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MASON / OTHER / EVPP 110 / in a manipulative experiment ________.

in a manipulative experiment ________.

in a manipulative experiment ________.

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School: George Mason University
Department: OTHER
Course: Environmental Science
Professor: Kim largen
Term: Spring 2017
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Cost: 50
Name: EVPP 110, study guides, week 1-5
Description: These notes cover whats going to be on exam
Uploaded: 02/22/2017
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∙ What is a general characteristic of a "reactive" element relative to the arrangement of its electrons?




∙ How many electrons can be accommodated in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th electrons shells?




∙ How many electrons can be accommodated in the first, innermost electron shell?



 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning & Study Guide #1 Fall 2016 Introduction to Environmental Science and the Scientific Method Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: REMEMBERING ∙ Define: ∙ Environment ∙ EnvironmeIf you want to learn more check out Why are vitamins and minerals essential to the human body?
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ntal science ∙ Environmentalism  ∙ Science ∙ Scientific method ∙ Hypothesis ∙ Null hypothesis ∙ Theory ∙ Independent variable ∙ Dependent variable ∙ Manipulative experiment ∙ Natural experiment ∙ Quantitative data ∙ Qualitative data ∙ Natural resources 1 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning & Study Guide #1 Fall 2016 ∙ Non-renewable resources ∙ Renewable resources ∙ Ecosystem services ∙ Ecological footprint ∙ Biocapacity ∙ Descriptive/observation science ∙ Hypothesis-driven science ∙ Experimental group ∙ Control group ∙ Peer review ∙ Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: UNDERSTANDING ∙ Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative data ∙ Distinguish between descriptive/observational science and hypothesis-driven science ∙ Distinguish between an experimental group and a control group ∙ Distinguish between non-renewable and renewable resources ∙ Distinguish between a manipulative experiment and a natural experiment ∙ List the steps of the scientific method 2 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning & Study Guide #1 Fall 2016 ∙ List some examples of “goods” (products) provided by ecosystems ∙ List some examples of services provided by ecosystems ∙ List some of the disciplines involved in environmental science ∙ State whether or not a hypothesis must be testable ∙ State whether or not the process of science can “prove” a hypothesis to be true ∙ Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: APPLYING ∙ Given sample data, determine whether it is quantitative or qualitative ∙ Given descriptions of two or more experiments, determine whether each is a manipulative experiment or a natural experiment ∙ Given a set of statements, determine which is a hypothesis versus an observation versus a conclusion ∙ Given a set of descriptions of groups in an experiment, determine which is/are the experiment groups versus the control group Practice Questions: 1. The statement “Geraniums grown in a dark closet for 10 days will undergo less of an  increase in height than will geraniums grown on a sunny windowsill for 10 days” is best  described as a(n) _______, whereas the statement “My geranium died when I stored it in  my closet while I went on vacation” is best described as a(n) ________. a. Theory……….observation b. Hypothesis……….observation c. Idea……….hypothesis d. Observation……….hypothesis e. Theory……….hypothesis 3 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning & Study Guide #1 Fall 2016 2. In the scientific method, an hypothesis  a. is the same as a theory b. is a tentative explanation for a phenomenon, phrased in such a way as to be testable c. is an explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of  evidence d. is a widely accepted idea about a phenomenon e. none of the above Answers: 1. B 2. B 4 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #3 Fall 2016 Matter & Energy: Chemical Bonds  Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: REMEMBERING ∙ Define: ∙ ionic bond ∙ hydrogen bonds ∙ nonpolar covalent bond ∙ polar covalent bond ∙ single covalent bond ∙ double covalent bond ∙ triple covalent bond ∙ chemical reaction ∙ electronegativity ∙ partial charge Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: UNDERSTANDING ∙ List the three categories of chemical bonds discussed. ∙ List the two categories of bonds that are considered "strong" ∙ State the category of bond is considered "weak" ∙ Distinguish between a polar and nonpolar covalent bond. ∙ State the relationship between energy release/input and the formation of a bond ∙ State the relationship between energy release/input and the breaking of a bond  1 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #3 Fall 2016 ∙ Explain the role of electronegativity in the formation of a polar covalent bond. ∙ Explain the formation of partial charges in molecules/compounds with an electronegative atom. ∙ Explain why polar molecules are said to have “poles”. ∙ Explain the role that polar molecules play in the formation of hydrogen bonds. ∙ Explain the formation of an ionic bond ∙ Explain the formation of a hydrogen bond ∙ State the number of pairs of electrons shared in single vs. double vs. triple covalent bonds ∙ State the relationship between the rearrangement of matter and “chemical reactions” ∙ State the type of bond that involves the sharing of a pair of electrons ∙ State that type of bond that involves the transfer of an electron from one atom to another ∙ State the type of bond that involves attraction between oppositely partial charges one two different molecules ∙ Explain the role of electron arrangement in the formation of bonds ∙ Explain the role of ions in the formation of ionic bonds Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: APPLYING ∙ Given a diagram of a molecule that illustrates the electron arrangement, be able to state o The chemical formula for the molecule o The number of covalent bonds between any two of the atoms ∙ Given a diagram showing the potential energy associated with the reactants and products of a reaction, state whether the reaction is endergonic or exergonic 2 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #3 Fall 2016 ∙ Given a diagram of an atom with its electron arrangement illustrated, state the number of  covalent bonds that atom can form/participate in Practice Questions 1. A measure of an atom’s ability to _____________________ is called electronegativity. a. attract protons b. repel electrons c. repel neutrons d. attract neutrons e. attract electrons 2. Table salt (NaCl) is formed as a result of an ionic bond between Na and Cl. This ionic bond formed because _____________________________. a. a hydrogen bond formed between sodium and chlorine b. sodium and chlorine shared a pair of electrons to form a bond c. sodium crystals melted into chlorine crystals d. an electron was transferred from sodium to chlorine, producing two oppositely charged ions that were then attracted to one another e. all of the above Answers: 1. E; 2. D 3 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #2 Fall 2016 Matter & Energy: Atomic Structure  Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: REMEMBERING ∙ Define: ∙ matter ∙ element ∙ atom ∙ atomic number ∙ atomic mass ∙ mass ∙ density ∙ proton ∙ neutron ∙ electron ∙ atomic nucleus ∙ subatomic particle ∙ chemical formula ∙ structural formula ∙ isotope ∙ stable isotope ∙ radioactive isotope ∙ electron shells/energy shells/valence shells Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: UNDERSTANDING 1 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #2 Fall 2016 ∙ Distinguish between an atom and an element. ∙ List the three main subatomic particles of which atoms are made. ∙ Describe the composition of the atomic nucleus. ∙ Distinguish between mass and weight. ∙ List the three primary states (phases) of matter. ∙ Give an example of the units for density. ∙ Distinguish between the liquid, solid and gas phases of matter. ∙ Distinguish between a molecule/compound and an atom. ∙ Distinguish between the chemical (molecular) formula of a molecule/compound as compared to the structural formula? ∙ List some uses of radioactive isotopes. ∙ Explain why the normal net charge of an atom is zero (neutral). ∙ Explain why electron arrangement key to the chemical behavior of atoms. ∙ How many electrons can be accommodated in the first, innermost electron shell? ∙ How many electrons can be accommodated in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th electrons shells? ∙ What is a general characteristic of a "reactive" element relative to the arrangement of its electrons? ∙ What is a general characteristic of an "un-reactive" element relative to the arrangement of its electrons? Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: APPLYING 2 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #2 Fall 2016 ∙ Given the atomic number of an element, determine the number of electron shells and the arrangement of the electrons in them. ∙ Given the atomic number of element, determine the number of protons and electrons it has. ∙ Given the atomic number and atomic mass of an element, determine the number of neutrons it has. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: ANALYZING ∙ Compare and contrast protons, neutrons, and electrons in terms of their charge, mass, and location in the atom. ∙ Compare and contrast the trend in density for most substances (except water) as that substance goes from its solid to its liquid to its gas phase.  Practice questions: 1. The atomic number of an element is 16. The arrangement of its electrons in electron orbitals  would be a. 2 – 6 b. 2 – 8 c. 2 – 8 – 6  d. 2 – 6 – 8 e. none of the above 2. Which of the following subatomic particles has the least amount of mass? a. proton b. neutron c. nucleus d. electron e. all of the above 3. An atom has six protons and eight neutrons. Its atomic number is  a. two b. six c. eight d. fourteen e. twenty 4. An atom has an atomic mass of 23 and an atomic number of 11. The number of neutrons in its  nucleus is a. 1 b. 2 c. 11 d. 12 e. 23 3 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #2 Fall 2016 Answers to practice questions: 1. C; 2. D; 3. B; 4. D 4 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #4 Fall 2016 Matter & Energy: Properties of Water  Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: REMEMBERING ∙ Define: ∙ Electronegativity ∙ Cohesion ∙ Adhesion ∙ Surface tension ∙ Heat ∙ Temperature ∙ Density ∙ Solution ∙ Solvent ∙ Solute ∙ Dissolve  ∙ List the main reasons water is considered so important to life. ∙ Provide the chemical structure of water.  ∙ List the unusual properties of water that contribute to the special roles it plays in life. ∙ List the ions that are produced when a water molecule dissociates ∙ Describe the change in the density of water as temperature decreases. ∙ Identify the solute and solvent in the scenario of salt dissolving in water. 1 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #4 Fall 2016 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: UNDERSTANDING ∙ Explain why water is considered to be a polar molecule. ∙ Explain why water has a great ability to resist temperature change. ∙ Explain why water molecules form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules. ∙ Explain the role that water's hydrogen bonds play in its ability to resist temperature change. ∙ Identify the most electronegative atom in a water molecule. ∙ Explain the role that water's hydrogen bonds play in evaporative cooling. ∙ Explain why salt dissolves in water. ∙ Provide examples of how cohesion, adhesion, surface tension help with processes in living systems. ∙ Explain why solid water (ice) floats on liquid water. ∙ Explain why water is more dense or less dense as a solid than as a liquid. ∙ Distinguish between the bonds that hold the atoms of a water molecule together versus the bonds that form between different water molecules Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: APPLYING ∙ If ice did not float, what would be the consequence to life on earth? ∙ Given an illustration of the preparation of an aqueous solution, be able to identify the solution, solute, solvent ∙ Given a diagram of several water molecules, be able to identify the polar covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, atoms, molecules, areas of partial charges ∙ Compare the likelihood of polar versus non-polar pollutants dissolving in the water of a lake (all else being equal). 2 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #4 Fall 2016 Practice questions: 1. In a ______________, the ___________ is the dissolving agent and the __________ is the substance  that is dissolved in dissolving agent. a. solution…..solvent…..solute b. solute…..solvent…..solution c. solvent…..solute…..solution d. solvent…..solution…..solute e. solute…..solution…..solvent 2. Water molecules stick to other water molecules because a. water molecules are neutral, and neutral molecules are attracted to each other b. hydrogen bonds form between hydrogen atoms (with partial positive charge) of one water  molecule and the oxygen atoms (with partial negative charge) of other water molecules c. covalent bonds form between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen  atoms of other water molecules d. the hydrogen atoms of adjacent water molecules are attracted to one another e. the oxygen atoms of adjacent water molecules are attracted to one another Answers to practice questions: 1. A; 2. B  3 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #5 Fall 2016 Matter & Energy: pH, Chemical Reactions, Thermodynamics, Enzymes  Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: REMEMBERING ∙ Define: ∙ Acid ∙ Base ∙ Neutral ∙ Buffer ∙ Acid precipitation ∙ Chemical reaction ∙ Product ∙ Reactant ∙ Energy ∙ Kinetic energy ∙ Potential energy ∙ Chemical energy ∙ Heat ∙ Thermodynamics ∙ Temperature ∙ Entropy ∙ Endergonic reaction ∙ Exergonic reaction ∙ Enzyme 1 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #5 Fall 2016 ∙ First Law of Thermodynamics ∙ Second Law of Thermodynamics ∙ Electromagnetic spectrum ∙ Electromagnetic radiation ∙ Ionizing radiation ∙ Non-ionizing radiation ∙ Substrate  ∙ Inhibitor ∙ Active site ∙ Hydrogen ion ∙ Solute ∙ Solvent ∙ Solution ∙ ATP ∙ ATP cycle ∙ Denature ∙ List the ions produced when water molecules dissociate. ∙ List the numbers on the pH scale that correspond to acid, base and neutral. ∙ List the factors that affect enzyme activity. ∙ List examples of the many forms in which energy exists. ∙ State the difference in magnitude between each unit on the pH scale. 2 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #5 Fall 2016 ∙ Identify the reactants in the equation for a chemical reaction. ∙ Identify the products in the equation for a chemical reaction. ∙ Identify the substrate in an equation for an enzyme-facilitated reaction ∙ State whether the conversion of ATP to ADP + P is endergonic or exergonic ∙ State whether the conversion of ADP + P to ATP is endergonic or exergonic ∙ Identify in a diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum the region with the most ionizing and most non-ionizing radiation Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: UNDERSTANDING ∙ Explain how a crystal of salt dissolves in water. For this scenario, identify the substance that is the solute and the substance that is the solvent. ∙ Explain the relationship between the terms acid, base and pH scale to the concept of the dissociation of water molecules ∙ Explain the relationship between the number and type of atoms on the left side of a chemical equation as compared to right side of the equation. ∙ Explain how an enzyme helps a reaction proceed, ∙ Explain the energy contribution an enzyme makes to the chemical reaction it catalyzes. ∙ Explain the importance of an enzyme’s structure to its function ∙ Explain how an enzyme can be affected by its physical environment. ∙ Explain how an enzyme can be affected by inhibitors 3 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #5 Fall 2016 ∙ Explain how an enzyme-catalyzed reaction can be affected by the availability of its substrate ∙ Explain how an enzyme-catalyzed reaction can be affected by the availability of its enzyme ∙ Associate the relative concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution to the acidity, neutrality or basicity of that solution ∙ Recognize a general illustration of an enzyme being inhibited by a non competitive inhibitor ∙ Recognize a general illustration of an enzyme being inhibited by a competitive inhibitor ∙ State whether the conversion of ADP + P to ATP requires an input of energy or results in a release of energy and if it requires an input of energy, does that energy come from some other endergonic or exergonic reaction ∙ State whether the conversion of ATP to ADP + P requires an input of energy or results in a release of energy and if it results in a release of energy, does that energy go to “fuel” some other endergonic or exergonic reaction Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: APPLYING ∙ Classify given pH values as acidic, basic or neutral. ∙ Given the relative concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution, state whether that solution is acid, base or neutral ∙ Given an equation for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, be able to identify the substrate, enzyme and products of the reaction ∙ Given an illustration of an enzyme being inhibited by an inhibitor, determine whether the inhibitor is a competitive inhibitor or a non-competitive inhibitor 4 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #5 Fall 2016 ∙ Given an equation for a chemical reaction, identify the reactants and products of the reaction Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: ANALYZING ∙ Compute the number of times one pH value is greater or lesser than another pH value. ∙ Given a graph of potential energy associated with reactants and products of a reaction, be able to determine whether that reaction is endergonic or exergonic ∙ Given a graph of enzyme activity relative to temperature or salinity or pH or substrate concentration, determine the temperature or salinity or pH or substrate concentration at which the activity of the enzyme is optimum Practice questions: 1. A solution with a pH of 7 is _________ whereas a solution with a pH of 1 is _______. a. weakly basic…..weakly acidic b. strongly acidic…..strongly basic c. strongly basic…..weakly basic d. weakly acidic…..neutral e. neutral…..strongly acidic 2. In the equation 2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O2 , the H2 and O2 molecules are the _______ and the H2 O2  molecules are the ___________. a. reactants…products b. products…reactants c. reactants…reactants d. products…products e. none of the above 3. As energy is converted from one form to another, it is continuously lost to the system (dissipated) as  a. electricity b. light c. sound d. heat e. chemical energy 4. Which of the following factors can result in the denaturation of an enzyme or protein? a. heat b. changes in pH c. changes in salt concentration (due to disruption of hydrogen bonds) d. all of the above e. none of the above 5. The energy stored in the water of a reservoir behind a dam is an example of __________ whereas  the energy released as the water flows downhill from behind a dam is an example of ___________. a. kinetic energy……………..potential energy 5 EVPP 110 Lecture Learning Guide #5 Fall 2016 b. hydroxyl ion formation…...potential energy c. energy of activation………kinetic energy d. potential energy…………..kinetic energy e. kinetic energy……………..energy of activation 6. A solution with a pH of 5 is _________ times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 8. a. 3 b. 10 c. 13 d. 100 e. 1000 Answers to practice questions: 1. E; 2. A; 3. D; 4. D; 5. D; 6. E 6

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