COMM 170 Mid-Term Exam Study Guide Chapter 1 1. Be able to explain why we should study communication? (Section 1.1) a. to improve your employability b. to improve your relationships c. to improve your health 2. Be able to explain why our society struggles with communication and ways to overcome this. (Section 1.1) 3. BDon't forget about the age old question of compared with a 1-kg block of solid iron, a 2-kg block of solid iron has twice as much
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e able to identify and define the five components of the communication processes (Section 1.2). a. human communication i. making sense ii. sharing sense iii. creating meaning iv. verbal/nonverbal messages b. communication characteristics i. inescapable ii. complicated iii. irreversible iv. complicated v. emphasizes content and relationships vi. governed by rules 4. Explain three communication models (section 1.3) a. action -> message transfer b. interaction -> message exchange c. transaction -> message creation 5. Describe three criteria that can be used to determine whether communication is competent (section 1.4) a. message should be understood b. message should achieve its intended effect c. message should be ethical 6. Describe the nature of communication in the 25th century (section 1.5) a. mediated communication: any comm. expressed via some channel other than those used when we comm. in personb. mass communication: when a mediated message is sent to many people at the same time 7. Identify and explain three communication contexts (section 1.6) a. interpersonal: developing unique relationships b. group: message transactions that occur among three to about fifteen people who share a common goal c. presentational: when a speaker addresses a gathering of people to inform, persuade, or entertain 8. List and explain five fundamental principles of communication (section 1.7) a. be aware of your communication with yourself and others b. effectively use and interpret verbal messages c. effectively use and interpret nonverbal messages d. listen and respond thoughtfully to others e. appropriately adapt messages to others 9. Be able to effectively communicate a message and achieve the desired effect. Also, be able to explain why the former is important to effective communication. (section 1.4) Chapter 2 1. Be able to differentiate between self-concept and self-image (section 2.2) a. self-concept: interior identity b. self-image: view of yourself in a particular situation 2. Discuss the importance of self-awareness in the process of improving one’s communication skills (section 2.1) 3. Be able to define and identify the components of our self-concepts and major influences on the development of self-concept (Section 2.2). a. identity is multidimensional and changing b. identity involves responsiveness to others c. identity develops through both past and present relationships d. we each have two components of our identity i. avowed identity: personally assigned/portrayed ii. ascribed identity: involves characteristics others assign to you 4. Be able to explain the impact self-awareness has on a speech. 5. Describe how gender, social comparisons, self-expectations, and self-fulfilling prophecies affect one’s self-esteem (section 2.3)]a. gender: complex cultural construction including your biological sex, psychological/emotional characteristics, attitudes about appropriate roles/behavior for sexes in society, and sexual orientation b. social comparison: deriving sense of self-worth by measuring self against others c. self-expectations: goals we set for ourselves d. self-fulfilling prophecy: the idea that what you believe about yourself often comes true because you expect it to come true 6. Practice six communication strategies for enhancing one’s self-esteem (section 2.4) a. engage in positive self-talk b. visualization c. reframing d. develop honest relationships e. surround with positive people f. lose baggage 7. Explain the three stages of perception and why people differ in their perceptions of people and events. (section 2.5) a. attention and selection b. organization c. interpretation 8. Be able to expand on problems that can arise from differences in perceived truths. (section 2.6) 9. Summarize three communication strategies that can improve your powers of perception (section 2.6) a. increase your awareness b. avoid stereotypes c. check your perceptions Chapter 3 1. List two reasons why it is important to study verbal communication (section 3.1) a. words are powerful b. you choose language 2. Summarize how words are used as symbols that have denotative, conative, concrete, and abstract meanings and are bound by culture and context (section 3.2) a. denotative: content b. connotative: feelings 3. Identify five primary ways in which words have power (section 3.3)a. the power to create and label experience b. the power to communicate feelings c. the power to affect thoughts and action d. the power to shape and reflect culture e. the power to make and break relationships 4. Describe the major ways in which language reveals bias about race, gender, age, etc. (section 3.4) 5. How does culture impact the effect words have on us as individuals? (section 3.2) 6. Explain how language helps create supportive or defensive communication climates (section 3.5) a. supportive communication: creates a climate of trust, caring, and acceptance b. defensive communication: creates a climate of hostility and mistrust Chapter 4 1. Provide four reasons for studying non-verbal communication (section 4.1) a. nonverbal messages communicate feelings and attitudes b. nonverbal messages are more believable than verbal ones c. nonverbal messages are critical to successful relationships d. nonverbal messages serve multiple functions 2. Discuss six elements that reveal the nature of nonverbal communication (section 4.2) a. culture-bound b. rule-governed c. ambiguous d. continuous e. nonlinguistic f. multichanneled 3. Identify and explain the seven nonverbal communication codes (section 4.3) a. appearance b. body movement, gestures, and posture (kinesics) c. eye contact d. facial expressions e. touch f. the voice g. physical environment, space, and territory 4. Explain Mehrabian’s three-part framework for interpreting nonverbal cues (section 4.4)a. immediacy: nonverbal cues that communicate liking and engender feelings of pleasure and closeness b. arousal: communicate feelings of interest and excitement c. dominance: indicate status, position, and importance Chapter 11 1. List and explain the components of the audience-centered public speaking model (section 11.1) a. select and narrow topic b. determine purpose c. develop central idea d. generate main ideas e. gather supporting material f. organize speech g. rehearse speech h. deliver speech 2. Apply specific strategies for becoming a more confident speaker (section 11.2) a. understand public speaking anxiety b. know how to develop a speech c. be prepared d. focus on your audience e. focus on your message f. give yourself a mental pep talk g. use deep-breathing techniques h. take advantage of opportunities to speak i. explore additional resources 3. Select and narrow a topic for a speech (section 11.3) a. who is the audience? b. what is the occasion? c. what are my interests and experiences? d. conducting silent brainstorming e. scanning web directories and web pages f. listening and reading for topic ideas 4. Write an audience-centered specific-purpose statement for a speech (section 11.4) a. general purpose: to inform, to persuade, to entertainb. specific purpose: an audience-centered behavioral goal for your speech (to know/do/believe after your speech) 5. Develop a central idea for a speech (section 11.5) a. central idea: a definitive point about your topic, a thesis statement i. an audience-centered idea; a single topic; a complete declarative sentence; direct, specific language 6. Generate main ideas from a central idea (section 11.6) a. does the central idea have logical divisions? b. can I think of several reasons the central idea is true? c. can I support the central idea with a series of steps or a chronological sequence? 7. Describe four potential sources and seven types of supporting material for a speech, and use each type effectively (section 11.7) a. yourself b. the internet c. online databases d. traditional library holdings e. types of supporting material i. illustrations, descriptions, explanations, definitions, analogies, statistics, opinions Chapter 12 1. List and explain five strategies for organizing the main ideas of a speech (section 12.1) a. topically b. chronologically c. spatially d. cause-and-effect e. problem-solution 2. Explain six ways to organize the supporting material for a main idea (section 12.2) a. chronology b. primacy c. specificity d. soft-to-hard evidence e. recency f. complexity 3. Use signposts to organize your speech for the ears of others (section 12.3) a. signposting: organizational cues for the audience’s earsi. preview: “tell them what you’re going to tell them” ii. transistions: 1. verbal: enumeration (first, second…), referring to earlier key words/ideas, relationships between ideas (in addition, therefore…) 2. nonverbal: facial expression, pauses, change in pitch/speaking rate, movement iii. summaries: “tell them what you told them” 4. Explain the functions of, and several strategies for, speech introductions and conclusions (section 12.4) a. introduction i. get the audience’s attention ii. introduce the topic iii. give them a reason to listen iv. establish credibility v. state central idea vi. preview main ideas b. conclusion i. summarize, reemphasize the central idea in a memorable way, motivate audience to respond, provide closure (“end with impact”) 5. Develop a preparation outline and speaking notes for a speech (section 12.5) a. speaking notes: less detailed, but all necessary info (notecards) b. preparation outline: a fairly detailed outline of your central idea, main ideas, and supporting materialChapter 13 1. List and describe the four methods of delivery, and provide suggestions for effectively using each one (section 13.1) a. manuscript speaking b. memorized speaking c. impromptu speaking d. extemporaneous speaking 2. List and explain five criteria for effective verbal delivery (section 13.2) a. using words well i. specific, concrete ii. unbiased iii. vivid iv. simple v. correct 3. Identify and illustrate characteristics of effective nonverbal delivery (section 13.3) a. eye contact b. physical delivery c. facial expression d. vocal delivery e. appearance 4. Discuss how to prepare and use presentation aids effectively (section 13.4) a. objects, models, photographs, charts, audio/video, people, drawings, maps, graphs, computer-generated slides b. guidelines: select the right ones, make them easy to see, keep them simple, use them thoughtfully, rehearse with them, focus on audience, explain them, display and discuss, don’t pass them around, use handouts effectively, use small children/animals with caution 5. Make the most of your rehearsal time, and deliver your speech effectively (section 13.5) a. finish your preparation outline several days before you must deliver the speech b. practice, practice, practice! c. use good delivery skills while rehearsing d. if possible, practice your speech for someone e. record your speech, but don’t be overly critical f. recreate the speaking situation in your final rehearsals g. get plenty of rest the night before you speakh. arrive early i. if something unforeseen happens, remain composed as you pause briefly and then pick up where you left off j. seek feedback! 6. Understand and apply criteria for evaluating speeches (section 13.6) a. is it effective? b. is it ethical? Chapter 14 1. Describe five types of informative speeches (section 14.1) a. speeches about objects b. speeches about procedures c. speeches about people d. speeches about events e. speeches about ideas 2. Identify and use appropriate strategies for organizing informative speeches (section 14.2) a. objects: topically, chronologically, spatially b. procedures: chronologically c. people: chronologically, topically d. events: chronologically, topically e. ideas: topically 3. Identify and use strategies for making informative speeches clear (section 14.3) a. simplify ideas b. pace your information flow c. relate new information to old 4. Identify and use strategies or making informative speeches interesting (section 14.4) a. relate to your listeners’ interests b. use attention-getting supporting material c. establish a motive for your audience to listen to you d. use word pictures e. create interesting presentation aids f. use humor 5. Identify and use strategies for making informative speeches memorable (section 14.5) a. build in redundancy i. tell them what you’re going to tell them ii. tell themiii. tell them what you’ve told them b. use adult learning principles i. relevant info they can use immediately ii. active involvement in the learning process iii. connections between the new info and their life experiences c. reinforce key ideas verbally d. reinforce key ideas nonverbally e. be clear, interesting, and memorable Good luck on the midterm, friends! :)