DHD notes-monday 1/23/17 • political/relational model of disability • disabled in relation to able-bodied/able-minded • what is the result? • including disabled people when we imagine a perfect future • Where does the problem lie? • within us and societalWe also discuss several other topics like cpsc 2070 clemson
Don't forget about the age old question of ie 3301 uta
We also discuss several other topics like maria morales fsu
Don't forget about the age old question of gdpdef
Don't forget about the age old question of ○ How much output can a firm produce?
If you want to learn more check out ece 2040 gatech
norms • limited utility of impairment/disability split • for her: “both are social” (Kafer) • able- bodiedness/ableism influence all, not just disabled people • what does self-evident mean? • when something makes a lot of sense to you • what is her critique of disability simulations? • no one simulation will show the true feeling of having that disability in all aspects • neither individual/medical nor social model • politics of medical approaches to disability • (re)politicizes disability; we need to rethink how we are politicizing disability • disability in social context (time/place/power) • “set of practices” • How do we study disability? • how=methodology • how do we define disability? • how do we ask questions? • who do we include and leave out? • disability as…..-we study it through…. • Personal narrative-life stories, interviews • impairment category-functional assessment, survey • embodied experience- interviews • identity- interviews, surveys • person/environment interaction- environmental assessments, surveys, interviews • social/ political/legal category- discourse analysis, surveys, interviews • cultural narrative- discourse analysis, representations, interviews • key concepts in disability measurement • activities of daily living (ADLs) • related to body and needed to live • feeding• bathing • grooming • toileting • transferring • Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) • related to living independently • light/heavy housework • laundry • food shopping • meal prep • transportation to/from medical appointments • money management • medication management • telephone assistance • cueing • Disability in the US in 2010 • 56.7 million people • almost 20% of US • 12.3 million people (6+) • needed help with 1 or more ADL or IADL • disability associated with lower rates of employment • higher rate of poverty • a greater percentage of women reported disability than men • racial differences in disability • asian, not hispanic- 14.6% • white, not hispanic- 18.1% • black, not hispanic- 23.3% • hispanic or latino- 18.4% Disability (re)presentations and the arts • why do we study disability? historians respond • studying disability is about liberation, reclaiming stories previously untold • call women hysterical to belittle their voice; call black people uneducated to take away their credibility • look at: • what does it mean to be human? • how can we respond ethically to difference• what is the value of human life? • who decides these questions? • sociologists respond • disability is a social category • it is a politicized set of embodied experiences • to understand experiences of the body/mind in relation to the social and political environment • people with disabilities have been actively involved in creating social change: • to recognize people with disabilities as active participants in society, engaged in resistance • new words/concepts (Garland Thompson) • representation or (re)presentation • (re)= process, occurring again and again • representation- how the normal, the privileged speak for the less powerful; who writes the scripts? who plays the parts? who tells the stories? • disability as identity • identity= who you are, how you present yourself • identity is often in conflict with presentation • disability as difference • difference= how does society address (control) those who present differently, how does this relate to disability? • “corporeal otherness” • corporeal- the body • otherness- difference that results in negative treatment • “American Self-making” • self making- how one presents identity to navigate systems of privilege/marginalization, passing (people don’t necessarily see disabilities all the time so people try to “pass” as being “normal”) • “privileged norm” • privileged= power • norm+ group of people, based on idea of normal, normal is socially constructed not biological or natural • “To denaturalize the cultural encoding of those extraordinary bodies…” • we are prepared to expect a certain set of norms… we don’t need to be this way, change the way we think about it; embody disability and think about it differently • marginalized• when something is pushed to the margin and often looked over or neglected; re-centering puts these things in the middle • introducing the normate • “mutually constituting figure” • key concept in literary criticism for disability studies • neologism:a word that is coined to explain a concept that you dont have a word for yet • how does this relate to the concept of dichotomy? • “normate is the constructed identity of those who, by way of the bodily configurations and cultural capital they assume, a step into a position of authority and wield the power it grants them” • essentially someone who can “pass” • disabled figure in literature • how does Garland Thompson understand the relationship between disabled people in literature and people with disabilities? • who gets to write about the disabled body? What cultural work does it do? • non disabled people who don’t understand it fully and end up reinforcing the stigma involved with disabilities • example: million dollar baby- main character is killed because she wanted to die and didn’t see a life worth living with her disability… in real life she lived and went on to become an artist • within movies physical disabilities are seen as evil- captain hook, scar • Riva Lehrer- artist (usually portraits) • she starts a portrait, then leaves the portrait alone with the subject for a day or so to let them do what they want with it. When she comes back, she incorporates whatever they did to the portrait into it. The extreme consent is on her part by allowing the subject to do whatever they want • What is consent? • Extreme consent: She is giving her consent for them to do what they want and be in her home, as the subject is also giving their consent to be painted. • mutual vulnerability: both sides are responsible and vulnerable • how does this relate to our understanding of representations? • allows people to choose how they are represented by themselves and by others • What makes Riva’s representations different from other representations of disabled people?• she, herself is disabled which affects how she portrays others with disabilities Disability coming to America through indigenous people (1/30/17) • cultural pluralism: multiple cultures/nations coexisting • disability in communities, pre-conquest • pre-conquest=before the Europeans came over (1500’s) • most indigenous languages did not have a word for “disability” • instead, recognized that each individual had a unique gift for community • focus on individual in relation to community, not individual deficits or impairments; everyone had different things to add • focused on reciprocity: relations between people, people help you if you help them • disability did not exclude people from participation • body, spirit, and mind • ALL people had gifts to offer the community • the goal was harmony (balance) • physical variation/difference might signal imbalance • rituals to address this • How did someone function as a member of the community? • communicating with spirits • leading the tribe • producing clay pots • how does this differ from a modern, western notion of functional capacity? • capitalism teaches us dependency is a bad thing • we no longer value human variation • through colonization we lost the collectivistic influence • disability in tribal life • reasons for bodily variation: • birth • weather (frostbite) • war • hunting (animals) • reproduction (pregnancy/childbirth) • aging (experience was valued) • certain cultures had notions of ideal (Hopi)• wouldn’t allow someone who had an impairment to become a leader • assistance offered to leaders who acquired impairment (Iroquois) • Significance of indigenous signed languages • multiple signed languages • people born deaf were part of tribal communication • signed languages shared across tribes • allowed for communication between tribes • trade • cultures • stories • Lavonna Lovern • framework • justice • social construction • ontology: study of being; existing • epistemology: the study of knowledge • de-colonization of knowledge • recognizing dominant Eurocentric models of knowing as the the only or correct ways • just the most visible, present • engaged in the silencing, rejection of other ways • reorienting our understanding • mis-translation of history of signed language • more than just language- system of cultural symbols and building blocks • ex. nation state as superior to “primitive” forms of communal living governance • interdependence: “all my relations” • relationships are more than just between humans • animals, plants, spirit world, elements (environment) • caring- not just for individual, family • community focused • negative obligation: “do no harm” • negative liberties (things that are not being done so that we can live freely) • positive obligations: • provide assistance to others • harmony• not about control (specifically of nature) • think of dams, weather reports, etc. • trying to stop climate change • “balance in chaos” • appreciation for constant change • “normalcy” • balance of person with “all my relations” discussion-2/3/17 • two types of language • person first • “person with a disability” • views disability as a person not a thing • shows that people with disabilities are still people • “a person with autism” • identity language • “disabled person” • “autistic” • Emily Ladua • “disabled person” is a term of pride • it is part of her identity and life • she embraces that it is a part of her • disability, for her, is an identifier, like gender or race • her main message: ask the person in order to know which language to use; pay attention to how people refer to themselves and then refer to them the same way. • respect their choice because that is how they choose to represent themselves. Notes- Monday 2/6/17 • European interaction with indigenous peoples • facial hair • examples of social construction of “normal” • attribution of values based on visual presentation • example: having a beard in a deaf community would be a disability- people can’t read their lips when they speak • signed languages • indigenous peoples well before europeans• pedro ponce de leon (1500’s) • established first school for the deaf • deaf schools arrived in US in 1817 • where American Sign Language develops (ASL) • disease and epidemics in the new world • what were the consequences of disease epidemics on indigenous communities? • lost their culture- people were dying out and the young were struggling to survive… were not focused on culture when struggling to survive • disability- changed how disability were viewed when europeans came over; more stressed because the disabled were vulnerable and would be the first to die; “killed off” people with disabilities • disrupted planting cycles (food) • those aged 15-40, the active laborers hit the hardest • lack of water, food, meat • disrupted social cycles (caring) • loss of physical caring • loss of cultural traditions • bodily/behavioral presentation: which bodies/behaviors were acceptable? • bodily variation was common • key defining characteristic • ability to engage in labor • bodily availability did not affect this • mental variability was thought to prevent labor (not appreciated) • variability in desired bodies- based on reason for settlement (plymouth vs. Massachusetts colonies) • trade, military, long-term settlement, etc. • social policy for settlements • idiots • distracted persons: people who were seen as having temporary disabilities or late onset that would come and go (schizophrenia) • mental disabilities in the early colonies: who bore responsibility? • families (1st) • financial and social responsibility • vulnerable to abuse/exploitation • communities (2nd) • idiots and lunatics were undesirable• took responsibility for “insane” or people seen as potentially violent • they wanted new settlers to prove they could support themselves economically/contribute economically to the community • intersectionality: disability, race, class, gender • disability defined in ways the emphasized intersectionality; viewed different based on section • this is an intersectional analysis/approach • multiple unique experiences of disability: • european settler women of financial means • european settler women of limited means • european men of financial means • european men of limited means • indigenous people • african slaves • women and monstrous births • women were blamed for children who were born that did not conform to bodily standards • disability as sin • examples: • Anne hutchinson • challenged prevailing protestant ideas • belief would lead to salvation, not purely work • Mary dyer • quaker in puritan dominated culture • her dead, stillborn child was exhumed after burial and put on display • monstrous births used as way to discipline women who threatened social order Slavery, Motherhood, Disability (wednesday 2/8/17) • introducing: Jennifer Barclay • Washington state university • work focuses on: • human beings as human beings • contextualizing: understanding the environment around what you are looking at and how the environment affects it • systems of power • systems of caring • power, agency• what years are we talking about? • antebellum • before the civil war • 1812-1861 • what does she examine? • first person accounts (slave narratives) • over 80% were younger than 15 when enslaved • Motherhood: enslaved African Experience • love between mother and child • “free”/“slave” status determined by mother • reproduction seen as a way of continuing slavery • breeding like with animals • structures expose women to violence to continue slavery • sexual, emotional, physical • slavery itself impacted motherhood • could produce disability in children and mothers • women valued on their ability to produce offspring capable of working • disabled people were seen as a loss of investment because they could not work. • mothering and children with disabilities • Lizzie Davis- mother’s presence vs. absence • “corrective” surgeries on children with disabilities • owners motivation was to have them able to work • Who provided care? • removed from home • owner could also refuse to provide the care • would just get rid of them and send them off on their own • balancing reproductive value with “useless” child • value of child with disabilities • medical observation • freakery/curiosity • Millie/Christine McKoy Disability in the Late American Colonies (2/13/17) • Disability in the late colonial period: 1700-1776 • colonial communities and the beginning of institutionalization• disease and continued destruction of indigenous communities • African Slave trade and disability • Who provided care for European colonists with bodily and mental variation? • Families • economic responsibility • communities • economic responsibility • Almshouses • Professionals • seeking cure • reliance on new knowledge • Almshouses • Alms is greek/latin for compassion • Alms for the poor • How does this relate to the reason Almshouses were created? • How does this differ from how they functioned? • people in Almshouses can come and go as they wish, where as people in asylums were confined and not allowed to leave; People in Almshouses were still a part of society where as people in asylums were removed from their communities. • How did gender influence the treatment of people who were deemed “confused, far gone, or crazy”? • women were seen as worse than men • disability often used as a way to invalidate women’s voices and experiences • people with disabilities often seem as feminized subjects • what was the consequence for the family if the male worker of the family was injured to an extent that impacted his work • they would try to find him another job that he could do • if they could not find him another job then he would not be able to provide for his family anymore so they would be poor and potentially lose everything. The family may not even stay together as he may have to leave for an almshouse. The woman might have to work which would lower the families status anymore. • what continued to have the greatest impact on indigenous populations during this time? • diseases • understanding slavery in the colonial period• Africans were brought to “new world” against their will and many died in transport (on land and by sea) • in 1619, 20 “indentured servants” • by 1700, 20,000 slaves • 1/2 the size of the UIC student population • by 1790, nearly 700,000 slaves • 25% of Chicago population • desirable bodies: African slaves • desired by whom? • slave traders and owners • for what purpose? • how effective they could be in their work • what characteristics made Africans undesirable? • height (not tall enough to be good) • age (too young or too old) • “deformed” or “defective” (often times babies were sent off to be fixed or they were killed • history of illness • what happened to those sold into slavery but deemed undesirable? • some that couldn’t be fixed but were interesting enough, were put on exhibit with freak shows or used for medical examination • people that fell in the middle between desirable & too disabled (older, too short, blind in one eye): • Refuse: refers to them as trash and disposable • dehumanizes them further • left to starve or die • undesirable bodies: African Slaves • what happened on Le Rodeur? • disease was rampant on the slave ship Le Rodeur on its way to North America. People began to lose their eye sight and if left untreated they would die. Many lost vision in one eye, including the captain. Some lost vision in both including the surgeon. It swept through the slave cabin. Many of the slaves lost their vision. When they arrived in the US they were killed because they were not deemed “sellable”. The essence of dehumanizing individuals as if they are a bad crop. • intersection of race, disability, capitalism (greed) Disability in the US between the revolution and the civil war (wednesday 2/15/17)• great powers of the time • britain fighting with french and spanish • colonists fighting king George • declaration of Independence (1776) • revolutionary though • democracy • citizens had rights, could self govern • but which citizens? • by what processes could citizens be deemed fit/unfit • what to do with those deemed unfit? • disabled war veterans • after revolutionary war: • 87% of those seeking military pension • disability: for slavery, for freedom? • racists, slave owners • used disability to justify “logic” of slavery • abolitionists • used disability to argue for freedom, end of slavery • disability seen as pity, not survivors • effects of slavery on the body • slavery exposed people to abuse with lasting physical and psychological consequences • determining labor capacity among slaves • soundness • measure of ability to work • included more than just physical dimensions (mental, emotional, etc.) • malingering and fakery • threat to economic productivity • threat to moral and intellectual superiority of slave owning class • How unsound? • those deemed unsound • still worked but held positions that were undervalued • midwives • cooks for other africans • not “productive” for slave owners • not the same as not productive• disability experiences of enslaved african american women • what were specific challenges that enslaved African American women experienced related to disability? • could not care for all of their kids if one child had a disability • not given opportunity to decrease amount of work they did when they were pregnant • giving birth can be disabling because it causes a lack of mobility • what unique risk did enslaved African American children born with disabilities experience? • being separated from their families as well as being sent away for protective surgeries • were killed sometimes because their lives weren’t believed to be worthy of lives • sold for freak shows • Who was Dr. John Marion Sims? • the father of modern gynecology (focuses on women’s reproductive health) • often operated on African American women without anesthesia and also without their consent • African American communities: care for all, freedom for whom? • care was shared across community • mothers could be separated from children • elderly were not located near family • slave owners “released” • slaves with disabilities • older slaves • could not take care of themselves, would starve and die Disability in the US: The revolution to the civil war (1776-1865) • counting disability and race: 1830s and 1840s • US census • “deaf and dumb” • blind • “deaf, dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or convict?”- 1850 • by race- black and white (in 1850, free or slave) • more african americans in disability categories than actually lived in these communities • argued freedom was bad because slaves need to be cared for by their owners. • what (exactly) is citizenship?• liberal citizenship (passive citizenship- don’t have to do anything…born in US means US citizen) • civil (18th century)- rights necessary for individual freedom: • liberty of the person, freedom of speech, thought and faith, the right to own property, and the right to justice • political (19th century)- right to participate in the exercise of political power, as a member of a body invested with political authority or as an elector of the members of such a body • social (20th century)- range from the right to a modicum of economic welfare and security to the right to share to the full in the social heritage and to live the life of a civilized being according to the standards prevailing in the society. • active vs. passive • stigma of welfare and dependency • constructing the “good citizen” • passive- don’t have to do anything to become a citizen… you simply are. • at this point in Nielson’s book white men are passive citizens… they are automatically citizens in the new republic • active- have to earn citizenship • African American slaves can work for their citizenship by being in the military • T.H. Marshall Definition (1950)- “citizenship is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess the status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the status is bestowed” • Key elements of citizenship • membership of a community • rights and obligations attendant to membership • equality • assumption of liberalism • that citizens are rational, independent agents • ID as exclusion criteria for citizenship • need to redefine roles of competence, independence, and equality • positive rights and negative liberties • both constrained by social institutions and relational patterns • negative liberty- freedom from something • freedom from search without a warrant • positive rights- freedom to do something• freedom to vote • shifts in power in the early republic • shift away from family as primary responsibility to community responsibility of disabled people • eventually to greater power of medicine • determine if someone had a condition • as well as treat • determine who goes into institutions and why • institutionalization and education • belief that they needed religion to be saved • goal was to educate them • American Asylum for the Deaf • Hartford, CT (1817) • National Deaf-Mute College • Washington D.C. (1864) • now called Gallaudet University • only 4 year liberal arts college for deaf people • Perkins school for the bind • samuel Gridley Howe • Boston, MA (1829) • students included Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller • Southern States • fewer opportunities for deaf or blind education • segregated, if existed • madness, disability, and institutionalization • 1825 • madness became a disease