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PENN STATE / Art History / ART H 100 / What did muhammad want to remove out of the kaaba?

What did muhammad want to remove out of the kaaba?

What did muhammad want to remove out of the kaaba?


School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Art History
Course: Concepts and Creation in the Visual Arts
Professor: Catherine kupiec
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Art, history, Art History, Islamic Art, RomanesqueArt, and medieval art
Cost: 25
Name: Islamic and Medieval and Romanesque Art
Description: Islamic: covers required images, vocab, comparison with Byzantine Christian art, and background info on the belief system Medieval and Romanesque: covers required images, vocab, comparison with Islamic art, and looks into architecture, manuscripts, and metalworking
Uploaded: 02/22/2017
5 Pages 150 Views 3 Unlocks

Art History: Week 7 Notes

What did muhammad wanted to remove out of the kaaba?

Islamic Art 

A. Islam 

a. Muhammed- founder of Islam; Islam= submission to the one God;

b. Qur’an- holy scriptures of Islam

c. Five Pillars of Faith 

i. One God and Muhammed the messenger

ii. Prayer: 5 times a day facing Mecca

iii. Voluntary Alms giving

iv. Ramadan- religious month; fast from dawn to dusk

v. Pilgrimage to Mecca if possible

d. Mosque- inspired by where Muhammed stayed in Medina when he fled Mecca B. Pre-Mosque Architecture 

a. Kaaba- Abrahamic alter in Mecca which Muslims make pilgrimage to;  Muhammed removed the idols

Why is the dome of the rock an important islamic building?

b. Byzantine-like Structures 

i. Centrally planned- central plan around important aspect of building (such  as rock for the Dome of the rock); no axis for support (disadvantage) If you want to learn more check out How many components do the skeletal system have and what are they?

ii. Ambulatories- for people to wonder (buildings meant for large amounts  of people); two paths allowed for better flow (no cross-traffic)

c. Aniconic Art- art which doesn’t permit the depiction of figures (animals or  humans)

d. Non-Figural Art- calligraphy and geometric patterning used instead of depictions  of figures; large emphasis or color as well

C. Mosque 

What are the types of arabic calligraphy?

a. For individual prayer of multiple people; not for sermons/liturgies

b. Qibla Wall- singular wall in mosque which points towards Mecca

c. Mihrab- mark of some sort on qibla wall which identifies it as the wall which  faces Mecca; two mihrabs on the wall

d. Minaret- tower where it is announced it is time to pray; 8 of these in mosque e. Hypostyle Hall- filled with columns to create order and repetition; not for  structural purposes We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of teleology?

f. Medina: reflects Muhammed’s house in Medina

g. Prayer Hall of Great Mosque (Required)

i. Location: Cordoba, Spain

ii. Columns/Arches:

1. Horseshoe Arch- arch which has more of a circular for than arch;  

in between semicircle and full circle

2. Double Arches- columns were from something else and weren’t as  high as wanted so adding an arch on top of the arch allowed for a  

higher ceiling  

3. Repetition and Order: white and red stripes further the order and  repletion from the hypostyle hall

iii. Mirab:

1. Horseshoe niche which mars qibla wall

2. Decoration: Calligraphy above geometric pattern which encases a  series of patterns around the arch

iv. Masqura Area- hall reserved for the ruler in front of the mirab niche; only  use of hierarchy in mosque

D. Scripture

a. Byzantine Vocab- calligraphy, manuscript, and vellum parchment

b. Kufic Script- calligraphy which focuses on straight vertical and horizontal lines;  less curved; Arabic

c. Qur’an Page with Beginning of Surah 18 (Required) We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of the industrial revolution in sociology?

i. Material: gold and ink on vellum

ii. Read: from right to left

iii. Gold Depiction 

1. Tree: marks where to begin reading (right)

2. Script within golden design

iv. Calligraphy: the focus of the page and the main decoration

v. Red Dots- indicate where vowels are (no vowels in alphabet)

d. Compared to Byzantine Style 

i. Ornamental: expensive material used (gold/silver and vellum) If you want to learn more check out Why is a pet scan more accurate than a spect scan?

ii. Calligraphy: Christian’s is more compact and cruved; Islamic is larger and  in kufic style

iii. Imagery: Christian’s main focus is the imagery which depicts figures and  narrative; Islam’s is simplistic and does not use figures but calligraphy  inside the gold and patterning instead

iv. Orientation: Christian’s is vertical which utilizes more space; Islam’s is  horizontal which, though is less practical, further shows the emphasis on  the calligraphy as the focal point

E. Pyxis of Al-Mughira (Required)

a. Material: ivory We also discuss several other topics like What are the short segments of either dna or rna that serve as the start of dna synthesis?

b. General Info: for prince Mughira; Cordoba, Spain; 968 CE; 5⅞” high c. Non-Religious Don't forget about the age old question of What are the formed elements of blood?

i. Depiction of figures shows it is not a religious piece

ii. Hunting: two animals on one side being hunted

iii. Musicians: play the flute; one possibly Prince al-Mughira

d. Calligraphic Inscription: “God’s blessings, favors, and happiness to al-Mughira…”;  top of sculpture in Arabic

Art History: Week 7 Notes

Early Medieval, Romanesque Art 

A. Medieval 

a. Metalwork- used to decorate books purses, and other objects

b. Manuscripts 

i. Carpet Page- page before gospel (religious manuscripts of the time)  

began; no words just images and designs

ii. Initial Page- first page of gospel with first few letters of page/whole  

passage of page (usually the most important passage of gospel)

ornamented and filled with images/designs

iii. Vellum- the word of god written on the flesh (god is the body Eucharist like)

c. Chi Ro Iota Page (Required)

i. Material: ink and pigments on vellum parchment

ii. General Info: Scotland; 8th/9th century CE

iii. Book of Kells: gospel book for religious men only (priest, monks, other  clergy); displayed on church alter in ornamental metalwork box

iv. Writing: “Chi Ro Iota” means “Christ”; passage “Now this is how the birth  of Christ came about”

v. Images:

1. Angels- in and around letters; meant to be watching over nativity

2. Moths- flying meant to show divinity/closeness to heaven

3. Mice: two mice (disorder) fighting over Eucharist being watched  

by two cats (clergy)

4. Otter and Fish: otter = people; fish = Christ who is nourishment

for his people

vi. Compared to Islamic Manuscripts: imagery included since not seen as  idolatry

B. Romanesque Churches/Relics 

a. Relics- parts of saints/holy people inside churches which people will pilgrimage  to

b. Tympanum- pediment relief sculpture at entry of church; images meant to make  people focus on why they are there

c. Sacra Furta- “sacred theft”; thought if saint didn’t want relic to leave its place  they would prevent their relic from being stolen; theft that is okay 

d. Radiating Chapel- chapels which were on the perimeter of the building in  separate spaces which allowed for relics to have own alter and space for people  to pray in

e. Sain-Serin (Required)

i. Location: Toulouse, France

ii. Romanesque church which held multiple relics

iii. Anatomy: nave with ambulatory and two aisles on each side; radiating  chapels on curved part of cross shaped church  

f. Reliquary of Sainte Foy (Required)

i. Material: gold, silver, jewels, and cameos over wood  


ii. General Info: Saint Faith; late 10th/early 11th century CE; 2’9 ½’’ high iii. Head: encases her skull; modeled off Roman soldier

iv. Crystal with Crucifix: compared her death to that of Jesus since both were  martyred for their religious beliefs

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