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UW / History / ART HIST 201 / What are polette main points?

What are polette main points?

What are polette main points?

Description

School: University of Wisconsin - Madison
Department: History
Course: History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals
Professor: Dale
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Art and history
Cost: 25
Name: Art History 201: Week 5 Lecture Notes
Description: Greek; week 5
Uploaded: 02/24/2017
9 Pages 67 Views 1 Unlocks
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Art History 201: Week 5 Lecture Notes


What are polette main points?



“Pantheon Cont’d. & Ancient Greek Vase Painting (Artists & Mimesis)”

*Important side note

For clearer images go to Learn@UW 

Panteon Cont’d:

Polette Main Points:

1. Compensation Theory (Vitruvius)

a. Greek ideas of optical illusion (to call attention too)

2. Deliberate Distortion of optical illusions to enhance apparent size a. ie) curvature so it does not sagging; exaggeration of straight line 3. Heightening Tension between reality and perception (aletheia and phantasia a. Distortion = perception produce a gap between reality and potomac world

*Athens = superior cultural production

Display of mastery over nature and aesthetics

*Delian league = treasury room in temple to protect state


What is the definition of compensation theory in art?



Links between Sculpture and Architecture:

1. (Senators at Wedding) Harmonization of reality and imagination a. Greek concept of symmetria; harmonization of perception and reality; commensurability: out of chaos (Protagoras)

i. ie) geometric proportions

b. Projection of the individual and specific upon the generic

i. Allegory(Myth) + harness conflict (chaos and reason)

1. Vs. Persians

c. Man as measure of all things, imposes

2. Versatility of athens (beautiful and manly)

Ancient Greek Vase Painting: The artist and mimesis

*perfected ceramics (allusionism and narrative)

Lecture Themes:

1. Changes in style (relation to technique)


What is the role of athens in art?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is the vedic society?

2. Function as Domestic Objects from the home and cemetery

3. Decoration reinforces function and significance of certain social status and taste 4. Decorating potentially stimulates storytelling

a. Specialized labor (marketing individualism)

5. Highlights greek pantheon, epic literature, cultural rituals celebration of the body

Factors in Transfer of Vase Painting

1. Specialization of label and competition as market for ceramics expands affluent polloi 2. Technical innovations including introduction to raked glazes incised details, shift to red figure

3. Development of mimetic tradition of narrative in greek epic literature (narrative visual related)

a. ie) homer 8th century

*found in graves and shipwrecks

Vase Types:

Amphora: wine/olive oil (largest of vases)

hydria : water with 90 degree angle at top

Olpe: pouring (wide neck)

Volute krater: mixing wine and water

lekythos= aromatic oils (graves for funerary themes)

Kantharos/Kylix: Drinking cups

We also discuss several other topics like How do we measure economic inequality?

Geometric Period

● Krater Dipylon Cemetery Athens showing Prothesis (Rite from funeral of soldier) ceramic (740 BCE); 3-4 ½ ft

○ Style figures (similar to predynastic egyptian)

■ Simplicity of shapes = no overlapping figures displayed bedside rather to show detail

○ Women offical morner (pulling hair *comparison egypty) If you want to learn more check out Why do okazaki fragments form?

○ Motify = meanders scroll around top

■ Fill all open space

○ Show the function (pictographic language)

*Compare to clay jar with river scene (Hierakonpolis predynastic)

We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of nativism in psychology?
We also discuss several other topics like What is helium made of?
Don't forget about the age old question of How is usda soil textural triangle used to determine a soil’s textural class?

Orientalizing Period

● Corinthian Black figure Neck Handled Amphora Rhodes Ceramic (625-600 BCE) ○ Horizontal register

○ More than 1 painted glaze (greater illusionism in species)

■ Mythical figures and animals

○ Ground line = parallel

○ East mediterranean and Mesopotamian inspiration

*Similar in Babylon (Ishtar Gate) freeze animals

Archaic Period

● Kleitias(painter) and Ergotimos (potter) Archaic black figure with bell shaped Krater “Francois Vase” (570 BCE)

○ Extensive narrative

■ Funeral games in honor at Patroclus at Troy

■ Wedding procession of Peleus and Thetis; sphinx (animal in connsat) ○ Horizontal zones = oriental periods

○ Fills spaces

○ Details Zeus, Hera, Ourania, Kalliope (deities coming to wedding) ■ Figures = profile or frontal

■ Overlap complex= high degree refinement (ie) hair)

■ Archaic eyes (almond shaped)

○ Details Peleus greeting Hermes and Iris, Hestia Demeter

■ Creating arch space

● Attic Block Figures (Hydria with women fountain House) (510 BCE) ○ Amphora shaped vessel

○ Social dimension = responsibility for home

■ While skin = inside/confined

2/15 Late Classical and Hellenistic Art (300- 100s BCE)

Themes:

1. Expression of emotions; shift away from classical ideal towards realism (dramatic narrative)

2. Pursuit of spatial illusionism in painting (unstable figures)

3. Definition of physical likeness in portraiture of Alexander the Greate 4. Development of the female Nude/ sensual male nude

a. Moving away from heroic nude

b. Appeal to the senses

5. Depict the ugly

a. Lack of ideal youthfulness

6. Roman taste for hellenistic art

a. Hellenizing spirit in Roman empire (borrowers) = the extension of the greek legacy

History:

431-404 BC Peloponnesian War (Athenian defeated) political instability 347-37 BC Philip of Macedon united Greek states (Pan Hellenic kingdom) 334-23 BC Alexander the Great defeats Persians leading the Greek Empire Connected civilization = shared cultural values unifying focus

Lack of race differences is one result

3rd century BC establishment of the smaller states out of Alexander's empire (Peragon, Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt, Seleucid)

146 BC Greece = Roman Province

133 BC Pergamon Comes under Rome Rule

Art:

● Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos “Knidian Aphrodite” (350-40 BCE) Roman Copy ○ Shift artistic credibility away from athens

○ Around phil coming to power

○ 1st instance of female goddess nude (stunned; revolutionary)

■ Depict emerging from bath (intimacy)

● Caught unaware

■ Thick cloth comparison with nudity

○ Sensual = glass stone, sloping shoulder, breasts (vulnerable in nature) ■ Males satisfaction

○ Placed in garden where love making occurs

■ Stimulus for love making (erotic)

● Aphrodite = god of love

○ Classical art does not express of emotions

■ Gods above emotion

*similar to artemis on Parthenon frieze

● Lysippos, Apoxyomenos, Early Hellenistic (320 BCE)

○ *similar to polykleitos Canon (450 BCE)

■ similarities : axis, one stable/ one flexed leg

■ Different: proportions, hair's (tousled action) slight lean difference ● Movement much stronger in Approx.

● Royal Tomb of Philip II of Macedon, Vergina : Doric Facade with painted frieze of Alexander hunting (Phylloxera of Eretria)

○ Theme of hunting(common of rulership)

*Similar to placade decor in meso; Tomb of Ti

Difference in metaphor: illusion of Afterlife (painting = paradise)

● Abduction of Persephone Tomb I (Phil’s wife Nikissipoli) Vergina, Fresco (340 BCE) ○ Subject matter result of women's tomb (4 seasons)

○ Spatial illusionism example (high degree)

○ Hades seized persephone to underworld

■ Seasonal myth of winter = death and spring = resurrection

○ Wheels illusionism = coming forward physical rounding rooms corner (underworld)

○ Expression emotion: perception = extreme sorrow

■ Hades emotion of anxiety = looking back

○ Breaks away from rational imposition ; ideal classical

(Appropriate theme of funerary)

● Polykleitos (Younger): Architect: Epidaurus, Theatre (4th cen. BCE) ○ 12,00- spectators = “nose bleed” (need to be exaggerated emotions ■ Contributed to the emotional shift

○ Similar to autiorians today (Semi-circular stage)

■ Visual of full stage to view

○ Tragic / comic masks (mosaic Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli)

● Alexander's Mosaic (Alexander the Great COnfronts Darius III at Battle of ISsos) House of the Faun, Pompeii (Roman Copy) (100 BCE)Greek paint (310 BCE) ○ Devices similar to tomb of vergina

■ Outline of composition yet set back in space with forward and backward movement

○ Alex does not have helmet (fearless)

○ Darius retreating

■ Extreme gaze (dramatic compositional device-element of movement) ○ Horse's backside/rearing = chaos

○ Mosaic = painterly effect (shadows and foreshortening)

○ Detail Alex mosaic on horseback

■ Youthful stubble; district hair style (movement through hair)

■ High degree of illusionism

● Head of Alexander from Near Pella (Portrait by Lysippos) (330 BCE) made (200-150 BCE)

○ Forelock divided/ flowing hair

○ Hellenistic ideal head not frontally = move around sculpture

● Great Altar of Pergamon, made for Eumenes III (175 BCE) Pergamon, Museum Berlin ○ Ionic order Colonnade: lower frieze with battle of greek gods and giants; inner frieze dedicated to Telephos, legendary founder

■ Ionic order = most prominent in asia minor

■ 2 major elements = friezes

● Mythical battles = exemplify realistic battles

■ *differs with panathenaic friezes

● Independent from background

● Not calm (ie) pulling apart movement; dramatic sense)

○ Great Altar E (180-150 BCE) Athena, Get Your, Alkyoneus and Nike ■ Athena pulling giants hair (dramatic)

● Use of face - representation of emotion

○ ie) giant looking back at atheana (implication of yelling =

opened mouth)

■ Evocation of sound

● WInged Victory of Samothrace (190 BCE)

○ Important monumental sculpture

○ Personification of victory in battle (Naval - ship)

○ Nike = angelic figure

○ Non stationary (flown down upon high, land on ship

■ Instability (leaning forward)

● Drapery = movement (tour de force)

○ Suggest animation

○ Part of fountain = sculpture to show elements of wind and water (function of policing

○ )

● Aphrodite of Melos (venus De milo) (2nd century BCE)

○ Represents female nude and goddess (devotion to love)

○ Exposed flesh = striking (visual strip tease)

■ Fabric falling - movement of narrative

○ Slender than Aphrodite similar: sensual (decorum of classical expression)

● Old market women (hellenistic marble 2nd century)

○ Sagging breasts; bent over (strain); face emaciated skin

■ realistic/emotion (erotic appeal vs acknowledgment of human actual form)

● Barberini Faun; Sleeping Satyr marable (250-200 BCE)

○ Reveals a non athletic heroic form

■ Rather erotic passion

■ Not fully aware (head back / genitals fully viewable)

● Athenodoros of Rhodes, Hagesandros, Polydoros, Lacoon (1st century) ○ *compare with Alkynes Pergamon Altar

○ Strained; emotional

○ Serpent strangling

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