Exam Study Guide 1) Terms; know both there defenition and their significance 2) Sappho of Lesbos-Archaic Greek poet, lyrical poetry, 580BCE, known for poems about love a) Significance- work still deemed incredible, One of only poets Alexandria deemed ‘must readWe also discuss several other topics like the following table of values gives a company's annual profits in millions of dollars. rescale the data so that the year 2003 corresponds to x = 0.
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We also discuss several other topics like in a manipulative experiment ________.
3) Pisistratus- Greek tyrant who took three tries to gain complete control over Athens a) Significance- strengthened Greek economy, enacted building projects, supported arts, made urban developments 4) Themistocles- 459 Athenian politician during Xerxes’ invasion a) Significance- Crucial, load of silver found by silver miners, convinced council to build a large and efficient navy with this silver, navy crucial for rise of Athenian Empire 5) Battle of Thermopylae- battle in which Spartans showed Valor and why their Spartans against Persia, heavy use of hoplites and phalanx a) Significance- Shows Spartans Valor and heroism, made Persia rethink their enemy 6) Battle of Salamis- navy battle, Greece made Persia follow them into a ambush attack, Queen Artemisia recommends not attacking = Persian fleet lose a) Significance- Major victory for Athenian fleet, proves they were smarter that their enemy 7) Battle of Plataea- largest Greek forces, led by Spartans, again trick Persians to follow them = Sparta victory a) Significance- Mardonius, son of Xerxes falls 8) The Oracle at Delphi- religious vessel to gods, people from across Greece would come to ask for advice or help a) Significance- because people from all of Greece would come this began a great source for Intel on developments across the Greek world 9) Cleisthenes- Athenian law giver, noble apart of Alcmaeonid family a) Significance- credited with reforming the Constitution of Athens, set democracy into play (beginning towards democracy) 10) Hoplite (phalanx) – hoplite- citizen soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states phalanx- military setup of hoplites, soldiers with shields standing tightly togeather= shield wall a) Significance- hoplites became the standing army for much of greece, phalanx allowed Greece especially Sparta to win many of their battles, showed commitment of each soldier was unbreakable because if they fell the whole wall could fall (shows Greek unity) 11) Agoge- spartan training program for both male and female citizens, to create perfect Spartan citizens a) Significance- hard intensive Training, took away individuality, made their soldiers and citizens, women, completely loyal 12) Lycurgus- semi- legendary spartan law giver a) Significance- laid out foundations to Spartan culture, pivotal for their law system 13) Helots- semi- slaves of mycenean neighbors to Spartaa) Fundemntal to Spartan culture, allowed them to train constintly and became who they are, farmed and did more basic tasks. 14) The Peloponnesian League- alliance made of Sparta and almost rest of greece, Sparta protect them, they follow Sparta and agree to never support the Helots a) Significance- Sparta had someone to rely on and this was a stepping stone to the later Hellenistic League 15) Solon- post Draco lawgiver, 594 BCE, took the middle path when fixing gov’t wanted to anger neither side (newly elite or poor) a) Significance- abolished debt bondage, created four classes based on wealth not lineage, made the Council of 400 (100 from each class), made economic, political, and social reforms 16) Miltiades- Athenian general during the first Persian war a) Significance- convinced Athenian council to attack Persia at once instead of waiting for the full moon for Sparta’s aid 17) Hetaerae/ Hetairai- upper class courtesans, better educated than most women, allowed were regular women weren’t a) Significance- were exceptions to the rules pertaining to the Ancient World in terms of women (especially in mobility throughout the city) although were not protected by the state Essays: choose one of the six options and write roughly three pages for an answer 1.) Know the difference and how the rise of the polis’ as a governmental form in Greece and the development of the hoplite phalanx effected each other. a. How did they influence each other b. Ideology behind the polis c. Characteristics of the hoplite/phalanx d. Idea of community and cooperation e. How the success and importance of the hoplites led to changes in values in polis f. How could the hoplites influence social and political change 2.) Discuss the role of tyrants and tyranny in the development of Greek city states during the Archaic Age. a. What were tyrants b. Who were tyrants and how did they rise to power (list specific tyrants) c. What problems did they exploit (how did they convince people to let them in) i. Talked to the poor, most developments were aimed towards the poor etc. d. What effects (both long and short term) did they have on developments of the Polis (which tyrant did what?) 3.) Examine the role of women in ancient Greece? a. How were women characterized by men (coming from animals, bearer of ill to mankind etc.)? b. What restrictions and limitations were placed on them (what could they do and where)c. What roles did they play in different aspects of life in the Polis (religious life vs social life vs political life) d. What was marriage and childbearing like for children (no outside control? Only purpose in society?) e. How did Spartan women differ from women in Athens and the rest of Greece (could go outside freely, exercise, call men out if they were doing wrong etc.) f. What were some options (if any) outside the domestic life for women in the Polis g. List examples of extraordinary women 4.) Examine the political setup of Ancient Sparta a. What elements made up the government( oligarchy but was there more) b. Kings vs the ephors vs gerousia vs the assembly c. Were there checks and balances for power (kings checking kings, one at home while ones at war) d. Who was allowed to hold office of participate in politics (only men, only citizens) e. Why was such a balanced and solid setup necessary for Sparta’s survival 5.) Discuss the Agoge, Spartan training and educational system a. Who went through it (male/female) and how it might be different b. What did it entail (for each gender) c. What was the purpose behind it (cookie cutter Spartan citizens) d. What values did it encourage vs values it discouraged (conformity vs individualism, unity vs solidarity etc) e. Why was it such a rigid institution necessary in Sparta (hoplites revolt?) 6.) Examine the tensions rising in the Archaic Age as Greeks came out of the Dark ages? a. Agriculture tensions (land hunger/ division) and social tensions(hierarchy) were growing and forcing city-states to take action b. How did these developing issues (social and political) influenced political and social developments (classes, voting, events etc.) c. How did these tie to colonization movement? d. Sparta’s reaction to their neighbors (fight against tyrants) e. The rise and influence of tyrants f. Reforms that came to Athens (art, written, agricultural, buildings, government etc.)