self Comparisons to others and lower self  liking Self as related to cognition, motivation, and emotion Cognition template-framework from which we try to  understand self and others Fundamental attribution error-who is more likely to  make and error? Why? Achievement motivation -Two forms (Yang, 1982) ----individualistically  oriented of achieving motivation Western/done for "me" Socially oriented-achievement for the sake of  significant others; filial piety--eldest take care of the parents, is expected -Few behavioral differences between the two-ultimate goal is the difference-> individual vs family  unit Emotions -Two types:  1. Socially disengaged--they separate or disengage you from other people, from social relationships *separate (disengage) one from social relationships -anger (-) -pride (+) -feelings of superiority (+) *promote independence  2. Socially engaged--engage self in relations with others -friendly feelings -feelings of respect -guilt (-) -indebtedness *promote interdependence  3. Indigenous emotions: -culture specific  *schadenfreude (German)-pleasure derived from  another's misfortune; socially disengaged  *fago (ifaluk-Micronesian atoll) compassion, love,  sadness; socially engaged *ker (ifaluk-micronesian atoll) happiness and  excitement; seen as disruptive; socially disengaged

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