Chapter 6 ∙ Core Knowledge Perspective – idea that infants start life with considerable innate knowledge Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory ▪ Constructivist approach ∙ kids learn from their experiences in their environment ∙ newborns don’t have a lot of built-in structures ∙ onlyIf you want to learn more check out sfsu economics
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at end of second year capable of mental representations (ex: thinking of an object when it’s not there) ▪ Schemes (aka psychological structures) ∙ Can change with age in two ways: ♦ Adaptation ⮚ Assimilation (check if thing that child encountered already “on file”/related to things he/she already knows – if finds a match, it’s assimilation) ▪ Ex: sees tall skinny blue cup when accustomed to fat short purple cup, but still recognizes it as a cup ⮚ Accommodation (doesn’t find a match, re-categorizes as best as he/she can) ▪ Ex: Airplane = “Metal bird” ⮚ Changing balance of the two that gradually leads to more effective schemes = Equilibration ♦ Organization ⮚ Rearrangement of schemes to form interconnected cognitive system ▪ Stages of Development ∙ Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to 2 Years ♦ Substages: ⮚ Stage 1: Reflexes (age 0-1 month) ▪ Unintentional movement ▪ Characteristics of thought with an emphasis on object permanence ⮚ Stage 2: Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months) ▪ Repeating chance behaviors largely motivated by basic needs ▪ What did once by accident, now try to do on purpose (ex: accidentally kicked crib and made mobile move; now tries to do again) ⮚ Stage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months) ▪ Repeating interesting events caused by own actions (ex: kicking crib to move mobile because like when mobile moves) ▪ More initiative/more aware that they are an agent ⮚ Stage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions (8-12 months)▪ Solving simple problems, goal-directed action ▪ Anticipates events, finds hidden objects ▪ Object permanence – understanding object continues to exist when can’t see it ⮚ Stage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) ▪ Exploring objects in novel ways, imitation of novel behavior ▪ Accurate A-B search (example of A-B search experiment: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jW668F7HdA) ⮚ Stage 6: Mental Representation (18-24 months) ▪ Internal depiction of objects, finding hidden objects ▪ Deferred imitation (repeating behavior saw a while ago) ▪ Make-believe play ∙ Crucial to development; ways to enhance make-believe play: ♦ Provide space and materials ♦ Encourage play without controlling it ♦ Offer realistic materials and materials without clear functions (ex: toy cars and dolls; cardboard cylinders and sand) ♦ Help child have many real-world experiences to pull from ♦ Help solve social conflicts constructively (ex: ask “What could you do if you want a turn?”, suggest options if child doesn’t know) ∙ Pre-Operational Stage: 2-7 years ♦ Operations – mental representations that obey logical rules ♦ “Rehearsal for accountability” ♦ Characteristics of thought with emphasis on pre-operations ♦ Egocentric Characteristics: ⮚ Can be limited to one aspect of a situation (Centration) ⮚ Are strongly influenced by appearance (Not reached Conservation yet) ⮚ Find it difficult to reverse processes (Irreversibility) ⮚ Can confuse reality and fantasy (Animistic Thinking) ⮚ Perspective Taking – failure to others’ views from one’s own (ex: Piaget’s Three Mountain Problem – see pg. 244) ♦ Conservation – The understanding that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes ⮚ Child errors because of: ▪ Centration – Tendency to focus on one aspect, while neglecting others ▪ Irreversibility – Inability to mentally reverse a set of steps ⮚ Examples to test: Align two rows of six pennies, “Are there the same number of pennies in each row?”; then transformation: move so one row more spread out and one more close together, “What about now?” – can also use balls of clay that squish and ask if same amount or weigh the same, pour water into different container and ask if same amount ∙ Concrete Operational (7-11) o Thoughts become far more logical, flexible, and organized o Able to pass conservation tasks – shows clear evidence of operations (mental actions that obey logical rules) o Pass Piaget’s class inclusion problem – more aware of classification hierarchies, multiple layers of classes o Seriation – the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, like length or weight ▪ Can also do this mentally, called transitive interference o Better spatial reasoning o Limitations: can’t quite handle abstract though/subjects o Participating in relevant everyday activities helps them master conservation and other Piagetian problems o Research shows that forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks are heavily influenced by training, context, and cultural conditions (not spontaneous) ∙ Formal Operational (11+) o Thought is now capable of abstract, systematic, scientific thinking o Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning (begin with a general theory and deduce and test specific hypotheses) o Propositional Thought (evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world experience) o Consequences of abstract thought: ▪ Revert somewhat to egocentrism – Self-consciousness and self-focusing ▪ Imaginary audience: Adolescents believe they are the focus of everyone else’s attention and concern (everyone is looking at me/judging me for my clothes/bad haircut/acne etc.) ▪ Personal fable: Adolescents believe their own heights and depths are unique and can’t be understood by others o How to help Adolescents: ▪ Elder Russell M. Ballard: “There seems to be something inside each of us that resists being told or pushed or pulled. But if someone puts an arm around a young man [or woman] and walks alongside him [or her], he [or she] is likely to follow along.” ▪ Sensitivity to Public Criticism ∙ Refrain from finding fault in front of others ∙ Speak with the teen privately in a comfortable setting where they are able to share their feelings and experiences∙ Distinguish between principles and preferences o Ex: Clothes shopping and they pick something modest, but ugly/”goth”/doesn’t look good on them, etc. o Don’t create rules based on preferences – only on principles (use For the Strength of Youth) ▪ Exaggerated Sense of Personal Uniqueness ∙ Acknowledge the teen’s unique characteristics ∙ Help teen develop a balanced perspective (others have had similar experiences) ∙ Encourage a desire to serve and appreciate the concerns of others ▪ Idealism and Criticism ∙ Respond patiently to adolescent’s grand expectations ∙ Point our positive features of future goals ∙ Help teen see people and societies as blends of strengths and weaknesses ∙ Help them avoid perfectionism ▪ Difficulty in Decision Making ∙ Refrain from deciding for the adolescents o Don’t be a “helicopter parent” ∙ Offer diplomatic thoughts about pros and cons ∙ Provide reasonable boundaries to help them avoid overly risky situations that would inhibit healthy development ∙ Piagetian classroom o Discovery learning o Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn o Acceptance of individual differences o Ex: Dog Project on Powerpoint slides from 2/9 Research on Piagetian Theory ▪ School age children start developing abstract thinking skills ▪ Formal operations may not be universal o Training and context may contribute o Often fall back on easier thinking Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory ∙ Viewed children as active seekers of knowledge, emphasized the profound effects of rich social and cultural contexts on their thinking ∙ Rejection of an individualistic view of the developing child in favor of a socially formed mind ∙ Children’s Private Speech (self-directed speech)o Vygotsky’s perspective of language as base for all higher cognitive processes o Children speak to themselves for self-guidance; as get older, gets internalized ∙ Zone of Proximal Development – range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of adults and more skilled peers ∙ Scaffolding – adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child’s current level of performance Chapter 7 Information Processing ▪ 4 Components of the Mental System: o Sensory Register ▪ Impressions come in, but you don’t necessarily transfer them to your short-term memory Ex: How many people did you pass on the way to class today? – doesn’t matter, so we didn’t count ▪ If we cared for every little thing we encountered, would be overload and we wouldn’t be able to handle ▪ Sights and sounds are stored only momentarily ▪ Shift from Sensory to Working: Attention o Working Memory ▪ Short-term memory Ex: following a recipe: take note of four ingredients need to grab and get them before referring back to the book for the next ingredients ▪ Information is consciously used and controlled o Central Executive ▪ “Auto-pilot” – we’ve done enough that we don’t have to think about it overly (Ex: How to drive a car, how to eat food/make the bed) – can multitask ▪ Strategies are used flexibly to organize and problem solve o Long-term Memory ▪ Stored away for retrieval later – some more easy to retrieve than others ▪ Information is stored in permanent storage. ▪ Memory o Over time, processing speeds get faster o Strategies for Storing Information: ▪ Rehearsal – Repeating information to remember it ▪ Organization – Organizing or chunking information to remember it ▪ Elaboration – Creating a relation between two or more pieces of information that help you remember ito Recognition (have I seen that before?) vs Recall (remembering exactly what you saw); Reconstruction (How you select, interpret, and reorder events and details as the years pass) o Fuzzy Trace Theory: proposes two types of encoding, one that automatically reconstructs info into a fuzzy version called a gist (especially useful for reasoning) AND another verbatim version that is adapted for answering questions about specifics. ▪ Gist – preserves essential content; less likely to be forgotten, requires less mental energy ▪ Verbatim – preserves the details; more likely to be forgotten, requires more mental energy o Other types of memory: ▪ Autobiographical – Special form of episodic memory – representation of special, one-time events that are long lasting because they are imbued with personal meaning (i.e. graduation day, birth of a child) ▪ Semantic – vast, taxonomically organized and hierarchically structured knowledge system in long-term memory: grows out of the young child’s episodic memory ▪ Scripts – general representations of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation – helps children organize and interpret familiar everyday experiences (i.e. “what do we do at bedtime” – have routine) ▪ Executive Functioning o Early childhood a vital time for laying foundations. Preschoolers make strides in: ▪ Focusing attention ▪ Inhibiting inappropriate responses ▪ Thinking flexibly o School-age period is the most energetic period of the growth of the executive function, handling tasks requiring: ▪ Integration of working memory ▪ Inhibition ▪ Planning ▪ Flexible use of strategies ▪ Self-monitoring ▪ Self-correction of behaviors ▪ Attention o Sustained o Selective o Adaptable o Inhibition – ability to control external and internal distracting stimuliBetter for parents, teacher, etc. to think of “Interest Span” instead of “Attention Span” – help children find activities that build them cognitively that they enjoy/are interested in ▪ Metacognition (thinking about thinking) o I think I can find a way out; I think I know what’s coming next – kids start to develop these thoughts o To help with Cognitive Self-regulation ▪ Stress importance of planful learning (you’re helping them with thinking, not just math) ▪ Suggest effective learning strategies ▪ Emphasize the monitoring of progress ▪ Provide evaluation of strategy effectiveness Home Environment and Mental Development ∙ Shared environmental influences – pervade the general atmosphere of the home, and therefore, similarly affect siblings living in it ∙ Nonshared environmental influences – make siblings different from one another (ex: unique treatment by parents, birth order, special events) Chapter 8 Definitions of Intelligence ∙ Psychometric approach – basis for intelligence tests that asses individual differences in children’s mental abilities. o 1st successful test by Binet in 1905 – provided a single, holistic measure of intelligence ∙ Factor analysis – complicated correlational procedure that identifies sets of test items that cluster together (test –takers who do well on one item in a cluster tend to do well on the others) – distinct clusters = factors ∙ Spearman proposed an underlying general intelligence (g), though acknowledged various types of specific intelligence o Thurstone, in contrast, viewed intelligence as a set of distinct primary mental abilities ∙ Emotional Intelligence – a set of emotional abilities that enable individuals to process and adapt to emotional information ∙ Practical Intelligence – mental abilities apparent in the real world but not in testing situations ∙ Contemporary theorists o Propose hierarchical models of mental abilities o Cattel▪ Crystallized intelligence (skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgment, and master of social customs) ▪ Fluid intelligence (basic info-processing skills – ability to detect relationships among stimuli, the speed with which the individual can analyze information, capacity of working memory; assumed to be influenced by conditions in the brain more than culture) ▪ Attempts to reduce cultural bias in intelligence testing o Carroll ▪ Three-stratum theory of intelligence ∙ most comprehensive factor-analytic classification of mental abilities o *Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory ▪ Analytical Intelligence ▪ Creative Intelligence ▪ Practical Intelligence o *Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences (there are more ways to be intelligent than doing well in school – gives 8 categories:) ▪ Spatial ∙ Ex: good at chess, doesn’t get lost ▪ Linguistic ∙ Ex: reads poetry, gives TED Talks ▪ Logico-Mathematical ∙ Ex: number crunching, sciences ▪ Musical ∙ Ex: composers, play instruments ▪ Intrapersonal ∙ Ex: know yourself, understand weaknesses/strengths ▪ Bodily-Kinesthetic ∙ Ex: athletes, dancers ▪ Naturalist ∙ Ex: survival skills, animal handlers ▪ Interpersonal ∙ Ex: reading other people, understanding social situations Methods of Testing Intelligence ∙ Individual Tests o Standford-Binet o Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV – (WISC-IV) - Fourth edition of test for 6-16 year olds ▪ Offers a measure of general intelligence and a variety of factor scores∙ Factors include: o Verbal reasoning o Perceptual reasoning o Working memory o Processing speed ▪ Intent to downplay crystallized intelligence (emphasizes verbal reasoning only) & study fluid intelligence as well ▪ 1st tests to use samples representing total pop of United States (including minorities) ∙ Aptitude Tests – assess an individual’s potential to learn a specialized activity o SAT o ACT ∙ Achievement Tests – assess actual knowledge and skill attainment o Classroom tests o Infant Tests o Bayley Scales o Fagan Tests ∙ High-Stakes Testing o Often promotes fear and undermines rather than upgrades the quality of education, poor motivator for upgrading teaching and learning, drill-based learning rather than assignments that require high-level reasoning ∙ What Does IQ Predict? o Academic Achievement – correlated w/achievement test scores, grades, and staying in school o Occupational Attainment – predicts well, but nor perfectly – personality, practical intelligence are also important o Psychological Adjustment – moderately correlated, low IQ related to school failure, aggression, delinquency etc. Creativity and Leadership ∙ Creativity o Innovative style of thinking o Perseverance and tolerance of ambiguity o Willingness to take risks o Courage of one’s conviction How to help nurture creativity/talent: ▪ Emphasizing task-focused approach (not rewards) ▪ Providing a rich, stimulating environment ▪ Believing in a child’s creative ability▪ Helping children find their passion ▪ Being a model of creative thinking ∙ Supporting Mathematical Learning o Ordinality: Relationship between quantities ▪ Age 3 – kids begin to count; know little v. lots ▪ Age 4 – can count correctly to ten o Cardinality: Last word indicates the quantity ▪ Age 4: Can using counting to do simple addition o Number sense v. drilling math facts? ▪ Elementary students need both, including time to develop and create strategies for solving problems o Encouraging math skills at home ▪ Counting objects, working with money, playing board games, solving word problems, solving word problems ▪ Practice doesn’t hurt either (drilling math facts) ∙ Supporting Scientific Learning o Skills needed: ▪ Greater working memory ▪ Comparison of theories given the effects of variables ∙ Ex: What’s a way we can keep these apples from going brown before our guests arrive? Do you think lemon juice will work better than lime juice? Than orange juice? ▪ Exposure to increasingly difficult problems ▪ Instruction highlighting the steps of scientific reasoning o Megacognitive understanding (thinking about thinking) – usually not present before adolescence ▪ Thinking about theories ▪ Deliberately isolating variables ▪ Considering all influential variables ▪ Actively seeking disconfirming evidence Chapter 9 Three Theories of Language Development 1) Nativist – Language Acquisition Device (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language through universal grammar ∙ Support for Biological Preparedness – Chomsky o Animals and Language ▪ Language seems to be unique to humans ▪ Brain Structures∙ Regions predisposed to language processing ▪ Sensitive Period ∙ Decline in first-language competence ∙ Language Areas in the Brain o Broca’s Area - a language structure located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex that controls language production o Wernicke’s Area – A language structure located in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for interpreting language 2) Behaviorist – learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement) and imitation 3) Interactionist – Inner capacities and environment work together; Social context is important ∙ Interactionist Perspective – Native capacity + strong desire (to understand and be understood) + rich language environment = children’s discoveries of the functions and regularities of language ∙ Learning Native-Language Sound Categories & Patterns o Categorical Speech Perception – ability to perceive a range of sounds that belong to the same phonemic class o Second half of first year: ▪ Stop attending to non-native language sounds ▪ Focus on phrasing and patterns typical to their native language ∙ Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) o Short sentenceso High-pitched exaggerated expression o Clear pronunciation o Distinct pauses between speech segments o Clear gestures to support meaning o Repetition of new words in a variety of contexts ∙ Becoming a Communicator o Joint Attention – Infant and adult attend to the same object o Protodeclarative – infant directs adult’s attention to an object o Protoimperative – Child gets an adult to do something via gestures ∙ First Speech Sounds o Cooing – pleasant vowel-like noises made by infants, beginning around 2 months of age o Babbling – Repetition of consonant-vowel combinations in long strings, beginning around 4 months of age Four Components of Language: Phonology – the rules governing the structure and sequence of speech sounds ∙ Simplifying hard words (ex: mo’ for more, weddy for ready, pay for play) ∙ Phonological Progress: o Minimal Words (“du” for juice”) o Add ending consonant (“jus” for “juice”) o Adjust vowel length (“beee” for “please”) o Add unstressed syllables (“maedo” for “tomato”) o Produce full word, correct stress pattern, though refinement needed (“pasgetti “ for spaghetti”) ∙ Phonological Development largely complete by age 5, though may still be working on some difficult to understand/pronounce words Semantics – the way underlying concepts are expressed in words ∙ Early Word Types o Object words the majority of early vocabulary, then action words. Modifiers (dirty, pretty), personal/social words (no, please, want), and function words (for, is, to) used much less ∙ Adding Vocabulary o 6 months: Comprehends basic words o 12 months: says first words o 18-24 months: adds 1-2 words per day o Preschool Aged – adds about 9 words each day o By Age 6: have a 10,000 word vocabulary o **Comprehension develops ahead of production**∙ Fast-Mapping – Connecting a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter o Word meaning is deepened after repeated exposures in different situations o Toddlers good at it, preschoolers great at it ∙ Common Word Errors o Overextension – Applying a word too broadly (any four-legged animal is “doggie”) o Underextension – Applying words too narrowly (“bear” means that child’s teddy bear, nothing else) ∙ School-aged kids: o Learn 20 words a day, can understand new word through context o Understand jokes, sarcasm, idioms, multiple meanings of words Grammar ∙ Basic Grammatical Skills o Syntax – ordering words into meaningful sentences o Morphology – use of grammatical markers that indicate number, tense, case, gender, active vs passive voice, etc. ∙ Overregularizations o Making all words plural with “s,” making all verbs past tense with “-ed” ▪ Ex: mouses, goed o Adults can help by recasting (“Yes, there are mice in your book!” “Yes, Daddy went to the store!”) ∙ Help transition of expressing self physically to verbally – “Use your words” and give example of what could say vs “Don’t hit!” Pragmatics – how kids learn to use language appropriately for different settings ∙ Turnabout – taking turns talking and listening – learning to bounce off each other/discuss same topic vs each taking turns telling part of own story ∙ Shading (appears between 5-9 years) – speaker initiates a change of topic gradually by modifying the topic ∙ Illocutionary intent (starting at 3) – understanding what the speaker really means, even if they didn’t express it directly o Ex: “How do we wait in line?” vs explicitly telling them to stop bouncing around and sit quietly; “The trash is really piling up” vs telling to take it out ∙ Sociolinguistic Understanding o Changing speech registers (whisper in sacrament meeting, certain range of vocabulary used in church, also whisper in library) ▪ Way to help is to predispose them - bring this up before go in – prep them so they know to be quiet & why (they won’t necessarily know right away to be quiet); also can explain before that won’t get candy at store because having dessert after dinner to avoid (hopefully) huge fight in aisle ∙ Children’s Narratives o Leapfrog – jumping from one idea or event to another (4 year olds) o Chronological – putting events in a sequence and building towards a high point (4.5-6 yo) o Classic – adds resolution at the end (6 yo) ∙ Individual Differences in Pragmatic Development o Gender o Temperament o Language Style: Referential (talking about objects a lot) vs Expressive (talking about self/social situations a lot) o Language Environment ∙ Benefits For Bilingual Children o Better analytical reasoning o Improved concept formation o Greater cognitive flexibility o Enhanced reading achievement o Both learning at same time and learning one and then the other have benefits (one then the other takes 3 to 5 years to be as good at second) Chapter 10 – Emotional Development Definitions ∙ Emotion – rapid appraisal of the personal significance of a situation, which prepares you for action ∙ Function of emotions – to energize behavior aimed at attaining personal goals ∙ Self-Efficacy – confidence in one’s ability to control events in one’s surrounding ∙ Emotional Self-Regulation – strategies used to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity for achieving personal goals Emotions and Health ∙ Persistent Psychological Stress (anxiety, depression, anger, irritability) leads to a variety of health difficulties (cardiovascular, digestive, depressed immune response) ∙ Children from stress-inducing situations have elevated levels of stress hormone cortisol which leads to persistent illnesses, dietary diseases, learning & behavior problems, and stunted physical growth Basic Emotions∙ Happiness o Social smile (given w/o purpose) – 6-10 weeks o Laughter – 3-4 months o Response to familiar adult – 6 months o Share happiness with others; have developed several smiles – by of 1st year ∙ Anger and Sadness o Generalized distress – birth o More frequent and intense angry expressions – starting 4-6 months o More anger at caregiver due to trust level – older infancy o Temper Tantrums ▪ Tantrums occur because toddler cannot control the intense anger that arises when adults reject their demands, especially when fatigued or hungry ▪ Parents can: ∙ Be sympathetic ∙ Set limits ∙ Distract the child ∙ Fulfill their needs another way ∙ Later suggest better alternatives for their behavior next time ∙ Sadness – less common, often in response to pain and separation from caregiver ∙ Fear and Self-Conscious Emotions o Stranger/Separation Anxiety – 6 months (caregiver forms secure base) o Self-Conscious Emotions (guilt, shame, pride, envy) – in 2nd year ▪ Helping Children Manage Fear ∙ Reduce exposure to frightening stories (they have difficulty distinguishing fantasy from reality) ∙ Provide extra support, but encourage independence (i.e., when separating from trusted adult) ∙ Help children approach through repeated exposure (i.e., animals) ∙ Respect and monitor fears; provide a sage home and secure relationships Achieving Self-Efficacy ∙ Can assess and therefore manage emotions and their expression – by age 6-8 ∙ Engage in two strategies by age 10: o Problem-Centered Coping: coping by doing something about the problem o Emotion-Centered Coping: coping by doing something about the emotion when little can be done about the problemMeasuring the Security of Attachment ∙ Strange Situation – widely used laboratory technique o Stage 1: researcher introduces parent and baby to playroom and then leaves o Stage 2: Parent is seated while baby plays with toys ▪ Attachment Behavior Observed: parent as secure base o Stage 3: Stranger enters, is seated, and talks to parent ▪ Attachment Behavior Observed: Reaction to unfamiliar adult o Stage 4: Parent leaves room; Stranger responds to baby and offers comfort if needed ▪ Attachment Behavior Observed: separation anxiety o Stage 5: Parent returns, greets baby, and offers comfort if needed ▪ Attachment Behavior Observed: Reaction to reunion o Stages 6-8: Parent leaves, stranger soothes parent returns ∙ Secure Attachment – Infants use parent as secure base, cry when parent is absent, but crying immediately reduced when parent returns ∙ Avoidant Attachment – Infants seem unresponsive to parents, act same around stranger as parent/not distressed, slow to go to parent when returns ∙ Resistant Attachment – Infant close to parent/doesn’t explore, distressed when parents leaves, upon return combine clinginess w/angry resistive behavior, many can’t be comforted easily ∙ Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment – reflects the greatest insecurity, upon reunion are confused/show contradictory behaviors, dazed facial expression, some cry out unexpectedly after having calmed down or display odd frozen postures Stages of Attachment ∙ Preattachment o Ex: newborn holding finger ∙ Attachment in the Making o Ex: more aware, coo, smile, look, but not focused on an individual ∙ Clear-cut Attachment o Ex: they know who they clearly attached to ∙ Reciprocal Relationship o Ex: they give you hug and say I love you o Securely attached kids more likely to explore – attachment figure is secure base for child Internal working model∙ Set of expectations derived from early care giving experiences concerning the availability of attachment figures, their likelihood of providing support during times of stress, and the self’s interaction with those figures that affect all future close relationships Developing Empathy ∙ After second year, children become better able to not only sense others’ emotions, but also know how to help ∙ Prosocial behavior (good deeds) Temperament – stable individual differences (in emotional reactions, activity level, attention, and emotional self-regulation) ∙ Two models: o Thomas & Chess ▪ Activity level ▪ Rhythmicity ▪ Distractibility ▪ Approach/Withdrawal ▪ Adaptability ▪ Attention span and persistence ▪ Intensity of reaction ▪ Threshold of responsiveness ▪ Quality of mood o Rothbart ▪ Activity level ▪ Soothability ▪ Attention span/persistence ▪ Fearful distress ▪ Irritable distress ▪ Positive mood o Easy Child (40%) ▪ Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences o Difficult Child (10%) ▪ Irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely o Slow-to-warm-up Child (15%)▪ Reacts negatively to and withdraws from novel stimuli o 35% don’t fit in these categories o Goodness-of-fit model ▪ Thomas & Chess’s model ▪ “good fit” between child-rearing practices and a child’s temperament leads to favorable development and psychological adjustment. “poor fit” = distorted development and maladjustment Interactional Synchrony – Sensitively tuned “emotional dance” – know habits/what makes them laugh, etc. NOTE: SINCE WE HAVE NOT YET COVERED THE LAST OF CHAPTER 10 IN CLASS, IT IS NOT INCLUDED IN THIS STUDY GUIDE. PLEASE REFER TO PAGES 444-445 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK AND TO THE BLUE STUDY SHEET PROFFESSOR HAUPT GAVE US AT THE START OF THE SEMESTER