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KSU / Engineering / BIOL 198 / What is a cell wall made of?

What is a cell wall made of?

What is a cell wall made of?

Description

School: Kansas State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Principals of Biology
Professor: Dave rintoul
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Cell, Biology, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, nucleotides, DNA, Mitosis, and cancer
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Lengthy study guide (lots of pictures!) but covers EVERYTHING about cell biology you need to know. As said many times in class, this is the hardest exam of the semester (a ton of terms and content). This guide filters out only the things you need to know so studying goes a little smoother. As always, you can email me questions!
Uploaded: 02/24/2017
10 Pages 34 Views 1 Unlocks
Reviews


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BIO 198: Cell Biology (Exam 3)We also discuss several other topics like Who is ptomely in greek history?

Class One

  1. Microscopes
  • High microscope
  • Yáll should know this by now

Example: bacterium, whole cells, granules

  • Electron microscope
  • Transmission (TEM) – similar to light microscope
  • Example: interior of cells, proteins, viruses, cytoskeletal fragments
  • Scanning (SEM) – can see much smaller using a focused because of scattered electrons

Example: DNA, molecules, atoms

  1. Cell theory
  • Cells are the basic unit of life
  • All cells come from other cells
  • All living things are made up of one or more cells
  1. Types of cells
  • Prokaryotic: Unicellular organism, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles. Cell wall is made of peptidoglycan
  • Eukaryotic: typically multicellular, membrane bound nucleus and organelles

  • Plant:

  • Animal

  • Fungi

  • Protis

Don't forget about the age old question of What is stated in the justice powell dictum?

  • Prokaryote (bacteria)

We also discuss several other topics like Why did the legalist advisors killed the confucian scholars and burned their books?

  1. Cell structures and Organelles
  • Cytoplasm: protein rich food between membrane and organelles, contains ribosomes and holds everything together
  • Cell wall: Helps maintain cells structure and shape
  • Plasma Membrane: Barrier between cellular and extracellular environment. Gateway controls to traffic of ions, nutrients, water and waste products. Holds receptors to hormones, neurotransmitters, proteins and other signals
  • Vacuole: stores water and supports (in plant cell)
  • Chloroplasts: Participates in the process of photosynthesis, surrounded by its own membrane
  • Nucleus: Surrounded by membrane (nuclear envelope), encloses and protects genetic material
  • Nucleolus: center region of the nucleus, involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and formation of ribosomes
  • Ribosome: found scattered throughout the cell, bind messenger RNA and transfer RBA to synthesize proteins
  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: contains ribosomes actively engaged in synthesizing proteins
  • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: synthesizes lipids and detoxification of organic molecules
  • Mitochondria: generates cell’s energy (ATO). Site of cell respiration, has its own membrane
  • Golgi complex: Accepts packages at newly synthesized proteins and lipids, modifies them, and ships them to other parts of the cell
  • Lysosome: contains many enzymes capable of digesting lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, carbs, etc
  • Cytoskeleton: interconnected network of different kinds of protein filaments. Structure and motility (movement of chromosomes during cell division)
  • Cilia: tiny “hair” like “arm things that surround the outside of the cell and help it move.
  • Flagella: Long “tail” on the cell to help to swim around or move (pretty fast)
  1. Endosymbiotic Theory – how the Eukaryotic cell come to be
  • Basically, what we think happened is this:

If you want to learn more check out What is recrystallization?

  • Evidence:
  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own plasma membranes
  • Also have their own DNA
  • Both are about the same size as bacteria
  • Similar to the way bacteria make energy (ATP)

CLASS TWO: Water, Carbs and Lipids

  1. The atom -

  1. Bonding

Mild:             › Ionic – complete transfer of valence electrons between atomsIf you want to learn more check out Can you describe the movement of the earth's mantle?

Strong:   › Covalent - Sharing of electrons between atomsIf you want to learn more check out How does climate differ from weather?

Weak:    › Hydrogen – between two molecules from electrostatic attraction

  1. Water
  • Water is H*ckin important because it makes about 75% of the weight of the cell
  • Many biological processes depend on water, like cooling.
  • Water has a high-heat of vaporization, which means it takes a lot of energy to evaporate (turn into gas)
  • When humans sweat, their skin is cooled by evaporating water that takes a lot of energy with it
  • Polarity: water molecules are polar, meaning that one end of the molecule is slightly negative (-) and the other is slightly positive (+)
  • Therefore, water molecules are attracted to each other, forming a Hydrogen bond. The weak bonds help water molecules “stick together” (aka cohesion)
  • Condensation (Dehydration Synthesis): dehydrates monomers and produces water
  • Hydrolysis: process of breaking polymers into movements by breaking H+ and OH+ bonds, consumes water
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