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UD - BISC 403010 - Class Notes - Week 2

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UD - BISC 403010 - Class Notes - Week 2

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background image Umma Fatema Week 1 and 2 book + lecture notes Properties of DNA molecule: - It has double stranded nucleotides that has complementary G-C and A-T base pairs
that bind together via hydrogen bonding.
-The nucleotides are made up of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group and one of
the four nitrogenous bases.  
DNA regions that code for a protein are called genes. The DNA molecules can 
arrange themselves into chromosomes by using proteins to package and manage it.
Genome: The entire collection of DNA of an organism is called a genome.  Proteins: These are the most abundant type of molecules within an organism. 
Proteins are large polymers of many amino acids covalently bonded to each other. 
Proteins fold into three dimensional shape in order to carry out their function. 
Structure of an amino acid: They have an amino group, a carboxyl group, a H 
and a side chain bonded to an alpha carbon. 
All of the physical and chemical reactions that take place within an organism’s body 
is called metabolism. 
RNA: They also have four bases but they have uracil in place of thymine. RNA can 
also fold like proteins. However RNA molecules are very unstable. 
New genes may arise due to duplication and divergence. For example, one gene 
maybe duplicated to make two copies but mutation in one of the copies to dead to a
new gene. This gene duplication and divergence leads to evolution. 
Mendel’s Law of segregation: Every organism have two alleles for a given trait 
and they separate during meiosis so the gametes have one allele each. The when 
the gametes come together to fertilize, the resulting organism contains two alleles. 
Mandel’s law of Independent Assortment: This law states that the allele for 
different traits pass down independently from other alleles. For example, a brown 
hair allele can have long ear or short year since the hair color and the ear length 
alleles have been assorted independently. 
Parent cross: The organisms that have been crossed as a test and we will look at 
their offspring to see what has been passed down (F1)
F1: First generation or the offspring of the parents. F2: Offspring of the F1 or the “grand children” of the parent generation. 

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School: University of Delaware
Department: Biology
Course: Genetic and Evolutionary Biology
Professor: Erica Selva
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Genetics
Name: Week 1 and 2 notes
Description: This is a short list of terminology that we discussed in week 1 and 2
Uploaded: 02/23/2017
1 Pages 14 Views 11 Unlocks
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