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AU / History / HIST 1010 / What is the vedic society?

What is the vedic society?

What is the vedic society?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History I
Professor: Donna bohanan
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Rome and China
Cost: 50
Name: History 1010- Study Guide- Test 2
Description: These are most of the main concepts for material that will be covered on exam 2
Uploaded: 02/24/2017
8 Pages 256 Views 4 Unlocks
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History 1010- Study Guide  


What is the vedic society?



∙ You are able to track people through their stuff, therefore,  you can also track people through their languages o The Indo-Europeans  

o Migration to Indus River Valley begins 1500 BCE  (DATES ARE IMPORTANT, but think of it more as a  timeline)  

o Migration to the Ganges River Valley begins 1000  BCE  

∙ The Vedic Society- was unified culturally and not politically  ∙ Brahmans= priests  

∙ Ksatriyas= kings and warriors  

∙ Vaisyas= merchants and peasants  Don't forget about the age old question of How do we measure economic inequality?

∙ Shudras= servants  

∙ The Vedic Society was all about gods, drugs, and heroes  o Indra- god of war  

o Agni- god of fire  

o Varuna- god of water  


What are brahmans?



o Some- not only a god but a hallucinating drug as  well  

∙ Vedic society changes throughout the Axial Age  ∙ Upanishads (c. 700 BCE)  

o Transformation of “Vedic” religion  

o Brahma: the “cosmic universe”  

o Atman: “eternal soul”  

o Karma: “action”  

∙ South Asia (ca. 500 BCE)

o Brahminism- this religion questions the absolutes of  the world, wondering what is actually real, the  validity of time, and of consciousness and so on/  individual lives lived by mindful action in the world  

 Atman= eternal soul  

 Karma= action  

 Dharma= the teachings of buddhism

o Janism: the root of this religion rests in the idea that the world is something to be avoided and that your  humanity should be rejected/ Ahimsa= non  


What are ksatriyas?



Don't forget about the age old question of Why is dna replication considered semi-conservative?

violence/ harm no other living being  

o Buddhism- The Eightfold Path/ the four noble truths   Life is suffering

 Suffering is caused by desire/attachment  

 Freedom from desire/attachment means  

freedom from suffering  

 The Eightfold Path can bring freedom from  

desire/ attachment, thus, freedom from  

suffering  

 The Buddha (ca. 563-483)  

Zipping forward in time-> (4th-3rd BCE)  

o The Mauryan Empire  

o Chandragupta (321-297 BCE)  

o Ashoka (268-231 BCE)  

o Edicts of Ashoka- laws carved on rocks and pillars  throughout Ashoka’s empire in the 3rd c. BCE  

Zhou China  

o Shang State (1600-1045 BCE)  

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o The Zhou- initially a small state on the fringes of the  Shang State

o 1045 BCE: King Wu of the Zhou defeats the Shang!!!  

o The Mandate of Heaven (will be used as justification and  guide for ruling later on)  

o Di remains ”high god”  

o The Mandate of Heaven can be gained or lost/ refers less to a specific god than the idea of the will of the  universe. Cosmic/ psychic power  If you want to learn more check out What is the mental process or faculty by which knowledge is acquired?
If you want to learn more check out What does lithium do to a normal person?

o Mandate= the right to rule  

o The Western Zhou (1045-771 BCE)  

o Capital was Xianyang  

o The Eastern Zhou ( 1045- 771 BCE)  

o A time of states at war  

o Sunzi- The Art of War  

o Military is a way of deception  

o This book (the Art of War) describes how to win  

o Keep in mind that the Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou  are more of time periods rather than actual locations  

o The Hundred Schools of Thought  

o Political and philosophical reflections on society  

o Confucian thought- look back to the golden ages of order and stability (the Western Zhou)  

o Absence of deity who demands certain behaviors  o HUMANS ARE NATURALLY GOOD  

o Key concepts=  

o Humaneness- ren or jen  

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 Teachings of Confucianism are broadly  

understood  

o Ritual or rites- li  

 How you interact with people going through  everyday life  

o Filiality= xiao  

 This is respect for parents If you want to learn more check out How is usda soil textural triangle used to determine a soil’s textural class?

o Mohism- utilitarian philosophy  

o Universal love  

o Treat other people as family even though they are  not  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the main sources of primitive accumulation of capital?

o Legalism- humans are inherently evil and selfish o Strict laws and punishments  

o Daoism  

o Artificial action vs. nonaction (wuwei)  

o The universe is doing its own thing no matter what  we do  

o Dao (The Way) the impersonal law of the Universe  (e.g. yin yang)  

o A good way to understand this is Newton’s third law: every action has an equal and opposite reaction  

Greeks and the Hellenistic World  

o Broad area in the Mediterranean Sea  

o People united by language  

o The Greek world gets its identity from the fringes of the  Persian Empire  

o Greco-Persian wars

o Battle of Salamis- 479 BCE  

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o Greek world is unified culturally  

o Agora- market found at the middle of every city-state  

o Athens- sold as birthplace of democracy (however, not  what we would think about as it is today in the United  States)  

o Voting is only given to free male citizens which make up  about 17% of population  

o Sparta- opposite of Athens  

o Society that is continuously training for war  

o After defeat of Persians, Athens tries to conquer  neighboring city states- Athens transforms into an  empire  

o The Peloponnesian War  

o Warfare- Trireme, Hoplites  

o Socrates (427-399 BCE)  

o Plato (427-347 BCE)  

o We only believe what we have seen before, nothing  beyond the world of shadows  

o Aristotle (384-322 BCE)  

o Empiricism= knowledgeable through observation o Alexander the Great (336-323 BCE)  

o Long story short, he invaded Persian Empire, and  within the next 11 years he will conquer the  

Persians, Egypt, and various neighboring city states  o Macedonia  

o He does not create a unified empire, but he did start the making of one. His generals divide up the  

territory and later on we see how these worlds are  closely connected (with Arsinoe II)  

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o Hellenistic World (323 BCE) this is a Greek  

culture/unity that gets spread across the nation.  This shared cultures makes new connections and  exchanges possible  

o Shared language koine  

o Different philosophies arise  

 Cynicism- reject society’s pointless conventions

 Epicureanism- pursuit of pleasure/ absence of  disturbance  

 Stoicism- engage with the world, but with calm  indifference  

o Maccabees: armed revolt in Judea in 167 BCE  because Jews felt as if they were being forced to  adhere to this new culture and tradition  

Qin/Han China  

 Qin- 221 BCE/ unification under Shi Huangdi (221-210)   Legalist society  

 Created a standardized empire  

o Registration, ranking system

 The Burning of the Books and Burying of Scholars

o A successful attempt to standardize thought along  with goods and services. The Legalist advisors did  not want anyone to question their judgement calls  and decisions. Therefore they killed a lot of  

Confucian scholars and burned their books  

 Liu Bang (206-195) defeats Qin and begins the Han  empire under Confucian thoughts but still keeping the  standardization that the Qin had created  

 Han balances the court and emperor with democracy  6

Imperial Rome  

o Mauryan- “Dhamma, Buddhism”  

o Qin- standardization, legalism  

o Han- bureaucracy, Confucianism  

o At the same time that the Han has a stable empire in  the East, Rome is building their stable empire in the  West  

o Rome starts out as a competing city state on Italian  peninsula (LOOK FOR BOOT FOR GEOGRAPHY  

QUESTIONS)  

o Rome uses snowball method (conquer one city-state,  join together, then capture the next, so on and so on)  

o Rome vs Carthage (The Punic Wars 200s BCE)  

o Roman society is made up of patricians, plebeians,  and non-citizens  

o “Republican” Rome- 500 BCE “Kill the King!!”  

o having one person in power is a bad thing;  

having one person in charge will lead to that  

single being abusing his power; therefore, kill the king!  

o Republican= government elected by  

representatives  

o Senate: group of most powerful and wealthy  citizens  

o Consuls: two men elected to wage war (in charge of army)  

 Term limits! (1 year) (this is important in the primary source regarding Octavian because  

he ends up serving more than one term as  

consul)  

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o Tribunes: ten men who represent plebeian  

interests  

o Gracchus brothers- assassinated because they spoke  out in the interests of the plebeians (which is their  job) This is a representation of the breakdown of the  system

o Leads to civil war

o “personal armies” soldiers are more loyal to general  than senate, end up following general to conquer  their own empire (e.g. Julius Caesar) Caesar calls  himself a dictator (not what we define it as today)  

o being a general is a quick way to become emperor  o Pax Romana- period of relative peace and stability  

o Important aspects of Roman culture- military, slavery  (chattel), pubic games, romanitas (a culture of the  elite)  

o Roads, language (Latin), amphitheaters, temples  

o You can go anywhere in Rome and find basically  the same stuff around you. Creates that feeling  of home and familiar landscapes  

o Barbarians – not necessarily the people who aren’t  Romans, but what Romans are not  

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