CJ 240 Exam 1 Study Guide
1. The Statutory Age of Majority
- The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood recognized or declared in law. It is the chronological moment when minors cease to legally be considered children. They assume control over their persons, actions, and decisions. Most countries set the age of majority at 18, but there are some exceptions to this. 2. Definition of a juvenile
- Individuals under the statutory age of majority of the state in which they reside (18 in most states).
3. Legal culpability
- Deserving of blame or to be held accountable for actions.
4. The Federal Age of Legal Responsibility
- For a federal crime, the age of legal responsibility is currently 11 years old. 5. The Age of License
- The age of license is an age at which one has legal permission from government to do something. For example, the age of license to purchase alcoholic beverages is 21 in all U.S. states.
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6. The Legal Age of Responsibility in most states
- 7 in most states.
7. Behavioral Theory
- Individuals learn by observing others and how others react to certain behaviors. If a particular behavior is reinforced by positive reaction, that behavior will be deemed appropriate and will eventually be learned.
8. Adolescent development & Ego Identity
- Adolescent development occurs after childhood but before adulthood. Occurs from 10-21 years old. Critical period of transition in a child’s life. A child’s basic personality is developing. Children develop a “sense of self.” Ego Identity: developing a full “sense of self.” Realizing who you are and where you fit in with others. Occurs 12-18, but can last longer.
9. Definition of Aging Out
- The tendency to reduce the frequency of delinquent behavior as one ages, particularly in adolescent years.
10. Choice Theory (Definition)
- Delinquents are rational decision makers, who choose to engage in delinquent behavior after weighing the consequences. Rational choice: people have “free will” and are free to make personal behavior choices.
11. Trait Theory (Definition)
- Delinquent behavior is driven by biological or psychological abnormalities. Delinquent actions are impulsive rather than rational choices. Delinquent interactions involve both personal traits and environmental factors. If you want to learn more check out What is an example of concept map?
12. Super Ego, Id, Ego (know definitions)
- Id: the primary component of the personality. Entirely unconscious and includes instinctive and primitive behaviors. Only part of personality we have at birth.
Operates on the “pleasure principle”. Delinquents are id dominated people who suffer from the inability to control impulsive drives. Super Ego: represents the development of conscience and moral rules. Counteracts the id. Fosters feelings of morality. Fosters the rules and standards of good behavior. Emerges around age 5. Ego: Responsible for dealing with reality and operates on the reality principle. Developed from the id. The ego strives to satisfy the id’s desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. Delinquents suffer from weak or damaged egos that make them unable to cope with society.
13. Vulnerability Model
- The development of physical or mental traits at birth that affect social functioning and puts one at risk of poor behavior choices. It is a model of the trait theory. The vulnerability model is linked to genetics.
14. Differential Susceptibility Model
- The development of physical or mental traits that makes one more susceptible to environmental influences. A model of the trait theory. They are at risk when they are in unfavorable social environments. If you want to learn more check out Can i sell on record date and still get dividend?
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15. Child Savers (Role in establishment of Juvenile Court System)
- 19th century reformers who influenced legislation, creating the Juvenile Justice System.
16. Doctrine of Parens Patriae
- A doctrine that allows the state to step in and serve as guardian for children. The state acts “in the best interest of the child.” Minors who engaged in illegal behavior were viewed as victims of improper care, custody, and treatment at home.
17. Moral Reasoning
- Thinking process with the objective of determining right from wrong. 18. Waiver
- Legal transfer of jurisdiction over a juvenile to the adult court.
19. Unconscious & Conscious Mind
- Unconscious mind is the place where all our memorires and experiences since brith have been stored. We cannot, by choice, remember anything in our unconscious without some special event or technique.
20. Roper V. Simmons
- 2005 case. Ruled that juveniles under 18 cannot be sentenced to the death penalty.
21. Miller V. Alabama
- 2012 case. Ruled that mandatory life sentences without parole are unconstitutional for juvenile offenders.
22. Role Diffusion
- Point in time where people are unable to establish “a sense of self”. Lacks direction in life. Vulnerable to negative influences. Strongest potential for delinquent behavior occurs.
23. Peer Relations (Friendship Dyad, Cliques, Crowds)We also discuss several other topics like What are the requirements for false imprisonment?
- Peer relations, in all cultures, have been linked to adolescent behavior choices. Friendship dyad: an association with a “single” bestfriend. Cliques: small group of friends who share intimate knowledge, confidence, and activities. Crowds: loosely organized groups who share interests and activities.
- A peer is being equal in age, education, or social class.
25. Social Learning Theory
- Antisocial and deviant behavior is learned. children will model behavior after adults they are close to or adults they admire.
26. Developmental Theory & 3 Individual Views
- The developmental theory is the view that delinquency is a dynamic process influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristcs. 3 individual views include the choice theory, the trait theory, and the genetics-biosocial theory.
27. Dolly Incapax
- Some states have a policy of Dolly Incapax (incapable of wrong) and exclude liability for all acts that would otherwise have been criminal up to a specific age. 28. Mens Rea
- The intent to commit a crime. Children of a certain age lack the capacity to intent.
29. 4 categories of family dysfunction that promote delinquent behavior (be able to list. You can list them just as they appear below.) If you want to learn more check out Can antarctica become habitable?
- Broken homes
- Interpersonal conflict or family conflict
- Ineffective parenting
- Deviant parents