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UGA / Chemistry / CHEM 1212 / What are the factors that influence reactivity?

What are the factors that influence reactivity?

What are the factors that influence reactivity?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Chemistry
Course: Freshman Chemistry II
Professor: Suzanne ellenberger
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Chemistry, Equilibrium, reactions, Rates, and Chemical Kinetics
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers the information that will be on the test. Some notes about the study guide: - Key terms with definitions are underlined in yellow. - Tables and key equations are outlined in blue. Good luck!!
Uploaded: 02/23/2017
5 Pages 121 Views 1 Unlocks
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Exam 2 Study GuideIf you want to learn more check out katherine zubovich

About the exam If you want to learn more check out What is the three fold purpose of kinesiology?

The Material

Chapter 14 - Chemical Kinetics Don't forget about the age old question of What is the cost of one more unit of a good or service?

14.1 Introduction to Kinetics If you want to learn more check out What do you call the farming of marine, brackish water, & freshwater organisms?

14.1a factors that influence Reactivity

• Chemical Kinetics - Studies rates of Chemical reactions and reaction mechanisms. If you want to learn more check out How does the economies of scale work?

• Reactions occur if they are Both Thermodynamically and kinetically favored.

(1) Thermodynamics influenced by...

  • Enthalpy changes
  • Entropy changes
  • Temperature

We also discuss several other topics like What is the problem experienced by computers because they don't know when to stop?

(2) Kinetics influenced by...

  • reaction mechanism
  • activation energy*
  • concentrations
  • temperatures

• Activation Energy - the amount of energy required to start a specific reaction.

14.1b collision Theory

• Collision theory of reaction rates.- defines 3 conditions for a reaction to occur.

1. Reactants must collide.

2. Collision must overcome the reaction's activation energy.

3. collision must occur at the orientation that will allow for the bond breaking and

forming to take place your

• Because not all collisions will meet all 3 conditions, only a fraction of collisions will undergo a reaction.

• condition 1 - Reaction and collisions

⚬ When there are more collisions, the reaction will be faster

  • ex. Solid-gas reactions are slower than gas-gas.

•  condition 2 - overcoming activation energy

⚬ As temperature goes up, more molecules have enough energy to overcome

(activation energy) and therefore reaction rate goes up.

⚬ Also, rate of reaction is higher when a reaction's is lower because more

molecules have enough energy to cross the barrier

• Condition 3 - molecular Orientations

⚬ Collisions will not form a product if the molecules do not collide at an optimal

orientation

14.2 Expressing the rate of a reaction

14.2a Average Rate and Reaction Stoichiometry

• Reaction Rate - the speed of a reaction.

⚬ expressed as a change in concentration over time (ex.

• Average Reaction rate - change in concentration. over a specific period of time.

• Reaction Stoichiometry  

⚬ rate of a reaction is directly related to reaction Stoichiometry

• Reaction Stoichiometry

⚬ In general, for...

aA + bB → cC + dD .

Important To know        

        🞼 note the negative indicates decrease of reactant

14.2 b Instantaneous and initial Rates

• Instantaneous rate - the rate of a reaction at a specific point of time.

⚬ Initial rate - type of instantaneous rate, rate at the start of a reaction,

  • determined by the slope of the reaction at the very beginning

⚬ Change in rate over time

  • concentration-time plots demonstrate that typically, as time increases the rate of the reaction decreases.

14.3 Raite LAWS

14.3a concentration and reaction rate

• Rate Law - quantitative relationship between rate and concentration of species

• Catalyst - Speeds up rate of reaction by lowering activation energy, doesn't undergo permanent change

• General reaction ~

        aA + bB products                A and B

                        ⇒ reactants

                                        C

                                        ⇒ catalyst

14.3 Rate Laws

14.3a Concentration and rate law

  • Rate law components (see earlier example)

1) rate constant (k)

2) concentrations of species

3) order of the reaction (ex. x, y, and z)

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