Exam #1 – Study Guide PSY 321 Introduction to Leadership (Northouse Chapter 1) ∙ Leadership Definition and Components Central to Leadership (lecture, pp. 2, 6-7) Leadership Defined ∙ Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Components Central to the Phenomenon of Leadership ∙ Is a process (that evolves over time) ∙ Involves influence ∙ Occurs within a group context ∙ Involves attention to common goals ∙ Trait Versus Process Leadership (lecture, pp. 7-8) Trait vs. Process Leadership Northouse Figure 1.1 ∙ Trait definition of leadership: Certain individuals have special innate characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders. o Resides in select people o Restricted to those with inborn talent ∙ Process definition of leadership: Leadership is a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people o Observed in leadership behaviors o Can be learned ∙ Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership (lecture, pp. 8-10) Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership ∙ Assigned Leadership: Leadership based on occupying a position within an organization ∙ Emergent Leadership: An individual perceived by others as the most influential member of a group or organization regardless of the individual’s title o Emergence tied to: 1. communication behaviors 2. personality 3. gender 4. Group identity and similarity to group prototype 1∙ Leadership and Power, including French & Raven’s Bases for Power (lecture, pp. 10-12) Leadership and Power Power ∙ The capacity or potential to influence ∙ Ability to affect others’ beliefs, attitudes, & actions ∙ Power is a relational concern for both leaders and followers. French & Raven’s Bases of Social Power 1. Referent power a. admiring, respecting someone – on the line of charisma – you look up to that person because you look up to them and identify with them b. E.g., a celebrity on a marketing add is more influential c. Organizational example – someone charismatic 2. Expert power a. You are able to influence people because you have expertise in a field b. Also used in marketing c. E.g., a dentist recommending a certain type of toothpaste in an add 3. Legitimate power a. E.g., “I will do what you say because you are my manager” b. “I am your manager, so I can tell you what to do” c. Based on the position (based on your position in the organization) 4. Reward power a. You can reward people with good things 5. Coercive power a. You are able to punish people b. Fear of the negative consequences (e.g., being demoted, fired, etc.) Leadership and Power Northouse Table 1.2 ∙ Position Power is derived from office or rank in an organization o Legitimate power o Reward power o Coercive power ∙ Personal Power is influence derived from being seen as likeable & knowledgeable o Referent power o Expert power ∙ Kerr’s Folly (lecture) Kerr’s Folly ∙ The folly of rewarding “A” while hoping for “B” o Comcast video reward to trying to retain customer goes too far, embarrasses company 2o You hope for one thing and reward for one thing but when you look into it, you are rewarding for something else ∙ Why are “fouledup” reward systems so prevalent? 1. Fascination with an “objective” criterion 2. Overemphasis on highly visible behaviors 3. Hypocrisy (e.g., Comcast video externally they say they want to give good service quality, but internally they want to keep the customers no matter what) ∙ Leadership and Coercion (lecture, p. 12) Leadership and Coercion Coercion involves ∙ Use of force to effect change ∙ Influencing others to do something against their will, including extreme behavior ∙ Use of threats and punishments ∙ Should the use of coercion be considered leadership? ∙ Leadership and Management, particularly Kotter’s perspective (lecture, pp. 13-15) Leadership and Management: Kotter Management Activities ∙ “Produce order and consistency” 1. Planning & budgeting 2. Organizing & staffing 3. Controlling & problem solving Leadership Activities ∙ “Produce change and movement” o Establishing direction o Aligning people o Motiving/inspiring ∙ Major activities of management & leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper. ∙ Mintzberg’s managerial roles (lecture) Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Interpersonal roles 1. Figurehead role o Mayor going to important event, making them appear more important etc. 2. Leader role 3o working with people and your subordinates. Daytoday supervising activities. 3. Liaison role o Negotiating with other units (e.g., head of marketing interacting with heads of HR etc.) o Side to side interaction Informationprocessing roles 1. Monitor o Looking for things that can be changed, what peoples likes and dislikes are, what the latest trends are 2. Disseminator o Passing information down to your subordinates 3. Spokesperson o Pass information out, from your unit, along to other people Decisionmaking roles 1. Entrepreneur o Bring in new ideas, initiate change, what changes to make to improve effectiveness 2. Disturbance Handler o Making decisions about crisis situations (e.g., how to handle a problem employee; how properly to meet customer demand) 3. Resource Allocator (resource = money, staffing, etc.) o How to allocate resources to achieve goals 4. Negotiator o Working with customer, working with other units (e.g., to negotiate a 2week extension) ∙ Leadership Effectiveness, including general idea of the Multiple Constituency Model (lecture) Leadership Effectiveness ∙ Three considerations: o What is the criterion of interest? 1. Performance 2. Attitudes 3. Group processes o Is the focus on immediate or delayed outcomes? This is an issue with publicly traded companies—e.g., should you focus on the quarterly? Brings up Business ethics because they are trying to focus on the short term without thinking of the longterm o Effectiveness from whose perspective? Who do we ask about effectiveness? Whose perspective do we look at to evaluate effectiveness? 4∙ Governmental Agencies ∙ Employees ∙ Shareholders ∙ Businesstobusiness partners ∙ Internal customers ∙ Top management ∙ External customers So, how can we measure leadership effectiveness? ∙ Use multiple criteria ∙ Measure criteria at multiple points in time ∙ Situational Factors in Leadership Effectiveness (lecture) Situational factors What matters? 1. Level of management 2. Size of organizational unit a. Leading a small group is different from a large group. b. The size can affect how a leader can empower other people and delegate tasks 3. Lateral interdependence a. If the work of the unit is very interdependent on other units b. The extent to that units work is interdependent on other units (they have to work together) c. Then there is a lot of coordination that is needed that wouldn’t be needed if the unit was independent 4. Crisis situations a. How we evaluate a leader and depend on how they act in a crisis situation b. Leaders need to make quick decisions in a crisis situation – this affects how we evaluate leaders 5. Stage in organizational life cycle a. Bring in the right people b. Allocate recourses c. Coordinate people when the organization grows bigger d. Maturity level – managers vs. leaders e. How to keep things efficient while the organization grows f. The ability of the organization to adapt as it grows (very important!) ∙ Classifying Leadership Research (lecture) Classifying Leadership Research ∙ 3 main questions: o What kind of leadership variable is being studied? o At what level of analysis is that theory focused? o From which perspective is leadership being examined? 5Types of Variables Studied: Major Research Approaches 1. Trait 2. Behavioral 3. Situational 4. Relationshipbased 5. Transformative/emotionbased 6. Ethical Levels of Analysis ∙ IntraIndividual Within yourself ∙ Dyadic One person leading ONE other person ∙ Group/Unit ∙ Organizational Perspective ∙ LeaderCentered ∙ FollowerCentered The Trait & Skills Approach (Northouse Chapters 2 & 3) ∙ Overview of the Trait Approach (lecture, pp.19-20) The Trait Approach ∙ One of the first systematic attempts to study leadership ∙ The Basic Assumption Leaders are born, not made ∙ Trait = Any of a number of individual attributes that include personality, temperament, needs, motives, or values o Traits are relatively stable ∙ Focuses exclusively on the leader 1. What traits leaders exhibit 2. Who has these traits ∙ Historical Shifts in the Trait Perspective (lecture, pp. 20-22) Historical Shifts in Trait Perspective ∙ Early 1900s o Great Man Theories Today also called “Great Person Theories”; before only men were seen as leaders ∙ 1948 review by Stogdill (and again in 1974) o No evidence of universal traits… but some traits make it more likely to be an effective leader o Some interpreted results as traits don’t matter 6 This is not what Stogdill said, he said that there is no evidence of universal traits… but some traits make it more likely to be an effective leader – but this does not mean you need to have those traits to be a leader ∙ Lord, DeVader, & Alliger (1986) meta-analysis o Personality traits can be used to differentiate leaders and non-leaders They said that traits do matter a bit ∙ Today o General acknowledgement that traits play a role in leadership effectiveness ∙ Measures & Research Designs (lecture) Measures & Research Designs ∙ Sample measures of traits o Tests o Critical incidents o Self-ratings o Interviews o Biodata ∙ Research Designs o Comparing leaders and non-leaders o Correlating trait measures with effectiveness measures o Longitudinal studies of advancement o Studies of “derailed” managers ∙ Managerial Motivation Research by McClelland (lecture) Managerial Motivation ∙ McClelland ∙ Measurement via projective test (projective test = e.g., inkblot test – gives you information about your motives etc. Not seen as reliable.) o TAT = Thematic Apperception Test ∙ 3 motives o Need for power (nPow) Need to influence other people These people tend to be more assertive and want position in power where they can influence people o Need for achievement (nAch) They are motivated to achieve goals Tend to be competitive, high standard of performance o Need for affiliation (nAff) The interpersonal side Have positive relationship with others 7 Important to feel affiliated with other people Quote from the office: “would you rather be feared or loved?” “I want people to fear how much they love me” Optimal Managerial Motive Pattern ∙ What does research say? ∙ Optimal Pattern: 1. Socialized (vs. Personalized) nPOW 2. Moderately High nAch a. If it’s too high you might go over the top b. You might also think you will do it better all by yourself 3. Moderately Low nAff ∙ Key Traits Related to Leadership (lecture, pp. 23-26) Key Traits 1. Intelligence 2. Self-confidence 3. Determination a. Persistence, perseverance, keep going when facing obstacles, 4. Integrity a. Doing the right thing, makes subordinates trust you, 5. Sociability a. Relational component, having good interpersonal skills, cooperating with followers, being approachable, being able to relate and talk to people ∙ Big Five Personality and Leadership (lecture, pp. 26-27) Big Five Personality (see Table 2.3 in book) 1. Neuroticism: – The tendency to be depressed, anxious, insecure, vulnerable, and hostile 2. Extraversion: – the tendency to be sociable and assertive and to have positive energy 3. Openness: – The tendency to be informed, creative, insightful, and curious 4. Agreeableness: – The tendency to be accepting, conforming, trusting, and nurturing 5. Conscientiousness: – The tendency to be thorough, organized, controlled, dependable, and decisive ∙ How to remember: OCEAN ∙ Which ones are related to leadership? Here are the results from Judge et al.’s (2002) meta-analysis: o Strongest appears to be Extraversion o Openness to Experience and conscientiousness also had significant positive relationships o Agreeableness was least relevant 8o Neuroticism had significant negative relationship ∙ Emotional Intelligence (lecture, pp.27-28) Another Trait: Emotional Intelligence ∙ Emotional Intelligence: The abilities and traits related to recognizing and regulating ∙ emotions in ourselves and others. ∙ Goleman ∙ Five Components of emotional intelligence: (MESSS) 1. Self-awareness a. Understanding your strengths, weaknesses, emotions, mood etc. 2. Self-regulation a. Controlling your own reactions, disruptive impulses or moods, think before acting etc. 3. Motivation a. Being motivated, passionate to work or pursue goals with persistence 4. Empathy a. Understanding the emotional make-up of others and understand what they are experiencing, connecting with others emotionally 5. Social skill a. Managing relationships, managing rapport with others ∙ Strengths of the Trait Approach (lecture, pp.29-30) Strength of Trait Approach ∙ Intuitively appealing ∙ Credibility due to a century of research support ∙ Deeper understanding of leader aspect of leadership o Provides benchmarks for what to look for in a leader ∙ Possible uses in selection ∙ Criticisms of the Trait Approach (lecture, pp. 30-32) Criticisms and the Future of the Trait Approach ∙ Criticisms: o No definitive list of traits o Failure to account for situational effects o List of important leadership traits is highly subjective o Failure to relate to leader outcomes o Not useful for training and development E.g., personality tends to be quite stable you can’t change an introvert to an extrovert 9∙ Future Research on the Trait Approach (lecture) Future Research on the Trait Approach: o Packages/patterns o Balance - curvilinear relationships? o Situational Factors ∙ Description of the Skills Approach (p. 43-44) Skills Approach ∙ Skills approach = Leadership skills o The ability to use one’s knowledge and competencies to accomplish a set of goals and objectives ∙ Leader-centered perspective o Emphasis on skills and abilities that can be learned & developed ∙ Three-Skill Approach (Katz, 1955) o Technical o Core competency, working with task o Human o People side of things, interpersonal relationships o Conceptual o Being a broad thinker, thinking abstractly ∙ Three-Skill Approach, including skills across organizational levels (lecture, pp. 44-47) Technical Skills ∙ Technical skill: Having knowledge about and being proficient in a specific type of work or activity ∙ Specialized competencies ∙ Analytical ability ∙ Use of appropriate tools and techniques Technical skills involve hands-on ability with a product or process ∙ Focus on __________________ Human Skill ∙ Human skill = Having knowledge about and being able to work with people. ∙ Being aware of one’s own perspective and others’ perspectives at the same time ∙ Assisting group members in working cooperatively to achieve common goals ∙ Creating an atmosphere of _______________ and ________________________ of members Focus on _________________ 10Conceptual Skill ∙ Conceptual skill: The ability to do the mental work of shaping the meaning of organizational or policy issues (what the company stands for and where it’s going) ∙ Works easily with abstractions and hypothetical notions ∙ Central to creating and articulating a vision and strategic plan for an organization Focus on ________________________ Skills Across Organizational Levels ∙ Leaders need all three skills ∙ The relative importance changes based on level of management (see Figure 3.1 in book) ∙ How Does the Skills Approach Work? (except for material on the skills model; pp. 56-57) ∙ The skills approach is primarily descriptive o Describes leadership from skills perspective ∙ The importance of certain leadership skills varies depending on where leaders are in a managerial hierarchy. ∙ The model describes how career experiences and environmental influences play a direct or indirect role in leadership performance ∙ Strengths of the Skills Approach (pp. 57-58) ∙ Strengths o Leader-centered model Stresses the importance of developing particular leadership skills o Intuitively appealing o Provides an expansive view of leadership that incorporates a wide variety of components (including problem-solving, social judgment skills, knowledge, individual attributes, career experiences, and environmental influences) o Provides a structure that is very consistent with the curricula of most leadership education programs ∙ Criticisms of the Skills Approach (pp. 58-59) The Behavioral Approach (Northouse Chapter 4) ∙ Description (lecture, pp. 71-72) 11The Behavioral Approach ∙ Stogdill’s review o He found that there is no universal list of traits that lead to leadership ∙ Paradigm shift - From traits to behavior o It’s not WHO the leader is but WHAT the leader does! ∙ Ohio State Studies (lecture, pp. 72-73) Ohio State Studies: Phase I ∙ Very influential early questionnaire research (1950’s) ∙ LBDQ Development o LBDQ = Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire o Goal = To measure what leaders do o Measured # of times engaged in behavior o Started with 1800 examples Reduced to 150 items Ohio State Studies: Phase II ∙ Administered LBDQ to diverse sample of jobs: o Military o Industrial o Educational ∙ Responses subjected to a factor analysis ∙ Two relatively independent dimensions emerged o i.e., they were not correlated highly, but where rather independent ∙ Most widely used leadership assessment instrument o Still used even today Ohio State Study Results ∙ IS and C WILL BE ON EXAM ∙ Initiating Structure (IS) o “The degree to which a leader defines and structures his/her own role and the roles of subordinates toward attainment of the group’s formal goals” o Task behaviors: Organizing work, giving structure to the work context, defining role responsibility, scheduling work activities ∙ Consideration (C) o “The degree to which a leader acts in a friendly and supportive manner, shows concern for subordinates, and looks out for their welfare” o Relationship behaviors: Build camaraderie, respect, trust, & liking between leaders & followers 12Research Findings ∙ Consideration predicts “human outcomes“: o Absenteeism o Turnover o OCBs (organizational citizenship behavior) Going above and beyond on job tasks and helping others o Job satisfaction ∙ Initiating Structure: No consistent results ∙ University of Michigan Studies (lecture, pp. 73-74) The University of Michigan Leadership Studies ∙ Also in the 1950s ∙ Slightly different research question: o What differences are there between effective and ineffective managers on small groups? ∙ Sample: Variety of sources in field settings ∙ Method: Interviews and questionnaires The University of Michigan Leadership Studies ∙ Likert’s summary/analysis ∙ Two behaviors distinguished o Production Orientation Similar to Initiating Structure (check above) o Employee Orientation Similar to Consideration (check above) ∙ McGregor – Theory X & Theory Y (lecture) McGregor (1960): Why Do Leaders Behave Differently? ∙ Early theory of leadership motivation based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs o Maslow’s hierarchy: physical, safety/security, social, esteem, self actualization ∙ Theory X o The “conventional view” o Goal is to get things done by directing and controlling and subordinates o Assumptions: People are lazy, lack ambition, and dislike responsibility People are self-centered and indifferent to the good of the organization People don’t like change ∙ Theory Y 13o The egg came before the chicken… Maybe it is the other way around o Focus on fulfilling worker’s higher order needs o Assumptions: People are NOT passive and lazy by nature—management has made them that way People want to grow and develop, to assume responsibility and to reach goals It’s management’s job to create the right conditions for people to grow, develop, and meet their goals ∙ Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid (lecture, pp. 74- 78) Managerial/LEADERSHIP Grid ∙ Blake & Mouton o Developed in the early 1960s o Builds on Ohio State findings o Concern for people and concern for production o Used extensively in organizational training & development ∙ The High-High Hypothesis
High concern for people
1,9 Country Club Management
9,9 Team Management (the most ideal)
Low concern for people
1,1 Impoverished Management
9,1 AuthorityCompliance Management
Low concern for production
High concern for production
∙ Why are “fouledup” reward systems so prevalent?
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∙ 5,5 Middle of the Road Management (in the middle of the grid) ∙ Opportunism: People adapt & shift to any grid style needed to gain maximum advantage ∙ Paternalism: Reward & approval are bestowed on people in return for loyalty and obedience; failure to comply leads to punishment ∙ TRC Leadership Theory (lecture) Synthesizing the Behavioral Taxonomies ∙ TRC Leadership Theory o T = Task-oriented o R = Relationship-oriented o C = Change-oriented T
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R T R ∙ Three-factor model ∙ ∙ Three-Dimensional Model
C 14C ∙ Strengths (lecture, pp. 80) The Behavior Approach: Strengths ∙ Shift from trait approach ∙ Wide range of support ∙ Two major categories ∙ Good heuristic ∙ Criticisms, including Criticisms of Research Using BDQs (lecture, pp. 81) The Behavior Approach: Criticisms ∙ Inadequate relationships with outcomes ∙ No universal style o There is no universal set of behaviors or traits that will lead to good leadership ∙ Implies that best leadership style is high-high (on the managerial/leadership grid) ∙ Limitations of BDQ’s (Behavioral Description Questionnaire) o You’re asked to remember things, and if you’re memory is not good, this causes a problem o Wording of the questions can affect results Criticisms of Leadership Research Using BDQs #1: Questionnaire data collection method ∙ Item interpretation o How you interpret questions o How you remember things that the question asks (memory issues) ∙ Retrospective accounts o Halo bias – if you like the leader, you will rate him more highly ∙ Rater errors #2: What about other methods? ∙ Observation o Will observing the leader show the same results as the questionnaire? ∙ Critical incidents #3: Research design ∙ Data source ∙ Cross-sectional design 15o A quasi-experiment would be better ∙ Causality? o Leader behavior Criterion variable o Leader behavior criterion variable o Or is it extraneous or third variable causing the relationship between leader behavior and criterion variable o Criterion variable rater attributions leader behavior #4: Curvilinear relationships? Turnover rates Initiating structure ∙ Overcoming Criticisms and Moving Forward (lecture) Overcoming Criticisms ∙ Thorough survey development process ∙ Field research with different data collection methods and/or different sources Not just ask subordinates, but ask other people ∙ Experimental or longitudinal research Moving Forward: The Behavior Approach ∙ Beyond task & relationship behaviors o E.g., ethical behavior needs attention as well ∙ Beyond individual behaviors o Packages/patterns? o You cannot break out some behaviors, they all come from the same person – thus you should look at the packages/patterns. ∙ Situational factors? o ALL this ignores situational factors Contingency Theories (Northouse Chapters 5 & 6) ∙ Definition of Contingency Theory and General Model (lecture) 16∙ Contingency theory: Any of several theories that recognize that certain styles of leadership are more effective in some situations than in others THE SITUATION LEADER ATTRIBUTES LEADER EFFECTIVENESS ∙ Traits ∙ Behavior ∙ Situational Leadership Theory – general idea, leader behavior, development levels, categories of situations, how it works (lecture, pp. 93-98) Situational Leadership Theory ∙ Developed by Hersey & Blanchard ∙ Leadership composed of: o Directive (task) behaviors These two are similar to task and relationship part of the managerial/leadership grid. o Supportive (relationship) behaviors ∙ Leadership pattern changes depending on follower developmental level Developmental Levels ∙ Development Level = the degree to which subordinates have the competence and commitment necessary to accomplish a given task or activity ∙ Four levels: o D1 – Someone who is new to a task and does not know how to do it, but they are excited about the challenge of it o D2 – Someone who has started to learn the job, but has lost some of their initial motivation about the job o D3 – Someone who has the skills for the job, but is uncertain as to whether they can accomplish the task by themselves o D4 – Someone who has the skills and the motivation to get the job done. Situational Leadership Theory (See Figure 5.1 Northouse)
High Supportive behavior
Low Supportive Behavior
Low Directive behavior
High directive behavior
o Effectiveness from whose perspective?
o What is the criterion of interest?
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∙ The S1-4 corresponds to D1-4 S1 – Directing Style o High Directive; Low Supportive 17∙ Leader focuses communication on goal achievement ∙ Spends LESS time using supportive behaviors S2 – Coaching Style o High Directive; High Supportive ∙ Leader focuses communication on BOTH goal achievement and supporting subordinates’ socioemotional needs ∙ Requires leader involvement through encouragement and soliciting subordinate input o Says that this method is the best for certain situations, but not always (compared to the managerial grid that says high high is always good) S3 – Supporting Style o High Supportive; Low Directive ∙ Leader uses supportive behaviors to bring out employee skills in accomplishing the task ∙ Leader delegates day-to-day decision-making control, but is available to facilitate problem solving S4 – Delegating Style o Low Supportive; Low Directive ∙ Leader lessens involvement in planning, control of details, and goal clarification ∙ Gives subordinates control and refrains from intervention and unneeded social support o “I know you know the job, and I can treat you like a partner and trust you. I don’t need to stand right next to you and heavily involved in your tasks or details. Or help with motivation.” How Does the Situational Approach Work? In any given situation the Leader has two tasks: ∙ 1st Task: o Diagnose the Situation o Identify the developmental level of employee o Ask questions like: What is the task subordinates are being asked to perform? How complicated is it? What is their skill set? Do they have the desire to complete the job? ∙ 2nd Task: o Adapt their Style o Based on the prescribed leadership style in the model Leadership style must correspond to the employee’s development level 18∙ Path-Goal Theory – general idea, expectancy theory, leader behaviors, subordinate characteristics, task & environment characteristics, how it works (lecture, pp. 115-122) Path-Goal Theory ∙ Path-Goal Theory: Centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals. o Leader’s role is to clarify the followers’ path to their goals o Clarifying what followers need to do to get where they should be and removing any obstacles in the way. ∙ Main contributor: House ∙ (See Figure 6.1 Northouse) o CHECK THIS! ∙ Based on Expectancy Theory (VIE) o Valence: Does Outcome à Satisfaction o Strength of person’s preference for particular outcome o Instrumentality: Performance à Attainment of Outcome (“If I perform well, will I get a promotion?”) o Expectancy: Effort à Performance (“If I put in a lot of effort, I will perform well” Leader behavior Subordianate expectancies, instrumentalities, and valences subordinate effort and satisfaction Subordinate characteristics, task, & environmental characteristics ∙ Leader behaviors o Supportive leadership o Directive leadership o Participative leadership o Achievement-oriented leadership ∙ Subordinate characteristics o Need for affiliation Leader should display supportive leadership (check above) o Need for structure Directive leadership is important for this o Locus of control o Perception of their own ability Task & Environment Characteristics ∙ Design of task o Ambiguous/Unclear o Repetition 19∙ Formal authority system o Weak formal authority ∙ Primary work group characteristics o Non-supportive/weak group norms (See Table 7.1 Northouse) How Does the Path-Goal Theory Work? ∙ The leader’s job is to help subordinates reach their goals by directing, guiding, and coaching them along the way ∙ Leaders must evaluate task and subordinate characteristics and adapt leadership style to these ∙ The theory suggests which style is most appropriate for specific characteristics ∙ Leadership Substitutes Theory – basic idea, substitutes vs. neutralizers (definition and categories), leadership dimensions, intervening variables, situational variables (lecture) Leadership Substitutes Theory ∙ Developed by Kerr & Jermier ∙ Basic idea: Leader behavior is irrelevant in some situations ∙ Substitutes & neutralizers o A substitute replaces the need for leadership o A neutralizer erases the effectiveness of leadership ∙ Leadership dimensions o Supportive leadership o Instrumental leadership ∙ Intervening variables: o Role clarity o Task motivation ∙ Three categories of situational variables o Subordinate characteristics example: indifference towards rewards ∙ This is a neutralizer – the leader’s rewards doesn’t effect the subordinates o Task characteristics example: structured, routine task ∙ This is a substitute – the routine in task is eliminating the need of a leader to give structure o Group or organization characteristics example: cohesive work group ∙ This is a substitute – the group works well without the support of the leader Example of Substitute 20∙ Task Direction Role Clarity ∙ Structured Task Role Clarity (This eliminates the need for Task Direction !!! – Structured Task, so don’t need task direction) Example of Neutralizer ∙ Rewarding Subordinates Task Motivation ∙ Rewarding subordinates (Indifference towards rewards) – does not lead to Task Motivation ∙ Vroom & Yetton Normative Decision Model – decision processes, outcome criteria, situational variables, Vroom & Jago revision, evidence (lecture) Vroom & Yetton Normative Decision Model ∙ The degree of participation depends on the situation ∙ Decision Tree - Y/N decisions ∙ Originally developed in 1973 Decision Processes ∙ Autocratic A1 – the leader just makes the decisions, subordinates are not involved at all. A2 – the leader gets information from subordinates and then makes the decision on his/her own. ∙ Consultation C1 – Consulting with the subordinates individually C2 – consulting with subordinates as a group ∙ Group G2 – the leader allows the group to come to a consensus regarding what they want to do Vroom & Yetton Normative Decision Model ∙ Outcome criteria o Quality requirement Is the quality of the decision important? o Commitment requirement People tend to be more committed to the decision when they were involved in making the decision. ∙ Situational Variables o Leader information If it is A1 or A2 – depends on how much information the leader has o Problem structure Is the problem clear or complex? Usually if it is pretty clear, the leader can handle things on their own. If it is complex you might want help from other people. o Commitment probability Would you get commitment if you make decisions on your own? If it 21is a small decision, you will probably get commitment. But not if it is a big decision that impacts subordinates. o Goal congruence o Subordinate conflict Is subordinate conflict likely over the decision? You can use C1 for this. Vroom & Jago (1988) Revision to Normative Decision Model ∙ Y/N à Scaled attributes ∙ More outcome criteria o Motivation to conserve time o Motivation to develop subordinates ∙ More situational variables o Subordinate information o Geographical dispersion Decision Models: Evidence ∙ 25% more effective ∙ Revision potentially even better ∙ But, limitations: o Dynamic nature of decisions? o Some decision procedures not included For the G2, A1-2, etc. They don’t contain all possibilities. o Too complicated E.g., the decision tree o Ignores leader skills ∙ Contingency Theories Evaluation (lecture) Contingency Theories: Evaluation ∙ Difficult to develop testable hypotheses ∙ Theories vary in… o whether they consider leader traits o what leader behaviors they consider o the variety of situational variables o whether intervening variables are included ∙ Need to consider behavior patterns and joint effects of situational variables ∙ Assumption of leader flexibility ∙ Not enough research ∙ Complexity inhibits application Guest Speaker 22Dr. Roberts ∙ Her company Valencore o Valens = effectiveness in latin ∙ Founded in April 2014 in San Diego ∙ Leader development and research Offerings ∙ Leadership development o Workshops o 1:1 coaching o Authenticity, mindfulness, feminine leadership o Research based practices ∙ Research consulting o Study design/methodological expertise o Survey design o Analysis o Reporting Highlight Research Projects & Tools ∙ Authenticity Inspiration for Authenticity Workshops ∙ Reflective process: past, present, future selves ∙ Congruence; voice ∙ Well-being ∙ Self-esteem ∙ Self-actualization; life satisfaction What do Leadership Consultants Do? ∙ EXAM?? ∙ Coaching ∙ Design/deliver workshops ∙ Research on leaders ∙ Speaking engagement ∙ Write books, blogs, other content ∙ Internal vs. external to an organization? o Marketing/selling What Does Blanchard do? ∙ Situational Leadership II Model ∙ Startup Leadership non-profit in San Diego help with entrepreneurship for free 23