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UCR / Psychology / PSY 001 / What is not learned through experience; fast and involuntary responses

What is not learned through experience; fast and involuntary responses

What is not learned through experience; fast and involuntary responses

Description

School: University of California Riverside
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Huffman-neal
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology, Psyc001, Kelly, and huffman
Cost: 50
Name: Psyc 001 Final Study Guide
Description: Chapters 8-9 with overview of Chapter 1-5
Uploaded: 02/23/2017
12 Pages 70 Views 3 Unlocks
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Psyc 001 Final Study Guide


What is not learned through experience; fast and involuntary responses?



Prof Kelly Huffman

March 23rd 3-6pm UNLH

Chapter 8 

• NOT Learned

o Reflexes: SIMPLE, not learned through experience; fast and involuntary responses (directed by  spinal cord and brainstem)

o Instincts: COMPLEX, inborn patterns of behavior elicited by environment  

• Learning

o Definition of Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior or capacity for behavior that  occurs DUE TO EXPERIENCE; (EXPERIENCE DEPENDENT CHANGE) If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of a juvenile?

o Two types of Single Stimulus Learning:


What are inborn patterns of behavior elicited by the environment?



Don't forget about the age old question of What are premeditation and malice aforethought?
If you want to learn more check out How does reproductive isolation increase diversity?

▪ Habituation: reduced response to repeated presentation of a stimulus (living by a train  station)

▪ Sensitization: increased response to repeated presentation of a stimulus (going to  Knott’s Scary Farm)

▪ First comes sensitization and then ends with habituation  

• Associative Learning: Forming connections among stimuli and/or behaviors (learning of associations…  fire trucks are red; school busses are yellow)

o AKA Classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning

▪ Pavlov formulated his theory of classical conditioning by observing dogs during the  digestion process

Term

Unconditioned  

stimulus

Abbreviation US

Definition

o A stimulus that naturally and reliably evokes a  

response; Stimulus we don’t have to learn from

Unconditioned  

response

UR

The response that is naturally and reliably elicited by the  unconditioned stimulus

Neutral stimulus

NS

A stimulus that does not initially elicit the unconditioned response

Conditioned  

stimulus

CS

A stimulus that was once neutral but, through association with the  US, now elicits a response

Conditioned  

response

CR

After conditioning has occurred, the response that is elicited by the  conditioned stimulus


What is the main definition of learning?



Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate dividend payout?

**Replace conditioned with learned

o Key features of Pavlov’s experiment  

Still an unconditioned response  

because the food is still present

o Temporal Contiguity: Closeness in time between pairs of events important for learning to occur ▪ Sort of timing is the best for learning in classical conditioning: Delayed Conditioning o What would happen if you rang the bell (the NS) and then waited 15 min before presenting  the food (the US)? Don't forget about the age old question of What shifts the aggregate demand curve?

▪ No association between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus would be  made therefore not making the conditioned response.

• Taste aversion: One trial learning… learn this CS-US association quickly

• Aversion Therapy: Exposed to a stimulus that would cause some discomfort (Ex. Conditioning a taste  aversion to alcohol; pair alcohol with drug that produces nausea; Quit smoking--some stuff you can  add that can produce nausea or make it taste bad; ex. 2 packs of cigarettes in the bathroom— nauseating)

• Stimulus generalization: Generalizing the response by one stimulus to another; (Ex. Experience with  cigarettes might have same reaction to cigars)

• Law of Effect – consequences influence our behavior; Thorndike’s idea was that the consequences of a  behavior determine whether the behavior I likely to be repeated

• Thorndike tested operant conditioning theory with: Cat puzzle box

• CLASSICAL CONDITIONING vs OPERANT CONDITIONING

o Operant adds the behavior part to the conditioning; operant reinforces the behavior o Pavlov’s: led to animal learning an ASOCIATION between 2 stimuli (food and bell); response  was secondary (bc it occurred with both) We also discuss several other topics like What are the 3 elements of negligence?

o Thorndike’s: led animal to learn which behaviors would lead to reward, and thus the learning  directly affected animal’s response

• Reinforcement

o Positive: Something GIVEN after behavior to INCREASE chance of behavior happening again o Negative (NOT punishment): Something TAKEN AWAY after behavior to INCREASE chance of  behavior happening again

▪ Ex. Baby crying???? Parent gives baby pacifier ???? Baby stops crying ???? Negative  Reinforcement for Parent

• Punishment:

o Something DELIVERED to DECREASE chance behavior happening again

o Bad Side Effects

▪ Teaches you what NOT to do, but does not teach what SHOULD been done--More  effective to be positively reinforced for good behavior or behavior that is wanted ▪ May not work because they see it as a form of attention (children)

▪ Punishment can turn into negative reinforcement

• Ex: Prof. Huffman’s kid missing recess bc he liked Ms. Jackson AND way to relieve  from stress of being picked by other kids

▪ Punishment is SIGNALED—punisher becomes signal for punishment, so person receiving  punishment avoids behavior only when punisher is present

o Rules:

▪ MUST have consistency—every single time that there is behavior, always deliver the  punishment

▪ MUST be severe

• Token economy: Offer effective rewards like no-value tokens that can be exchanged for something  valuable

• Schedules of Reinforcement

o Know the schedules and which ones result in more or less responding

o Ratio schedules – Reinforcer is dependent on the occurrence of a # of responses  ▪ Fixed— “By the Piece” vs Variable— “Slot Machine”

▪ Most responses—Variable ratio

o Interval schedules – reinforcer is dependent on the passage of time before the response is  effective

▪ Fixed— “Fixed Time” vs Variable— “Fishing: Time waiting for fish to bite varies” ▪ Least Responsive—Fixed Interval

o Effects of Reinforcement Schedules

• Extinction: When a response that was previously reinforced is no longer reinforced, resulting in a  weakened behavior

o Presenting conditioned stimulus without unconditioned stimulus

o Intermittent reinforcement – increases the resistance to the effects of extinction

o Spontaneous recovery – increase in a previously extinguished response after the passing of  time

Chapter 9 

• Three primary stages of memory

o Encoding: Converting information into a form usable in memory

o Storage: Retaining information in memory

o Retrieval: Active Process of locating and using stored information; recovery of stored  information when it is needed

• Short Term Memory

o Sensory memory: Holds LARGE AMOUNTS of incoming information for short period of time o Iconic memory: Visual Sensory Memory—briefly holds an ‘image’ of what you have seen o Echoic memory: Auditory Sensory Memory—briefly holds a ‘sound clip’ of what you have just  heard

o Short Term Memory: Holds a SMALL AMOUNT of information for 30 seconds without  additional processing  

o Limits of short term memory:

▪ +/- 7 chunks of information for +/-20 seconds

o Primacy Effect: Tendency to remember initial information

o Recency effects: Tendency to recall later information  

• Memory

o Working Memory:

▪ Active manipulation of information--More active type of short term memory

▪ Allows multiple processes to occur simultaneously

o Chunking: Method of grouping in working memory

▪ Typically used for telephone numbers

o Long Term Memory: Memory in which information is represented on a permanent or near  permanent basis; Permanent/semi-permanent memory

o Consolidation: Process by which information in short-term memory is transferred to long term  memory

o Acquisition:  

o Explicit (Declarative) Memory: memories described verbally, and of which we are consciously  aware (Facts/Knowledge)

▪ Episodic: Record of our life experiences; tied to specific contexts

▪ Semantic: Conceptual information; contains data, facts and other information to include  vocabulary  

▪ **BOTH often autobiographical

o Implicit (Nondeclarative) Memory: memories that cannot be described verbally; and which are  not available to consciousness  

▪ Skills, habits (riding a bicycle or ice skating)

▪ Procedural: Memory for motor skills (typing, texting, snowboarding, yoga, etc.)

▪ Classical Conditioning: Memory for associations learned through Pavlovian Conditioning ▪ Priming: change in our response to a stimulus due to pre-exposure to related stimuli,  explains many everyday effects of familiarity

o Parts of the Brain Involved in Memory:

▪ Hippocampus: Consolidation of information into long-term memory

▪ Cerebellum: Procedural memory

▪ Cerebral Cortex: Episodic, Semantic and Autobiographical memories

▪ Prefrontal Cortex: Activation of basal ganglia for procedural memory

o Recall: Bringing up memory of information from your stores without having the options  available (essay tests)

o Recognition: recognizing the correct answer from a series of options (Multiple Choice Tests) o Flashbulb memories: Some memories seem permanently etched into brains and seem extra  vivid because hippocampus and amygdala is even more active than usual (from cortisol release) ▪ Produce memory that has both declarative and emotional detail

▪ Very high levels of cortisol are correlated with reporting of more false memories ▪ Persistent high cortisol can hurt memory consolidation

o Major Theories of Forgetting

o Proactive Interference: Reduced memory for target information because of earlier learning ▪ Ex: Change a password; might keep typing old password when logging in

o Retroactive interference: Reduced memory for target information due to subsequent learning  (New information displacing the old)

▪ Ex: Getting an iPhone, learning how to use it, forgetting how to access something on old  android

Key Concepts from Chapter 1-5 

• Psychology: Scientific study of the causes of behavior; “science of mind and behavior” • and note the goals and areas of the field.

• “-Isms” 

o Structuralism: Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener 

▪ Our consciousness can be broken down into its essential elements or ‘structures’ ▪ Introspection: Personal observation of our own thoughts, feelings and behaviors;  looking inwards, or self-examination.  

• “Ignore what this object is, instead describe your conscious experience of it”

o Rationalism/Dualism: Descartes 

▪ Body (physical) & mind (nonphysical) are separate

o Functionalism: William James (Father of Modern Psychology)

▪ Our consciousness serves as an adaptive purpose by helping us survive.  

▪ Started to describe consciousness, awareness of our choices, thoughts and emotions ▪ Viewed behavior as purposeful, since it led to survival  

o Determinism: Concept that behavior is result of prior events… led to the doctrine that  education and life experiences are key to psychology  

▪ Learning and experiences are key factors in development of a person

▪ Experiences we have determine who we turn out to be  

▪ More connected with the concept of ‘nurture’ rather than ‘nature’

o Behaviorism: Watson & B.F Skinner 

▪ Our behavior is learned, observable & measureable  

▪ Able to control our own behavior and others thru reinforcement strategies (behavior is  shaped thru rewards & punishments)

o Humanism: Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers 

▪ We have free will to live more creative, meaningful and satisfying lives

▪ Expanded idea that people are innately good, motivated to improve themselves and  only behave badly when corrupted by society

• 5 Steps of an Experiment 

1. Identifying the Problem

2. Designing an Experiment—include independent variable or the variable controlled and  manipulated by the experimenter (“If I do this…”)

3. Performing the experiment

4. Examining the Data –use a dependent variable (observed result of the manipulation of the  independent variable) to tell us “that will happen” because of the independent variable 5. Communicating the Results—in the form of publications

• Problems with correlational research 

• Main Tenets of Evolution:  

o Evolution= The expansion of the idea of essentialism and taxonomy: the view that all living  things belong to a fixed close or ‘kind’ and that they were related in some way.

o Took comparative approach with animals to look how they are related and how they differ o Developed the concept of Natural Selection and Survival of the Fittest

• Divisions of Nervous System 

o Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal cord; **Retina is also considered a part of the CNS— has neurons connecting directly to the brain

o Peripheral Nervous System: Cranial and Spinal Nerves

▪ Somatic Nervous System: Voluntary muscle movement  

▪ Autonomic Nervous system:

• Sympathetic nervous system: “FIGHT OR FLIGHT”—inhibits flow of saliva,  

accelerates heartbeat, dilates bronchi, etc.

• Parasympathetic nervous system: “REST AND DIGEST”—slows heartbeat,  

stimulates flow of saliva, constricts bronchi, etc.

• Major Systems and Parts of the brain

o Spinal Cord: Extends from the brain stem; located in vertebral column

o Meninges: Layers that are filled with fluid to help provide protection for the brain and spinal  cord tissues

▪ Pia Mater: Layer that sticks on the surface of the brain

▪ Cerebrospinal Fluid: in between the layers serving as a liquid shock absorber ▪ Dura Mater: Thick layer/skin on top of fluid; translates to Tough Mother –EXTRA CREDIT o Hindbrain (and its parts)

▪ Pons: (Sit above Medulla); manages sleep, arousal and facial expressions ▪ Medulla: (Merges w/Spinal Cord); manages essential functions such as heart rate, blood  pressure—damage to medulla=quick death

▪ Cerebellum: (Connected to the brain by pons)

• Maintains balance and motor coordination (1st brain structure to be affected by  alcohol)

• Involved in functions like language, cognition and perception

o Ventricles

▪ Lateral, Third and Fourth Ventricles all produce Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) o Thalamus: “Gateway to the Cortex”—input from sensory systems (vision, hearing, touch)  travels first to the thalamus  

▪ EXCEPTION: SMELL

▪ Majority of the connections between thalamus and cortex are DESCENDING o Basal Ganglia

▪ Collection of large structures involved with voluntary movement

▪ Degeneration of BG—Parkinson’s Disease: reduction of dopamine, not allowing smooth  voluntary movement

o Limbic system: initiates, controls and regulates emotions

▪ Hypothalamus: (part of Midbrain) regulates motivation, homeostasis, body functions  (temp, thirst, hunger, biological rhythms, sexual activities)

• 4 F’s: Fight, Flight, Feeding, Fornication (Fucking)

▪ Hippocampus: Formation of long-term memories; encodes for memory.  Storage/retrieval of memories located elsewhere in brain

▪ Cingulate Cortex

• Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC): works with hypothalamus to control autonomic  nervous system; important for decision making, emotion, anticipation of reward  and empathy

• Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC): Memory and Visual processing

▪ Amygdala: Role in identifying, remembering and responding to fear and aggression;  emotionality  

• Reduced size from exposure to alcohol as a fetus

o Reward circuit

▪ Nucleus Accumbens (NA), Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and the prefrontal cortex are  heavily activated leading to addiction  

o Cerebral Hemispheres

▪ Left hemisphere is dominant with functions of language and logical processing ▪ Right hemisphere handles spatial perceptions like vision-independent object recognition o Corpus callosum

▪ Large bundles of neural fibers that connects left and right hemisphere

o 4 Lobes of the Neocortex

▪ Frontal Lobe—Located in front of the brain (forehead area)

• Home of Primary Motor Cortex

• Prefrontal Cortex (PFc):  

o Planning of behavior, attention and judgement

o Orbitofrontal cortex—plays role in olfaction (smell and emotion)

▪ Parietal Lobe—Above occipital lobe, behind frontal lobe

• Home of primary somatosensory cortex, which helps us localize touch, pain, skin  temperature, and body position.  

• Processes input about taste

• Posterior areas do some complex processing of vision

▪ Temporal Lobe—located at the temples  

• Home of primary auditory cortex

• Has areas specialized for particular functions, like higher visual system tasks  including the recognition of objects and the faces of familiar people

▪ Occipital Lobe—Located at back of the brain

• Home of Primary visual cortex

• Connected to temporal lobe to allow recognition of objects we see

• Connected to Parietal Lobe to allow processing of the movement of objects

• Action potential 

o Electrical Signaling: Action Potential

▪ Takes place in the signaling neuron’s axon

▪ Neuron generates an electrical signal aka Action Potential

▪ Signal travels the length of the axon from its junction with the cell body to its terminal ▪ **ACTION POTENTIAL=ALL OR NONE EVENT

o How membrane changes happen and how the AP occurs in the cell

▪ At rest: Negative membrane potential/charge—more negative inside than outside (-70  millivolts); channels closed

▪ Action Potential: Channels open; reverse the membrane potential (Na+ goes in)—if  potential raised to -55 millivolts, AP will occur and NT will be released; peaks at +40  millivolts

▪ After AP:  NA+/K+ pumps turn on; forces 3 Na+ out of the cell & 2 K+ ions in; makes  inside of the cell more negative until hitting -70 millivolts

• Sensory receptor surfaces: 

o Skin:  

▪ Outer Layer (epidermis)—NO receptors

▪ Middle (Dermis) and Fatty Layer (Subcutaneous tissue)

• Merkel’s disks sense pressure on the skin

• Meissner’s corpuscles sense pressure

• Hair follicle receptors sense hair movement

• Pacinian corpuscles sense pressure and vibration  

• Ruffini’s endings sense skin stretching

• Free nerve endings. One of their major functions is to transmit information  

about temperature and pain.

• These receptors send their electrical signals to neurons within the spinal cord,  which brings the information to the brain

o Retina:  

▪ Starts with Photoreceptor

▪ Photoreceptor and Bipolar cell do not have action potentials-- have gradual potentials ▪ Ganglion cell fires action potential—myelin sheath makes a faster travel

o Basilar Membrane:  

▪ Resting on top of the basilar membrane is the organ of Corti, which contains many rows  of hair cells that transduce sound energy into neural signals.  

▪ Each human ear has about 15,500 of these hair cells.  

o Tongue:  

▪ Taste receptors are on taste buds located in the bumps, or papillae, located on the  tongue.

o Olfactory Epithelium:

• Rods and Cones 

o Rods – for viewing dim light with no color; sensitive to low light and motion; important for  danger in peripheral (high concentration in peripheral)

o Cones – for bright light with color; give fine detail/focus, concentration in fovea—not many in  peripheral

• Gestalt 

o Top down processing: context and preexisting knowledge are used to rapidly organize features  into a meaningful whole; way you interpret it depends on context  

▪ Know what numbers and letters are needed to make a complete sequence (B in the top  row, 13 in the bottom).

o Bottom up processing: start constructing at the “bottom” with raw materials— begin with  small sensory units (features) and build upward to a complete perception

▪ If B/13 stimulus seen by itself, probably recognize that it’s ambiguous and could be  interpreted multiple ways.

o Gestalt in terms of perception: We are born with many built-in tendencies to organize  incoming sensory information in certain ways  

o Gestalt principles:

▪ Figure-ground: we identify the main object in the scene (the figure), which stands out  from the background; visually pull the figure part of the stimulus forward while visually  pushing backward the background

▪ Similarity: states that similar stimuli are grouped together (same colors, shape, etc) ▪ Proximity: states that objects that are close together tend to be grouped together (can  be different colors, shape, etc. but must come close to be considered ‘grouped’)

▪ Continuity: assume that points that form smooth lines when connected probably belong  together

▪ Closure: “fill in the blanks” to see a single object; tendency to complete a figure

• Depth perception and monocular/binocular cues to depth  

o Depth Perception: requires that we perceive the distance between us and objects in the  environment as well their distance from one another.

o Monocular cues (One-eye): cue for perception of depth that requires use of only one eye o Binocular cues (Two-eye): a cue for perception of depth that requires the use of both eyes  (convergence)

o Monocular Cues Examples:

o Linear Perspective: when parallel lines seem to converge in the distance

o Relative Size: expect two objects to be the same size & they are not. In such cases, larger of  the two objects will be perceived as closer and the smaller will be perceived as farther away

o Interposition (overlapping): overlapping object appears closer, and the object that is  covered appears farther away

o Light and Shadow: Brightly lit objects appear closer, while objects in shadow appear farther  away

o Texture Gradient: Areas with sharp, detailed texture are interpreted as being closer, while  those with less sharpness and poorer detail are perceived as more distant

• Binocular Cues:  

o Convergence: degree to which the eyes turn in to focus on a close object

▪ Based on signals sent from muscles that turn the eyes

▪ To focus on objects that are near or approaching, these muscles turn the eyes  inward, toward the nose

• Perceptual constancies: Tendency to perceive objects as the same even when their physical  characteristics change

o Size Constancy: tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same size even when their  images on the retina continually grow or shrink

o Shape Constancy: tendency to perceive an object as retaining its same shape even though  when you view it from different angles, its shape is continually changing its image on your  retina

o Brightness Constancy: refers to the tendency to perceive brightness as remaining the same  in changing illumination

o Color Constancy: refers to the tendency to perceive colors as remaining stable despite  differences in lighting

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