Hist notes part 2 The dialectic according to Marx (well, and Hegel, really) This was Marx’s borrowing from Hegel hegel thought reality was derived from ideas while marx thought it was dIf you want to learn more check out What is involved in homogenous equilibrium?
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erived from life CONTINGENCY AND CAUSALITY: hegel thought hist was a development and a process to be continued and both marx and hegel thought history was an unfolding event since if you know one piece you know the rest After 5 years in berlin, marx was a doctor of philosophy ALIENATION marx identifies as least three diff. kinds of alienation 1843 political press…. made Marx move Father of communism: Marx Marx and Hegel proposed their own program of a socialism based firmly on reality and science Marx claimed himself in the working class Context: Marx in his time Exercise of labor power*: works in order to live class struggle one class was exploited by another PRODUCTIVE FORCES: forces of production and relations of production Productive forces: human labor power and means of production (land machinery and a factory) Relations of production: (used because humans can’t work alone) this is used in order to survive; participation is not voluntary and Marx called it an economic structure since they had to develop a certain structure 2 components for society Substructure (or base) and superstructure (DEVELOPED BY MARX) Superstructure: everything not directly to do with production Substructure: means of productions and relations of production. MOVES IN SPIRAL PATTER. THE BASE IS DOMINANT Transition of society: QUOTABLE KARL MARX: HISTORY OF ALL HITHERO EXISTING SOCIETY IS THE HISTORY OF CLASS STRUGGLES. Marx says society/ classes will always be divided Marx argued that humans lived in primitive communism Marx stages were defined by labor and property relationsFrom primitive communism to slavery to feudalism to capitalism(epoch) to socialism/ communism(sees as future) Exploitation was then introduced to people and this was when people took control of production Marx said that people were not yet selfish (not born in it) CHANGE IN RELATIONS TO PRODUCTION WHICH LEAD TO SLAVERY NEXT WAS FEUDAL SOCIETY: TIED TO THE LAND CAPITALISM: WORKERS DON’T OWN THE FACTORY AND SELL THEIR LABOR AS A COMMODITY TO THOSE WHO OWN THE FACTORY: MARX SAID IT WAS MOST IMPORTANT TO KNOW WHO OWNED THE LABOR POWER AND MEANS OF PRODUCTION AND HOW IT WAS ORGANIZED (READ COMMUNIST MANIFESTO) His writings praise capitalism “Marx’s attitude towards capitalism is basically ambiguous. He was honest [about it], he was fascinated, he was fully aware that this was the most dynamic productive system in history and humanity..” Look at pg12. *globalization* the pattern emerging from Marx’s writing: capitalism he blamed capitalism for the working conditions Liverpool England: life expectancy was til 26 Minimum pay for proletariat ment bank for the boss MASTERS OF MONEY( ON YOUTUBE) EPISODE 3 KARL MARX START AT 26.20-31.50 2 process worsened the life of the workers capitalism produced industrial workers (proletariat) Theory of alienation: from the products of labor, created powers, and each other Capitalism is living labor (verelung) Immeiseration: idea that capitalism caused the problems of working classes and would bring change The rise of class consciousness Marx observes: proletariat would band together and reform and it would grow( the workers unite and start revolting; they also create political parties) Marx believed that capitalism would unify classes pg.216 (WTWA) Alienation is replaced by association. Conclusion: proletariat will rise Immiseration* Marx explained how society functions(SUCSTRUCTURE AND SUPER STRUCTURE); he said capitalist exploited labor(Contradiction of capitalism); 2/16/17 notes Think of marx in social movement theory ( basically means how to get people to act) EX: LSU people tearing up the stadium( a propagandist will get people to do something about it by enraging them) Marx’s plan after the bourgeoisie is overthrown (Dictatorship of the proletariat) The working class seizes state power and would change society forever. Step 1) get rid of capitalist; step 2) get state power; step 3) introduce communism Class distinction, private property would be abolished. Life after the Revolution Individuals would find pride in their work. “ one would take from each according to his ability and give to each according to his need.”(MARXX PREDICTION OF THE FUTURE) That no one specializes in anything particular and people just mosey about (LAZY). Marx responds specifically to industrialization Marxist think we have to make our own future, marx won’t do it for us. Remember marx in the history of dielectic materialism Marx wanted to change the whole world not just a community Marxism( apart of socialism) Marx was the Charles Darwin of politics His followers were communists/ Marxist’s Social democratic movement: Internationale: song was made from the movement (all nations and the entire human race working classes unite to rally against national boundaries to defeat the bourgeoisie) Marx and followers thought that nationalism was a fraud The first meeting of the international was in st. martin’s hall in France (organized by socialists) (goal was to establish socialist society) Marxist side made the 2nd international meeting which was MAYDAY (dissolved during the first world war because it was all about nationalism) Trends occurred that conflicted with marx’s predictions; socialist parties were organized on a national basis and organized locally this wasn’t like marx’s ideology. They thought you could change conditions and put them on a humane scale by fighting civilly. They scared the elites by their efforts Most famous party: German social democratic party became worlds largest workers movement in the world 1912: became Germany’s largest party met in Gotha Anarchists thought you could solve things with violence; IT’S POSSIBLE Theory of spontaneous order in society helps us understand the stance the anarchists have This is were organization happens in society First the anarchists worked with marxist’s and then left; 1880’s had a wave of assasinations Assassination of Alexander II Anarchists followed the “philosophy of the bomb” and carried out terrorist acts that they called “propaganda of the deed” Alexander was bombed and his carriage helped keep him safe but then he stepped out again and then was bombed RUSSIA GAVE US TERRORISM Attacks were not coordinated, 1) Congo (democratic republic of the Congo) In late 19th century was called Belgian congo 2) Indonesia (Was called Dutch east indies) 3) Zimbabwe ( was called Rhodesia named after) 4) The phillippines 5) Afghanistan 6) India 7) Algeria 8) Germany 9) Cambodia (called French indo-china) 10) Malaysia 11) Myanmar 12) Korea 13) Cuba 14) New Zealand 15) Nambia ( Germany colonized and was german south Africa) 16) Kenya ( colonized by british and was called british east Africa) (MAP IS IN YOUR PHONE) French had 2 administrative methods for each territory (LOOK AT REALITIES OF SLAVERY AND SUCH) Imperialism New imperialism Europeans increased their influence of imperialism over seas Land grab for unprecedented speed (seized territory) in southeast asia and pacific new imperialism was more than a land grab, it used technology and used the to bring into economy (consumers of industrial products) EXPLOTATIVE MEMBERSHIP WHAT IMSPIRED NEW INERIALISM? Political prestige: Belgium, Italy, (Franco Prussian war 1871) france wanted to reestablish their prestige; britian protected india by getting places in southeast asia and Africa; Germans needed impressive empire over seas; motives were not limited to statesmen (political motives); Colonial agents sent troops to take over their neighbors territories ( sessile Rhodes?) (fait accompli: when someone does something out of your control and you have to go along with it) so Gov. felt obligated to help their military on the spot. Cultural motives: late 19th century there was Christian revivals; purpose was religion( convert non-believers and cultural they were determined to fix slavery monogamous marriage…) their influence helped soften colonial rule (involved the women who became nurses and such) EX: MARY SLESSOR: british missionary(south east Nigeria) fought fro womens rights; in india: Sati: BURNING OF WIDOWS ON HUSBANDS DEATH; racism was endemic; cultural priority was not limited to missionaries; INFERIORITY OF SOLDIERS….; western culture exualted men over women and rich over poor and humans over nature…(look up others) this was political dominance; CHARLES DARWIN: most influential scientist of 19th century in 1859 book he argued that the earth was older than he previously believed, HIS FINCHES!! NATURAL SELECTION (COINED TERM SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST WAS COINED BY…) someone used this idea of the finches in human life…; SOCIAL DARWINISM; people started dividing races in life; bottom of it was savage, whites were the top (permanent rule of whites over Africans and Asians) Adventurous young men: yearned for adventure and duh they went over seas; Adventurous young men: yearned for adventure and duh they went over seas; Lasting influence of French rev. was rise of different media to entertain the masses; 1890’s Imperialism was a popular cause; NATIONALISM; Economic exploitation: Demand for minerals: cu for wiring, coal steam engines, gold and diamonds, mg for…; SUGAR COFFEE AND TEA PRODUCTS GREW MORE FOR YERNING; European men seeked protection from competition; Entrepreneurs; business saw backing of gov with soldiers; AMERICANS WANTED TO EXPAND OVER SOCIETIES; sudden increase in power by industrialization made it easy to make slaves (INDUSTRIALIZATION PROCESS BEGAN IN ENGLAND) (Used in expansion of imperial projects); TOOLS OF IMPERALISM Shipping: suez canal, gunboats; 1st steam boat reached…; boom in shipping to east asia (1869) BY ISHMIEL POSHA( RULER OF EYGPT) (khedive) Lowering cost and ships invented shipping…; gave advantage over land; GREAT BRITAIN BENEFITED MORE THAN ANYONE; INVASION OF BRITISH IN EGYPT; Europeans used gunboats(opened up canals…); Medicine: quinine; Falciparum malaria; quinine could prevent malaria which came from cinchona tree; Reduction of disease opened it up to missionaries and merchants; quinine was really needed for British soldiers(it was a liquid; made of tonic water, gin,) (genotonics for british soldiers) Firearms: machine gun; Martini-Henry rifle (1871); Lee’s bolt rifle: before you used to have to load the bullet and then push it down and put powder and then load, this gun made it easier to fire quicker(10x than a musket); Lee-Metford rifle (1888); MACHINE GUN: 550 rounds per minute didn’t need to aim; firepower gap widened; European army got better; BATTLE OF OMDURMAN IN SUDAN, max guns and british against Sudanese (were equpied with muskets and spears) only 48 british people were dead… WOW…Guns… Slave trade dies under british pressure AFRICAS STATES IN 1ST HALF 19th century (Usman don fodio= Nigeria) Muhamad Ali came to power: long lasting power on Egyptians; 1st to employ western technology; EX: Egyptian’s developed printing presses End of his reign the population doubled, trade with Europe increased over 600%, replace the old ruling ARISTOCRACY, and Ismail pasha: Khedive of Egypt: cotton increases; had irrigation canals and postal service and khira, Britain needed to secure canal Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia; 1850 before tewodros united the nations; British invaded…; most highlands were brought back under imperial rule; KNOW FRANCE’S CONQUEST OF ALGERIA IN 19TH CENTURY: THEY MOVED SOUTH THROUGHOUT AlGERIA Frances conquest of Algeria French were overthrown; LOOK AT ABD AL-QADIR; French broke Algerian resistance Africa’s primary waterways NILE (WHITE AND BLUE) CONGO R.: UPSIDEDOWN HORSESHOE (SOUTH AFRICA) Niger: I Nigeria area( further left) Lake Victoria: in middle of Africa (bottom part) Lake tanganika: (small sliver close to congo r. on bottom of Africa) Volta r.: (IN PHONE) EXPLORERS IN AFRICA seeking to uncover the secrets of Africa wished to assess mineral wealth or assimilate Africans to Christianity Niger r. flowed from w-e Nigeria is important for petroleum North flowing nile attracted explorers 1770 lake tana and Victoria were main source of….. Dr. david Livingston: central Africa; Zambezi r.; named the greatest waterfall for queen Victoria; 1871 encountered journalist (STANLEY) his purpose was sending dispatches back to newspapers searching for the lost Dr. Livingston; He traveled the congo r.; NO EUROPEANS HAD CONQUERED ANY OF THIS TERRITORY; led 256 ppl; Stanley(traveled east to west) led people and his party killed many Africans; 60-80 villages destroyed; he proclaimed to flash a torch of light across the continent; he wrote KING LEOPOLD’S GHOST; WROTE FAREWELL TO IT…. LOCAL ECONOMY IN AFRICA IN 19TH CENTURY Niger r. discovered made more people visit due to its discovery African exports of ivory,___,___ Slave revolts repressed in U.S; HUMANITARIANS great Britain made illegal to import slaves Translantic Slave Trade 315 yr.s (slave trade in 2 minutes video) liberated slaves; cuba and brazil continued to ship in LOTS of slaves; ened in 1867; HUGE SLAVE TRADE Cuba and brazil continued to import slaves, Africans expanded their trade other than slaves; revived old exports as the slave trade went away; PALM OIL: used as lubricants, ……; increase of palm oil exports through social trading communities; spead of western cultures through Africa. Recaptives: men and women taken in as slaves, in capital or siro-leon; 1821 free black Africans grew a place in lyberia. ROMAN CHOTHOLASISM Secondary empires: Islamic world was expanding slavery become prominent in eastern Africa Persian gulf expanding IVORY AND SLAVE TRADE IN EAST AFRICA; Trade routes to the the east coast of Africa Zanzibar (ivory); trader from Zanzibar: Tippu tip (also sultan of Oman and leader of secondary empires) Stanley went with him and said he was a remarkable man and a picture of energy and strength; British pressured sultan of oman about slave trade DIRECT EMPIRES ONCE EUROPEANS CONQUERED A TERRITORY, THE HOME STATE EXPECTED THEM TO PAY FOR IT THEMSELVES COLONIALISM profits could only come from investments colonists started the transformations of Asian societies whites were in majority by 1849 in Canada, us, and…. Colonial powers practiced powers colonial gov educated a couple youths to be nurses colonial relied on 2 indigounous elitesSCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA Spread of islam before the scramble, ottoman had much of the influence at this time; 1879 africans ruled Africa; after Europeans showed up in mid 19th century Egypt tried to modernize and improve infrastructure ISHMEL POSHA 1876 egypts debt rose, interest payments were 1/3 of imports earnings 1878 gov’s told Ishmel to develop high taxes caused discontent Military uprise by Egyptian army; british saw it as a threat to the british canal British sent in army to Egypt in 1892; army stayed for 70 years during these years they used indirect rule: maintained the egpytian gov. and false form of egyptian sovereignty. British wanted to increase cotton production; ALSO DEVELOPED THE ASWAN LOW DAM IN 1898-1902 it controlled the Niles flood; Egypt had to pay for occupation for british French began their empire of west Africa from Senegal(westcoast of Africa) Development was at Senegal river 1784; in 1890’s they built a railroad to connect to niger river; As they moved further east the French army secured and for their railroad before construction, they established ground in French sudan MEN WHO TOOK THE CONGO Leopold II of Belgium: founded international African society, recruited Stanley to go through congo, Would ask chiefs to sign a paper that told them to give up everything (totality of explotation) Henry Morton Stanley: Would bring back cloths signed from chiefs of villages for Leopold to give up sed association(international society) and all territory. Got 450 cheifs to sign treties, treties were in different lang and the chiefs thought they were signing treaty to friendship Savorgnan de brazza: Italian soldier; wrote with Stanley; Portugal resurrected….; start to see rivalry inbetween powers over unclaimed powers BERLIN CONFERENCE ON AFRICA OF1884 AND 1885 GETTING THE PIECE OF CAKE any power could occupy African soldier EFFECTIVE OCCUPATION http://www,youtube.com/watch?v=uEx5G-GOS1k (deconstruction of colonialism) Every country with colonial ambitions had to send troops into Africa Results of berlin conference (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wJ1uo5jvpe8&t=90s) start at 1:30 ( task to get new frontiers in uncharted land) The reality of the European divisions of Africa; Jules Ferry quote(france); Lord Salisbury (Britain); What’s the difference between france and Britain? (Britain didn’t even know where they were ad were like hey lets just take whatever land is left) and france was like lets explore Africa’s mysteries!! Gambia river: france enclosed territory surrounding the british France offered it’s ivory for trade for the gambia river and Britain said no. European ideas are summed up by a british governor: he said they were conquering land as if no one lived there, like the a-holes they are. Effective occupation: required much effort, French advanced and inspired germans to claim land. Automatic guns helped invaders gain victory for gaining land BATTLE OF ANGERMAN 48 BRITISH MEN WITH GUNS AND LOTS OF THE OPPOSING SIDE They wanted to out-do their rivals CATERGORIES FO COLONIZATION white settler agriculture: before 1900, new source of conflict was settlers from Europe; people were attracted to the good farming; NO PERMISSION ASKED FOR LAND; UGANA RAILWAY (british held east Africa) built line from coast to interior, completed in 1901, white strangers were welcomed by Africans and soon faded, colonial demands started resistance, Pacification: African resistance (for safety of British soldiers) Winston Churchill believed that killing these defenseless people was wrong. (ethnic groups of Kenya in this time) British introduced taxation to these people to get them to cultivate but Africans had no money. Africans could earn money working for settlers so labor for money…This introduces white settler agriculture was like. Indirect rule in northern Nigeria Indirect rule: ruling through local kings; was cheap and highly effective; kings were able to stay in power and add to their personal business’; In Nigeria it did not have a big effect of the british. In smaller villages they had no idea what was going on, they weren’t really involved. NATIVE ADMINISTRATORS: worked for british and developed commitment to british system (black African agriculture)Black African agriculture: In Senegal, it was france’s oldest colony; French ran colonies on same as british but one difference is that in the end the Africans in colonial territories would become black Frenchman (assimilation) unlike the british who thought they were not considered british at all. Colonial rule reduced the french’s belief of assimilation being a good idea to bad because you belonged to a tiny minority. Blaze Diagne made a life for himself, he became a Frenchman in 1914 (what happened in this time? WWI.) At the berlin conference, leopold was trying to convince people he wanted to promote Christianity and free trade (LIES) He wanted a large territory that was his own so he could suck the wealth out of it. Mineral extraction: