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UA / Criminal Justice / CJ 240 / What is the definition of a juvenile?

What is the definition of a juvenile?

What is the definition of a juvenile?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Criminal Justice
Course: Juvenile Delinquency
Professor: Joshua wakeham
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: CJ 240 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Completed study guide for Juvenile Delinquency Exam 1
Uploaded: 02/23/2017
3 Pages 43 Views 6 Unlocks

CJ 240 Exam 1 Study Guide

What is the definition of a juvenile?

1. The Statutory Age of Majority

- The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood recognized or declared in law.  It is the chronological moment when minors cease to legally be considered  children. They assume control over their persons, actions, and decisions. Most  countries set the age of majority at 18, but there are some exceptions to this.  2. Definition of a juvenile

- Individuals under the statutory age of majority of the state in which they reside (18 in most states).  

3. Legal culpability  

- Deserving of blame or to be held accountable for actions.  

4. The Federal Age of Legal Responsibility

- For a federal crime, the age of legal responsibility is currently 11 years old.  5. The Age of License  

- The age of license is an age at which one has legal permission from government  to do something. For example, the age of license to purchase alcoholic beverages  is 21 in all U.S. states.  

What is the meaning of the federal age of legal responsibility?

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6. The Legal Age of Responsibility in most states

- 7 in most states.  

7. Behavioral Theory

- Individuals learn by observing others and how others react to certain behaviors.  If a particular behavior is reinforced by positive reaction, that behavior will be  deemed appropriate and will eventually be learned.  

8. Adolescent development & Ego Identity

- Adolescent development occurs after childhood but before adulthood. Occurs  from 10-21 years old. Critical period of transition in a child’s life. A child’s basic  personality is developing. Children develop a “sense of self.” Ego Identity:  developing a full “sense of self.” Realizing who you are and where you fit in with  others. Occurs 12-18, but can last longer.  

9. Definition of Aging Out

What is the meaning of the age of license?

- The tendency to reduce the frequency of delinquent behavior as one ages,  particularly in adolescent years.  

10. Choice Theory (Definition)

- Delinquents are rational decision makers, who choose to engage in delinquent  behavior after weighing the consequences. Rational choice: people have “free  will” and are free to make personal behavior choices.  

11. Trait Theory (Definition)

- Delinquent behavior is driven by biological or psychological abnormalities.  Delinquent actions are impulsive rather than rational choices. Delinquent  interactions involve both personal traits and environmental factors.  If you want to learn more check out What is an example of concept map?

12. Super Ego, Id, Ego (know definitions)

- Id: the primary component of the personality. Entirely unconscious and includes  instinctive and primitive behaviors. Only part of personality we have at birth.

Operates on the “pleasure principle”. Delinquents are id dominated people who  suffer from the inability to control impulsive drives. Super Ego: represents the  development of conscience and moral rules. Counteracts the id. Fosters feelings  of morality. Fosters the rules and standards of good behavior. Emerges around  age 5. Ego: Responsible for dealing with reality and operates on the reality  principle. Developed from the id. The ego strives to satisfy the id’s desires in  realistic and socially appropriate ways. Delinquents suffer from weak or  damaged egos that make them unable to cope with society.  

13. Vulnerability Model

- The development of physical or mental traits at birth that affect social  functioning and puts one at risk of poor behavior choices. It is a model of the  trait theory. The vulnerability model is linked to genetics.  

14. Differential Susceptibility Model  

- The development of physical or mental traits that makes one more susceptible  to environmental influences. A model of the trait theory. They are at risk when  they are in unfavorable social environments.  If you want to learn more check out Can i sell on record date and still get dividend?
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15. Child Savers (Role in establishment of Juvenile Court System)

- 19th century reformers who influenced legislation, creating the Juvenile Justice  System.  

16. Doctrine of Parens Patriae

- A doctrine that allows the state to step in and serve as guardian for children. The  state acts “in the best interest of the child.” Minors who engaged in illegal  behavior were viewed as victims of improper care, custody, and treatment at  home.  

17. Moral Reasoning

- Thinking process with the objective of determining right from wrong.  18. Waiver

- Legal transfer of jurisdiction over a juvenile to the adult court.

19. Unconscious & Conscious Mind

- Unconscious mind is the place where all our memorires and experiences since  brith have been stored. We cannot, by choice, remember anything in our  unconscious without some special event or technique.  

20. Roper V. Simmons

- 2005 case. Ruled that juveniles under 18 cannot be sentenced to the death  penalty.  

21. Miller V. Alabama

- 2012 case. Ruled that mandatory life sentences without parole are  unconstitutional for juvenile offenders.  

22. Role Diffusion

- Point in time where people are unable to establish “a sense of self”. Lacks  direction in life. Vulnerable to negative influences. Strongest potential for  delinquent behavior occurs.  

23. Peer Relations (Friendship Dyad, Cliques, Crowds)We also discuss several other topics like What are the requirements for false imprisonment?

- Peer relations, in all cultures, have been linked to adolescent behavior choices.  Friendship dyad: an association with a “single” bestfriend. Cliques: small group of  friends who share intimate knowledge, confidence, and activities. Crowds:  loosely organized groups who share interests and activities.  

24. Peer  

- A peer is being equal in age, education, or social class.  

25. Social Learning Theory

- Antisocial and deviant behavior is learned. children will model behavior after  adults they are close to or adults they admire.  

26. Developmental Theory & 3 Individual Views

- The developmental theory is the view that delinquency is a dynamic process  influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristcs. 3 individual  views include the choice theory, the trait theory, and the genetics-biosocial  theory.  

27. Dolly Incapax

- Some states have a policy of Dolly Incapax (incapable of wrong) and exclude  liability for all acts that would otherwise have been criminal up to a specific age.  28. Mens Rea

- The intent to commit a crime. Children of a certain age lack the capacity to  intent.  

29. 4 categories of family dysfunction that promote delinquent behavior (be able to list. You  can list them just as they appear below.) If you want to learn more check out Can antarctica become habitable?

- Broken homes

- Interpersonal conflict or family conflict

- Ineffective parenting

- Deviant parents

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