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UA / Journalism and Mass Communications / MSCM 101 / What is parasocial interaction?

What is parasocial interaction?

What is parasocial interaction?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Journalism and Mass Communications
Course: Intro to Mass Communications
Professor: Chris roberts
Term: Spring 2017
Cost: 50
Name: MC101 Test 2 Study Guide
Description: Lecture and Book Notes
Uploaded: 02/22/2017
7 Pages 48 Views 8 Unlocks

Test 2 Study Guide

What is parasocial interaction?

Chapter 2

Start with WWI propaganda:

- Americans and Germans started making posters to suggest that  God was on their side of the war  

- WWII too  

Models of Mass Communication:

- Hot Media: require you to pay attention  

- Cold Media: don’t require you to pay as much attention  Ways to approach how media affects us:

- Direct effects:the idea that media almost hypnotize you  - “Vaccine” theory (Bullet theory): idea that if I tell you

a message you will believe it

- No one today thinks it’s accurate  

- Limited effects: media don’t have much of an effect  

- The two-step flow:

- Mass Media

- Opinion givers

What do you mean by correlation?

- Opinion receivers  

- Mixed effects: media affect different people in different ways at  different times  

- Ideas:  

- Media are gatekeepers: decide what  

does/doesn’t get in

- Nearly everything gets  


- Media set agendas: Media don’t tell us  

what to think, they tell us what to think about

- Agendas change over time  

- Uses and Gratifications:

- “Personal Relationships”: we learn about  

the world and have relationships with celebrities  

- Parasocial Interaction 

- Social Learning Theory: the idea that we  Don't forget about the age old question of What was the snake goddess scultpure during the crete time made of?

learn what to do/not do etc. through our society  

What is the theory of social learning?

- Third Person Effect: the idea that media  

affect other people more than it affects us  

- Spiral of Silence: we want to be in the  

majority, so we’re quiet when we’re in the minority  

- Cumulative Effects Theory:if you see  

something one time it won’t affect you, but the more you  see it the more it will affect you

- Consistency Theory: we cheese media  

that are consistent with our beliefs, and that reinforce what we already believe

- Cognitive Dissonance:  

competing ideas in your head  

- Individual Differences Theory: different  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of installment accounts receivable?

groups and different individuals are different, and we find  

different ways to reach them  Don't forget about the age old question of Which types of study can be facilitated to observe unconscious bias?

- Cultivation Theory: media grow/cultivate  

us to think about the world in ways that may not always be accurate  


Parasocial Interaction: a fan’s “relationship” with a media figure (one-way  relationship)  

Critical Theory: seeks to confront the social, historical, and ideological forces  and structures that produce and constrain it 

Geographics: where people live 

Demographics: gender, race, ethnic background, income, education, age,  educational attainment  

Psychographics: a combination of demographics, lifestyle characteristics, and product usage  Don't forget about the age old question of What happens beyond the dead?

Surveillance: the media show us what is happening not only within our own  culture, but in other societies as well  

Status Conferral: media coverage exposes individuals to large audiences, so  they seem important  

Correlation: the selection, evaluation, and interpretation of events to impose  structure on the news  

Socialization: the process of integrating people within society through the  transmission of values, social norms, and knowledge to new members of the  group  

Entertainment: communication designed primarily to amuse, even if it serves other functions as well  

Agenda Setting Theory: Provides an alternative explanation that does not  minimize the influence of the media on society  

Uses and Gratification Theory: instead of looking at the audience as a sheep like mass of receivers of messages, uses and gratifications theory views  audience members as active receivers of information of their own choosing  Social Learning Theory: we are able to learn by observing what others do and the consequences they face Don't forget about the age old question of What molecules pass through a cellular plasma membrane?

Symbolic Interactionism: what holds us together as a culture is our common  creation of society through our interactions based on language  Spiral of Silence: societies function on the basis of perceived consensus  Media Logic: an approach to analyzing the effects of mass media Cultivation Analysis: examines the long-term effects of TV  Theory: a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that  explains or predicts events or situations by specifying relations among  variables 

Chapter 13

First Amendment:

Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition  

Levels of Protection for speech in the US (PACI)

1. Political Speech

2. Artistic Speech

3. Commercial Speech

4. Indecent Speech  We also discuss several other topics like How many were the civilian deaths during wwii?

The Key Areas of Media Law:

- Personal Rights

- Defamation/ Libel & Privacy  

For it to be Libel it must be:


- Published  

- Identified

- Inaccurate

- Hurt Reputation


- Published

- Identified

- Inaccurate

- Hurt reputation  

- Reckless disregard for

the truth and/or actual  


(hard to win a libel case if you are a public figure)

- NY Times vs. Sullivan:

- An ad was placed in the NYT  

and said bad things were happening about civil  

rights, mentioned arresting people in Montgomery  

and the fact was incorrect, Sullivan (chief of police)  

sued the NYT

- Created a higher standard for

public figures  

- Intellectual Property Rights: The idea that under copyright law  and trademark law you have the right to make money on your creative  works as long as they are in fixed form  

- News-Gathering Rights: rights all of us have to know what our  government is doing

- Sunshine Law: access to government meetings  

- Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): access to  

documents created by the government  

- Shield Laws: rights of reporters to not reveal  

confidential sources

- Only applies to journalists  

Balancing free speech vs. other interests:

- Congress is balancing your 1st amendment rights by something  that may be more important to them/the government  

- Political Speech  

- Public airwaves

- The internet gets the same protection as print news  

- National security  

- Public endangerment  

- Time, Place and Manner  

Things to Remember:  

- America founded on the freedom/libertarian theory

- The congress never says who they define as the press  


Alien and Sedition Acts: not allowed to talk negatively about the US or its  officials

Prior Restraint: when the government says you’re not allowed to say/print  something (a form of censorship)

“Fair Comment”: opinions are protected under the first amendment  Privilege: the idea that statements made in government meetings, in court,  or in government documents cannot be used as the basis for a libel suit  Actual Malice: a reckless disregard for the truth or falsity of a published  account  

Intrusion: invasion of privacy by physical trespass into a space surrounding a  person’s body or onto property under his or her control  

False Light: occurs when a journalist publishes untrue statements that alter  an individual’s public image in a way that he or she cannot control

Misappropriation: using a person’s name or image for commercial purposes  without his or her permission  

Shield Laws: protect journalists from having to testify in court under certain  circumstances, but there is no federal shield law in place currently  Obscenity: describes sexually explicit material that is legally prohibited from  being published  

Net Neutrality: rules that would require internet providers to provide equal  access to content from all providers  

Chapter 14

­ There is a Difference between obscenity and pornography  - Obscenity has very little first amendment protection

- Usually not legal  

- Pornography does

- Usually legal  

*Indecent speech gets the least amount of protection  

- Just because it is legal doesn’t mean it’s ethical

- Law and Ethics aren’t the same  

- Codes of Ethics: Most organizations have them (PRSSA, SPJ, etc.)  - Can vary by interests  

Some ethical approaches:

- Virtue: somewhere between excess and deficiency is the right  thing to do  

- Categorical Imperative (Absolutists): you decide what the rule is  and everyone else has to follow

- Do only what you want to be a “universal law”

- Treat people as ends and not as a means  

- Utility: Doing the least harm and the most good, but don’t treat  people as a means to an end  

- Duty based: Don’t worry about the consequences  

- Situational Ethics: Worry about what the  

consequences might be  

- Veil of ignorance: do the most good for the least among us  


Morals: refer to a religious or philosophical code of behavior that may or may not be rational  

Ethics: the rational way to decide what is good for individuals or society

Golden Mean: “a just right point between excess and defect”  Categorical Imperative: “act as if the maxim of your action were to become  through your will a universal law of nature”  

Veil of Ignorance: a principle of ethics that says that justice emerges when  we make decisions without considering that status of the people involved  and without considering where we personally fall in the social system  Sensationalism: coverage of events that is lurid and highly emotional  Tabloid Laundering/ Tabloidization: when respectable media report on what  the tabloids are reporting  

Ombudsman (the reader’s representative/ audience advocate): takes the  point of view of those who purchase or consume the news  #Gamergate: concerns about ethics in video game journalism  Social Justice Warriors (#SJW): people promoting enhanced roles for women  in geek culture  


Individual Differences Theory: Need to know who they are so we can predict  how they will react to media messages  

Mass Media research types:

- Theoretical research: creating theories to understand the world - Applied research: trying to figure out answers to specific  questions

Measuring audience size and characteristics (Media Researchers)  - Radio: Neilsen Audio  

- TV: Neilsen  

- Internet: Comscore

- Print: Alliance for Audited Media  

- Marketing: Scarborough Research  

- Public Opinion: lots of companies  

Polling and Other Research Methods:  

- 384 +/- is a magic number: poll this many people and results will  be within 5% point of “reality” 95% of the time  

- The normal distribution curve  

- Confidence Interval/Margin of Error: plus-or-minus  

figure that tells you the range of where reality is

- Confidence Level: how sure you are that reality is  

within the “confidence interval”  

- Scientific polls can work when:

- Everyone in the population has an equal  

chance of being selected  

- Questions are well written, including the  

order they are put in  

- More precision requires polling more people  

- Other Poll Types:

- Straw Polls (nonscientific)

- Never rely on them  

- Focus Groups  

“Luddites”: afraid of technology and think it will ruin everything  Postman: “The Medium is the metaphor”  

- Particular medium can only sustain a particular level of ideas  - Images do not make assertions, printed words make assertions  


- The 2 Million Poll: predicted that Landon would win with 60% of  votes  

­ The 50,000 poll: predicted that FDR would win by a landslide

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